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Emmanuel Gaillard

Also available as an e-book

Le droit de l’arbitrage, plus encore que le droit international privé, se prête à une réflexion de philosophie du droit. Les notions, essentiellement philosophiques, de volonté et de liberté sont au coeur de la matière. La liberté des parties de préférer aux juridictions étatiques une forme privée de règlement des différends, de choisir leur juge, de forger la procédure qui leur paraît la plus appropriée, de déterminer les règles de droit applicables au différend, quitte à ce qu’il s’agisse de normes autres que celles d’un système juridique donné, la liberté des arbitres de se prononcer sur leur propre compétence, de fixer le déroulement de la procédure et, dans le silence des parties, de choisir les normes applicables au fond du litige, soulèvent autant de questions de légitimité.
Le présent ouvrage s’attache à identifier les postulats philosophiques qui sous-tendent la matière, à montrer leur profonde cohérence et les conséquences pratiques qui en découlent dans la résolution des grands contentieux du commerce international.

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James Crawford

Chance, Order, Change: The Course of International Law, General Course on Public International Law by J. Crawford

The course of international law over time needs to be understood if international law is to be understood. This work aims to provide such an understanding. It is directed not at topics or subject headings — sources, treaties, states, human rights and so on — but at some of the key unresolved problems of the discipline.
Unresolved, they call into question its status as a discipline. Is international law “law” properly so-called? In what respects is it systematic? Does it — can it — respect the rule of law? These problems can be resolved, or at least reduced, by an imaginative reading of our shared practices and our increasingly shared history, with an emphasis on process. In this sense the practice of the institutions of international law is to be understood as the law itself. They are in a dialectical relationship with the law, shaping it and being shaped by it. This is explained by reference to actual cases and examples, providing a course of international law in some standard sense as well.

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Manlio Frigo

La pratique internationale des différends concernant la circulation des biens culturels est devenue très riche pendant les dernières années, grâce à la prolifération de normes internationales applicables et à la multiplication de juridictions compétentes à saisir les litiges. La recherche des liens entre biens culturels et collectivité humaine et territoriale et de l’intérêt protégé à la lumière de l’expérience directe en matière de différends et de négociations, conduisent l’auteur à examiner les critères de rattachement utilisés, aussi bien que la question de la loi matérielle applicable par rapport à l’issue des différends. Les problèmes sont abordés soit par rapport à la spécificité des biens culturels vis-à-vis des règles ordinaires en matière de circulation des meubles, soit en fonction de la recherche du rattachement à l’ordre juridique d’origine des biens concernés.
Cet ouvrage évalue les inconvénients découlant de l’application des règles générales édictées par les principaux systèmes de droit international privé en matière de circulation de biens et de constitution de droits réels. L’analyse est conduite aussi à l’égard de la validité des solutions proposées, sur le plan du droit international privé et du droit uniforme, notamment en cas de revendication, de retour ou de restitution de biens culturels, ainsi que de la vérification de l’efficacité des réponses données par la jurisprudence et la doctrine concernant les règles nationales et internationales applicables.

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Richard H. Kreindler

Competence-competence and corruption have, for different reasons, been mainstays of international dispute resolution thought and practice for the longest time. In the last few years, their intersection has become increasingly important and problematic. These lectures seek to define the problem and to provide acceptable solutions where possible. They attempt to derive support from both a stringent dogmatic approach and pragmatic attention to real-life expectations and conduct. More so than in other areas of private international law, the intersection between the powers of the arbitrator and the illegality of the subject matter or the parties’ conduct poses a particular challenge. That challenge is to postulate proper solutions under the law, including principles of transnational or international law, to conduct which can take on a multiplicity of appearances owing to conflicting cultural understandings of what is and is not legal in commercial life. The statement that bribery and corruption offend transnational or international public policy does not relieve the arbitrator from the burden of scrutinizing that statement doctrinally and exploring its consequences in a period of ever-increasing globalization of economic activity and investment.

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Sergio M. Carbone

Also available as an e-book

La doctrine et la jurisprudence la plus récente relèvent de plus en plus les limites de l’utilisation de la nationalité du navire dans la solution des conflits de loi et l’importance du droit uniforme. En ce qui concerne les conflits de lois relatifs aux transports maritimes de marchandise, il est tenu compte des différences des solutions adoptées à propos des charter-parties, des transports tramps et des transports maritimes de ligne documentés par un connaissement. S’agissant du contrat de travail maritime, sont mis en évidence l’affaiblissement du rôle de la nationalité du navire et l’importance croissante de la négociation collective internationale. A propos de la responsabilité extracontractuelle, c’est la lex damni qui s’applique, sauf lorsqu’il s’agit d’événements ayant lieu à bord du navire. De cette analyse, enfin, il ressort que la tendance à l’internationalisation du droit maritime et la fonction résiduelle confiée à la loi du pavillon dans la solution des conflits de lois sont confirmées.

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Edited by Daniel Bardonnet

After twenty years of negotiation within the framework of the Disarmament Conference, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction was signed in Paris between 13 and 15 January 1993. At the same time, the signatory States adopted a resolution instituting a Preparatory Commission, established in The Hague, with the aim of `the prompt and effective establishment of the future Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons'.
A variety of converging considerations led the Curatorium of the Academy of International Law to organize a workshop on this subject: first the very interesting nature of the highly sensitive problems raised by the destruction of chemical weapons, both on the strategic and political planes, as well as on technical, financial and ecological grounds; but also the originality and difficulty, from the legal standpoint, of the numerous questions which will inevitably arise in connection with the application of the Paris Convention.
Finally, the Paris Convention, which is innovative in many respects, particularly in that it institutes international control over the whole of an industrial activity, may be used as a model in other areas of disarmament, in particular the area of nuclear weapons.

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Edited by Efthymios D. Papastavridis and Kinderley N. Trapp

With the increasing sophistication of transnational criminal organization, coupled with globalization and its heavy dependence on maritime transport, the suppression of criminality at sea has again become a priority on the international community’s agenda. The theme at the heart of this volume is therefore Crimes at Sea — an issue of both great practical importance and academic interest. This work is the fruit of the 2012 session of the Hague Academy Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations — collectively, the fourteen chapters in this volume underscore the common challenges in international co-operation at the legal level with respect to crimes at sea and identify a number of the potential strengths and shortcomings of the applicable international law. There is a wide breadth of subject matters addressed in this volume, some focusing on particular crimes at sea, others on the general international legal framework within which responses to criminality at sea operate. Throughout the volume, there is a common theme of regime interaction — exploring the limits and efficiencies resulting from the overlapping applicability of human rights law, international criminal law, the law of State responsibility and the UN Charter regime. The contributions both illustrate and clarify the significant links between these legal regimes which support the fight against crimes at sea.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 35.

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Edited by James A.R. Nafziger and Tullio Scovazzi

It is evident that the need to protect cultural objects exceeds the interest of a single owner or a bona fide purchaser, the State of an object's origin or the State where an object is located. Despite the complexity of weighing the contending interests and selecting appropriate rules from a welter of norms and customs, why can't we envisage a truly comprehensive set of international principles, practices and procedures, to protect the cultural heritage of mankind? Toward this end, the Centre for Studies and Research of The Hague Academy of International Law's programme provided a unique opportunity for organized exploration and analysis. This volume presents the resulting studies prepared by the Directors of Research, together with the more specific reports by the researchers working within the Centre. Together they offer an insightful analysis of the importance of fashioning durable rules and institutions for protecting the cultural heritage of mankind from the risks of armed conflict or illegal trafficking.


Il est évident que le besoin de protéger les objets culturels prévaut sur l’intérêt d’un quelconque propriétaire ou acheteur, ainsi que sur son pays d’origine ou encore sur celui où il se trouve. Or, le fait de devoir ménager différents intérêts conflictuels et sélectionner les règles appropriées dans une pléthore de normes et de coutumes apparaît comme une tâche extrêmement complexe. Par conséquent, pourquoi ne pas envisager de définir un ensemble complet de principes, pratiques et procédures à mettre en oeuvre sur le plan international dans le but de protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité ? Le Centre d’étude et de recherche de l’Académie de droit international de La Haye a précisément conçu un programme dont le but est d’explorer et d’analyser cette démarche. Ce volume présente le résultat des études préparées par les directeurs de recherche et les rapports plus spécifiques produits par les chercheurs dans le cadre de ce programme. Utilisés ensemble, ces documents permettent d’analyser de façon approfondie l’importance qu’il y a à établir des règles et les institutions durables visant à protéger le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité contre les risques liés aux conflits armés et autres trafics illégaux.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 28.

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Edited by R.J. Dupuy

It is a truism to state that since the end of the Cold War there has been unprecedented activity in the United Nations Security Council. These days the Council adopts around a hundred resolutions every year, and acts in the most diverse fields. It is true that its actions fall within the framework of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, but they are the expression of a considerable extension of the concept of international security. This dynamism is explained, inside the Council, by the fact that since the Gulf War the Council has no longer been stymied by the casting of a veto, and outside the Council, by the increased number of armed conflicts, especially in Africa (Mozambique, Somalia, Liberia and Angola) and in Eastern Europe. The Council has never until now been called upon so often to send peace-keeping forces to so many parts of the world.
These are the thoughts which induced the Curatorium to organize a workshop to evaluate the scale and significance of this phenomenon. This volume is the outcome of the workshop. First of all, it examines the development of the powers of the Security Council; secondly, the development of the areas in which it acts; and finally it determines the place of the Security Council within the United Nations system.