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al-Masʿūdī’s Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa l-ishrāf

Kitab al-Tanbih wa-al-israf / li-Abi al-Hasan Ali b. al-Husayn al-Masudi. M.J. de Goeje’s Classic Edition (1894) with Indices and Glossary to BGA I: 7–8

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Edited by M.J. de Goeje

Al-Masʿūdī composed his Kitāb al-Tanbīh wal-ishrāf in the years 955 and 956, finishing it not long before his death. Based in part on earlier historical-geographical works, it offers a description of astronomical and meteorological phenomena; the divisions of the earth; the seas; ancient nations; universal chronology, and then the history of Islam until the caliphate of al-Muṭīʿ (r. 946-74).

Description de l'Afrique et de l'Espagne

Texte arabe publié pour la première fois d'après les manuscrits de Paris et d'Oxford avec une traduction, des notes et un glossaire par R. Dozy et M.J. de Goeje

Edrîsî

Description de l’Afrique et de l’Espagne offers a partial edition of the Arabic descriptive geography by Abu ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad al-Idrīsī (d. c. 560 AH/1165 CE) entitled Kitāb Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī’ khtirāq al-āfāq. The author lived at the court of the Norman King Roger II in Sicily where he composed this work for him. Little is known about al-Idrīsī’s life, except that he had travelled extensively and had acquired first-hand information about the areas he described in the Nuzhat, which is also known as the Book of Roger.

Originally published by Brill in 1866, this edition of the Arabic text concerning Africa and the Iberian Peninsula by R. Dozy and M.J. de Goeje was based on the Paris and Oxford manuscripts. It includes a translation into French, with notes, a glossary (Arabic-French), and Index.

Muslim Sources on the Magyars in the Second Half of the 9th Century

The Magyar Chapter of the Jayhānī Tradition

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Istvan Zimonyi

The Jayhānī tradition contains the most detailed description of the Magyars/Hungarians before the Conquest of the Carpathian Basin (895). Unfortunately, the book itself was lost and it can only be reconstructed from late Arabic, Persian and Turkic copies. The reconstruction is primarily based on the texts of al-Marwazī, Ibn Rusta and Gardīzī. The original text has shorter and longer versions. The basic text was reformed at least twice and later copyists added further emendation. This study focuses on the philological comments and historical interpretation of the Magyar chapter, integrating the results in the fields of medieval Islamic studies, the medieval history of Eurasian steppe, and the historiography of early Hungarian history.

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Henryk Jankowski

This dictionary, the first of its kind in Turkological studies, will prove to be an invaluable research tool for those studying the Crimea, Ukraine, as well as Eurasian Nomadism. It is the result of year-long painstaking research into the etymology of Crimean pre-Russian habitation names, providing insight into the Turkic, Greek, Caucasian place-names in a comparative context, as well as the histories of these cities, towns and villages themselves.
The dictionary contains approximately 1,500 entries, preceded by an introduction with notes on the history of the Crimea and the structure of habitation names. For the reader’s convenience, many entries are classified in indices which follow the main part of the book. Additionally, three detailed primary source maps, separately indexed, are appended to the dictionary, as well as a map showing the administration network of the Crimea at the end of the Crimean Tatar Khanate.

Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm by al-Muqaddasī

Descriptio imperii Moslemici / auctore Schamso ’d-din Abu Abdollah Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn abi Bekr al-Banna al-Basschari al-Mokaddasi. The Second Edition (1906) by M.J. de Goeje

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Edited by M.J. de Goeje

This is the second edition by M.J. de Goeje of the Arabic text of al-Muqaddasī’s Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm, the first BGA edition of which was published in 1877 by the same editor.

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-Shāmī al-Muqaddasī is one of the most prominent representatives of Arabic geography in the second half of the 10th century CE. Building on the tradition of the “atlas of Islam” of which al-Iṣṭakhrī and Ibn Ḥawqal were also representatives, al-Muqaddasī was the first to systematize the subject into a proper science of geography of Islam for the benefit of both merchants and the cultivated man. Al-Muqaddasī’s Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (“the best division for the knowledge of the provinces”) was the first work of its kind to be accepted as a form of literature. The treatment of each “province” ( iqlīm) begins with the division of its districts and towns, followed by their description. Then a general chapter of the province tends to discuss the following aspects: climate, products and specialties, waters, mines, mountains, holy places, money, taxes, weights and measures, customs, marvels, calendar, political power, factions, schools and Qurʾānic readings, and routes. Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm by al-Muqaddasī covers North Africa (including Iberia), Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, Greater Syria, Iraq and Upper Mesopotamia, as well as eight non-Arab provinces including Iran and Afghanistan.

Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm by al-Muqaddasī

Descriptio imperii Moslemici / auctore Schamso ’d-din Abu Abdollah Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn abi Bekr al-Banna al-Basschari al-Mokaddasi. M.J. de Goeje’s Classic Edition (1877)

Series:

Edited by M.J. de Goeje

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-Shāmī al-Muqaddasī is one of the most prominent representatives of Arabic geography in the second half of the 10th century CE. Building on the tradition of the “atlas of Islam” of which al-Iṣṭakhrī and Ibn Ḥawqal were also representatives, al-Muqaddasī was the first to systematize the subject into a proper science of geography of Islam for the benefit of both merchants and the cultivated man. Al-Muqaddasī’s Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (“the best division for the knowledge of the provinces”) was the first work of its kind to be accepted as a form of literature. The treatment of each “province” ( iqlīm) begins with the division of its districts and towns, followed by their description. Then a general chapter of the province tends to discuss the following aspects: climate, products and specialties, waters, mines, mountains, holy places, money, taxes, weights and measures, customs, marvels, calendar, political power, factions, schools and Qurʾānic readings, and routes. Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm by al-Muqaddasī covers North Africa (including Iberia), Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, Greater Syria, Iraq and Upper Mesopotamia, as well as eight non-Arab provinces including Iran and Afghanistan.

Kitāb al-Masālik wa l-mamālik by Abū Isḥāq al-Iṣṭakhrī

Viae regnorum: descriptio ditionis Moslemicae / auctore Abu Ishák al-Fárisí al-Istakhrí. M.J. De Goeje's Classic Edition (1870)

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Edited by M.J. de Goeje

Little is known about the life of Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-Iṣṭakhrī, the author of Kitāb al-Masālik wa l-mamālik, which was written towards the end of the first half of the 10th century CE. The work built on the earlier concept of the “atlas of Islam”, which it developed further. The climates ( iqlīm) it describes are no longer those of Ptolemean geography, but, reflecting the Iranian tradition, refer to geographical entities or “countries”. Also reflecting the author’s background—whose most common nisba is al-Fārisī—Iran holds a favoured position on this work. Published in 1870, the present edition by M.J. de Goeje was the first volume in the first series of the Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum.

Kitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ by Abū l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal

Viae et regna: descriptio ditionis Moslemicae / auctore Abu ’l-Kásim Ibn Haukal. M.J. de Goeje’s Classic Edition (1873)

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Edited by M.J. de Goeje

The journeys of Abū l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal, who might have been a merchant, took him to North Africa, Spain and the southern edge of the Sahara (947-51), Egypt, Armenia and Azerbaijan (c. 955), the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Khuzistan, and Iran (961-69), Khwarazm and Transoxania (c. 969), and Sicily (973). By about 988 CE the final version of Ibn Ḥawqal’s Kitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ was ready. It is effectively both a continuation and an update of al-Iṣṭakhrī’s Kitāb al-Masālik wa-l-mamālik and is also known under that same title.

Ibn Ḥawqal transformed what was meant as a commentary on a series of maps into a work in its own right, which also included remarks on various countries or peoples bordering on the Islamic world, e.g. the Turks, the Khazars, the towns of southern Italy, the Sudanese and the Nubians. Although he owed much to al-Iṣṭakhrī’s work, Ibn Ḥawqal aimed to place the text firmly within his own period. He took great care to depict a region precisely in the state and at the date that he himself had seen it, with occasional references to the distant or more recent past. This is particularly true of the notes on economic matters, which form a complete break with convention. Ibn Ḥawqal was the only Arab geographer of the period who really sketched a vivid picture of production.

Mukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Buldān by Ibn al-Faqīh al-Hamadhānī

Muktasar kitab al-buldan / talif Abi Bakr Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Hamadani al-maruf bi-Ibn al-Faqih. M.J. de Goeje’s Classic Edition (1885) with Index and Glossary

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Edited by M.J. de Goeje

Ibn al-Faqīh was the Iranian author of a Geography in Arabic entitled Kitāb al-buldan written around the year 903. The original work is lost, but the abridged version, possibly composed around 1022, has survived in a handful of manuscripts. Only three manuscripts were known during De Goeje’s life and he used them all for his edition, which was originally published in 1885. Its introduction includes a summary of Ibn Faqīh’s life on the basis of the classical sources by De Goeje. Ibn al-Faqīh’s Kitāb al-buldan offers geographical and historical details not found in other sources, and it was in itself an important source for later works, for example by Muqaddasī and Yāqūt.

Ibn Ḥawqal’s Kitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ

Opus geographicum / Abu al-Kasim Ibn Haukal al-Nasibi. The Second Edition (1938-39) by J.H. Kramers

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Edited by J.H. Kramers

This is the second edition by J.H. Kramers of the Arabic text of Ibn Ḥawqal’s Kitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ, the first BGA edition of which was published in 1873.

The journeys of Abū l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal, who might have been a merchant, took him to North Africa, Spain and the southern edge of the Sahara (947-51), Egypt, Armenia and Azerbaijan (c. 955), the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Khuzistan, and Iran (961-69), Khwarazm and Transoxania (c. 969), and Sicily (973). By about 988 CE the final version of Ibn Ḥawqal’s Kitāb Ṣūrat al-arḍ was ready. It is effectively both a continuation and an update of al-Iṣṭakhrī’s Kitāb al-Masālik wa l-mamālik and is also known under that same title.

Ibn Ḥawqal transformed what was meant as a commentary on a series of maps into a work in its own right, which also included remarks on various countries or peoples bordering on the Islamic world, e.g. the Turks, the Khazars, the towns of southern Italy, the Sudanese and the Nubians. Although he owed much to al-Iṣṭakhrī’s work, Ibn Ḥawqal aimed to place the text firmly within his own period. He took great care to depict a region precisely in the state and at the date that he himself had seen it, with occasional references to the distant or more recent past. This is particularly true of the notes on economic matters, which form a complete break with convention. Ibn Ḥawqal was the only Arab geographer of the period who really sketched a vivid picture of production.