Author: Kari Dako

Abstract

This chapter deals with the history of the sociolinguistic position of English in Ghana which is realized in the distinct new variety: Ghanaian EnglishGhanaian English (GhaE) and in its sub-categories: Ghanaian Pidgin EnglishGhanaian Pidgin English (GhaPEGhanaian Pidgin English) and Student PidginStudent Pidgin (Ghana) (SP). It is argued that these are mainly urban-driven. The statistics on the spread and competence of English and the repercussions of the linguisticlinguistics imbalance in the country as English is in contact and in competition with the over 50 local languages are considered. The attitude to and the dominance of English in the education system and the implications of these are also discussed. GhaE’s distinct phonology, lexical features and its structural tendencies are discussed. As GhaE moves ever further from the dominantdominant culture center the chapter speculates on the sociolinguistic implications of this shift and on whether a distinct sociolectal divide is being created.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives
Author: Robin Attfield

Abstract

Africa is affected by climate change in multiple ways. Like other continents, its coastline is in danger of being flooded, and its islands are in danger of being inundated. Many people are forced by climate change to migrate, and this increases the flows of refugees moving both north towards the Mediterranean and south towards the Cape, seeking a viable homeland. It is in the interest of African countries to develop in ways that are climate-friendly. More electricity needs to be generated to enhance people’s quality of life, but this should be generated in environmentally friendly ways. Large schemes of tree-planting are also needed, to restore the forests of areas where they have been lost in civil conflicts (as in central and northern Ethiopia) and at the same time to sequestrate some of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere. As well as mitigation, collaborative efforts are needed in the field of adaptation, so as to limit the impacts of climate change. Developing countries should assist such measures, but they should be adopted whether or not such assistance materialises.

In: Utafiti
In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives

Abstract

During the 2015 general election campaigns in Tanzania, a controversy arose between the ruling party and the opposition coalition, concerning the proposed constitution draft and the position of Zanzibar within the Union. Beyond this controversy, there have existed the impacts of Islamic revivalism on the one hand, and a fear for the perpetuation of Islam in Tanzania on the other – issues which have played a significant role in the country since Independence. In this paper, we focus in particular upon popular Muslim preachers, such as Ponda Issa Ponda, who complain that the National Muslim Council of Tanzania [BAKWATA] is just an extension of the mainstream government – an organisation which is unsympathetic to Muslims’ interests, which violates Muslims’ rights, and which functions contrary to its own purpose. This complaint draws on long-term memory, reaching back even further than the 1968 banning of the East African Muslims Welfare Society [EAMWS]. Two interesting questions are addressed here concerning a central state’s involvement in religious affairs under multi-party rule: How has the Tanzanian government managed religious diversity? And how should its management style be evaluated, given the perspective that has developed with the shift in focus from ‘government’ to ‘governance’ in policy and management sciences?

In: Utafiti
Author: Helen Lauer

Abstract

So far in the twenty-first century, those African universitiesuniversities, African that have achieved world-class status have done so at great expense: the cost is their preparedness to produce graduates who are ill-equipped and unmotivated to consider the impact of their work upon the quality of human life, unable to assess universalized recipes for progress inherited from an age when the benefits of scientific reasoning were presumed to be coextensive with the expansion of Anglo-European culture and interests. I explore the ambiguous role of the Internet, automated intelligence and digitalization of information in regimenting the process of knowledge productionknowledge production to serve a narrowly focused multinational elite business class. I demonstrate that research cartels and governmental-industrial-educational conglomerates perpetuate global ignorance about two thirds of the world’s populations. I explore how Africa-based intellectuals, located on the periphery of digital highways, are not cyber-entrapped and thereby enjoy an epistemic advantage for assessing the overall impact of science-for-profit upon the human family and the bio-sphere.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives

Abstract

In this chapter I look at dancedance as a basis for the scholarly study of the human conditionhuman condition and as a main focus in African humanities research. I do so based on my experiences as a Ghanaian choreographerchoreography whose dance productions have catered to large audiences on national occasions and in the global arena. Dance productions make use of the core values, themes and concerns of contemporary society in order to express the underlying shared dimension of spiritual and moral values, to build upon cultural memory and identity. My choreographedchoreography performances draw on traditional forces of indigenous harmony and on forms of artistic expression in Ghanaian dance. They also integrate and juxtapose the varied ethnic traditions of our postcolonialpostcolonialism context. As I explore how I strive in my work to portray the struggles of inner postcolonialpostcolonialism cities, I also examine the payoffs of using dance theatretheatre as a medium for public educationeducation, behavioral transformation, and nation building.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives

Abstract

Drawing on a social constructionist perspective to written scholarly communication, this chapter argues that training in academic writingacademic writing for students in higher educationeducation, university especially in second language contexts should go beyond emphasis on grammatical correctness and paragraphing strategies, and also focus on the rhetorical character of academic discourseacademic discourse together with the mastery of its communicative protocols. Using the University of Ghana as a reference point, the essay reviews a selection of accounts showing Ghanaian graduate students’ awareness of the protocols that govern academic discourses in scholarly writing. In consideration of their unique educational and socio-cultural circumstances, the chapter proposes strategies, from the pedagogical and institutional standpoints, aimed at increasing students’ awareness of the relevant communicative practicescommunicative practices that engender credibility and promote accountability.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives

Abstract

Many Africans who became aware of their own musical traditions in the colonialcolonialism period and in the post-independence period of the cultural awakening did not undertake serious systematic research. They chose to recollect what theyethnomusicology already knew (e.g., about compositional models of music) or used such African materials as they could find to illustrate some theoretical issues or procedures in the Western tradition that they believed to have universal validity. Others turned to the pedagogical approach, developing courses of study by relying on secondary sources rather than their own original research. Knowledge shared through these approaches may have helped to combat prejudices held against African arts by some of their own colleagues and the Western world. It may also have provided a dimension of the arts that could be missing from the work of the scholar who treats music, for example, as a social or cultural fact, or as an object of formal analysis, and not as an art. However, a better approach is one based on a creative vision, anchored in consciousness of identity, and engaged in systematic documentation, classification and critical evaluation of cultural heritage in a manner that facilitates easy access to the materials and their dissemination.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives
Author: E. John Collins

Abstract

The chapter examines four twentieth-century Ghanaian neo-traditional musicmusic, neotraditional, in Ghana genres (GaGa language, Akan, Dagomba, and EweEwe) that are rural/communal performance traditions but have integrated elements of urban popular music. As a result, they reflect and articulate both ethnic identity and socio-politicalpolitis processes related to contemporary city life. It is thus inappropriate to apply to these neo-traditional genres older eurocentriceurocentrism ‘modernizationmodernization’ models that advocate just one form of developmental change: westernizationwesternization. Rather, the four music styles demonstrate ‘multiple modernitiesmultiple modernities’ that reflect the unique character of their particular ethnic communities; they emerged in the context of urban-rural feedback, in line with more recent developmental theories; and their performers are not passive recipients of change emanating from the ‘centre’, but ‘cultural brokers’ who actively select elements of commercial popular performance suitable for their communal music-making. These genres thus provide a test case for the newer ‘liberation’ and ‘glocalizationglocalization’ developmental theories that focus on how people on the ‘periphery’ adapt imported Western norms and technologies to their own indigenous folkways and national culture.

In: Philosophical Foundations of the African Humanities through Postcolonial Perspectives
Author: Christine Noe

Abstract

The process through which state sovereignty over natural resources is gained and lost serves as a precondition for other external actors to acquire rights and to appropriate wealth. These external institutions are multinational firms and non-governmental organizations that do not rely on sovereign entities. By building on the concept of graduated sovereignty, the example of Tanzania’s mineral resource demonstrates how ownership rights shift, creating different impacts on the ground. Analysis of historical and contemporary changes in Tanzania’s mineral laws serves as a basis for revealing the ways in which sovereignty is differentiated or graduated within a national territory, given current global relations. Since neither global resource governance nor market conditions are static or predictable, the government of Tanzania responds differently to external forces over time. Tanzania’s most recent national decisions follow the model of neoliberal flexibility and maximisation of profit from natural resources. Consequently, more complex issues of local resource rights have remained unattended over the years of policy and legal reform, resulting in discriminatory treatment and marginalization of different groups in Tanzanian society.

In: Utafiti