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  • Codicology, Papyrology & Philology x

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Edited by Madalina Toca and Dan Batovici

Ancient translations of late antique Christian literature serve to spread the body of knowledge to wider audiences in often radically new cultural contexts. For the texts which are translated, their versions are not only sometimes crucial textual witnesses, but also important testimonies of independent strands of reception, cast in the cultural context of the new language. This volume gathers ten contributions that deal with translations into Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Coptic, Old Nubian, Old Slavonic, Sogdian, Arabic and Ethiopic, set in dialog in order to highlight the range of problems and approaches involved in dealing with the reception of Christian literature across the various languages in which it was transmitted.

The Coptic Life of Aaron

Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary

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Jacques van der Vliet and Jitse Dijkstra

The Life of Aaron is one of the most interesting and sophisticated hagiographical works surviving in Coptic. The work contains descriptions of the lives of ascetic monks, in particular Apa Aaron, on the southern Egyptian frontier in the fourth and early fifth centuries, and was probably written in the sixth century. Even though the first edition of this work was already published by E.A. Wallis Budge in 1915, a critical edition remained outstanding. In this book Jitse H.F. Dijkstra and Jacques van der Vliet present not only a critical text, for the most part based on the only completely preserved, tenth-century manuscript, but also a new translation and an exhaustive commentary addressing philological, literary and historical aspects of the text.

Danijela Stefanović

Abstract

Studies on the ancient Egyptian administrative system(s) are usually based on analysis of the institutions and officials attached to them. The present paper focuses on the social settings of the four Middle Kingdom / Second Intermediate Period highest ranking officials, i.e., treasurers. Starting with the traditional methodological approach, which focuses on collecting the prosopographic data, this paper further addresses the implementation of Social Network Analysis (SNA) tools for analyzing the obtained material. SNA is used to study people, or groups of people (nodes), linked together through social interaction, and relations or links between them (edges). SNA exemplifies various types of interaction through networks and analyzes them. By applying SNA methodology for studying the networks of the selected treasurers, it is possible to reconstruct more precisely their social setting (both private and institutional) and interrelations, which complement the traditional approach, but also provide new possibilities for research into ancient Egyptian administration.

David A. Warburton

Abstract

Based on the productivity of ancient Egyptian agriculture, a discussion of economic theory, per capita GDP, economic growth, and agrarian economies through history, this paper tries to isolate the relative roles of land, labor, and grain in the economy of Ancient Egypt. There is little room for full employment in an agrarian economy; in Bronze Age Egypt the labor of a small fraction of the population would have sufficed to nourish all. Aside from services, an agrarian economy cannot expand employment much. Increasing productivity is counter-productive and none of the wealthy agrarian economies grew organically into an industrial economy. Govert van Driel pointed out that in agrarian ancient Mesopotamia there was no place for the market or silver, although both were present (as is claimed for Egypt). Overcapacity, trade, underemployment, and finance allow an understanding of the ancient economies, economics and economic growth; the impact of using modern economic thought based on production (and not economic behavior and activity) results in a flawed theory that must be revised.

The Ancient Sefer Torah of Bologna

Features and History. European Genizah Texts and Studies, Volume 4

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Edited by Mauro Perani

The Ancient Sefer Torah of Bologna: Features and History contains studies on the most ancient, complete Pentateuch scroll known to date. It was considered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance as the archetypal autograph written by Ezra the Scribe. The scroll was rediscovered by Mauro Perani in 2013 at the University Library of Bologna. In this volume, leading specialists study the history, textual and material features, and different halakhot or norms to copy a Sefer Torah, as adopted in the pre-Maimonidean scrolls. The Hebrew text is very close to the Aleppo codex, and the scroll was probably copied in Northern Iberia in ca. 1200 CE. The scroll contains letters with special shapes and tagin linking its production with a Jewish milieu which associated the scribal tradition with mystical and esoteric meanings. Besides its codicological and palaeographical interest, the "Ezra scroll" has been preserved for centuries among the treasures of the Dominican convent of San Domenico in Bologna and, in the early modern period, it was the object of reverence and curiosity among the Christians, before being almost entirely forgotten after its confiscation by the French revolutionary troops. This volume presents a detailed overview of the fascinating history and the peculiar makings of this remarkable artefact.

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Ahmad Al-Jallad and Karolina Jaworska

This is the first comprehensive dictionary of the Safaitic inscriptions, comprising more than 1400 lemmata and 1500 lexical items. The dictionary includes a lengthy introduction to the inscriptions as well an outline of various aspects of the Safaitic writing tradition.

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture

Visualisation, Data Mining, Communication

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Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant

Ancient Manuscripts in Digital Culture presents an overview of the digital turn in Ancient Jewish and Christian manuscripts visualisation, data mining and communication. Edited by David Hamidović, Claire Clivaz and Sarah Bowen Savant, it gathers together the contributions of seventeen scholars involved in Biblical, Early Jewish and Christian studies. The volume attests to the spreading of digital humanities in these fields and presents fundamental analysis of the rise of visual culture as well as specific test-cases concerning ancient manuscripts. Sophisticated visualisation tools, stylometric analysis, teaching and visual data, epigraphy and visualisation belong notably to the varied overview presented in the volume.

Michael Bányai

Abstract

Die Frage nach der chronologischen Position von Amenmesse innerhalb der späten 19. Dynastie ist ungeachtet aller Versuche einer Klärung weiterhin eine stark debattierte Angelegenheit geblieben. Man konnte von bisher zwei grundsätzlichen Lösungsansätzen Amenmesse zu unterbringen, sprechen. Der vorliegende Artikel möchte, angesichts der vom Autor festgestellten Schwierigkeiten der bisherigen Versuche, die Regierungszeit von Amenmesse chronologisch zu unterbringen, einer weiteren, dritten Alternative, nachgehen. Diese zieht in Betracht—in Übereinstimmung mit der Aussage der Historien von Manetho—die Möglichkeit eines Aufstands von Amenmesse während der späteren Regierungszeit Merenptahs. Ebenso wird hier zum ersten Mal die Aussage der Elephantine Stele des Sethnacht sowie von pHarris I auf diese Periode bezogen.

Jean-Christophe Antoine

Abstract

An analysis of P. Geneva D191, P. BM EA 75019+10302, P. Penn 49.11, and P. Turin 2097+2105 leads to a new interpretation on the political events at Thebes during the Renaissance Era. Ramesses XI played a major role in the restoration of order with the help of Libyan troops. He decreed the Renaissance Era with the will of restoring control in the South. Nesamun, at the death of his brother Amenhotep, was compelled to return to his former position of second prophet of Amun while that of first prophet was left vacant for at least two years. After year 4 or 5 of the Renaissance Era, Piankh, who arrived at Thebes with the king, progressively installed a system of power which will prevail throughout the 21st Dynasty. In this new structure a military family of probable Libyan background occupied all the Theban secular and religious functions while maintaining a fictitious allegiance to the northern king.

Laura Peirce

Abstract

Research to date on name rings, which form a singular component of topographical lists, has primarily focused on the toponyms enclosed in the rings and their subsequent relevance to military campaigns. This article aims to explore another valuable facet of this phenomenon. It details the results of an investigation into the development of the iconography of the personages attached to these name rings during the Eighteenth Dynasty and early Nineteenth Dynasty on Egyptian royal monuments. Clear trends were discernible, from accoutrements to coiffures, that may be able to assist in the dating of royal monuments within sacred spaces.

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Edited by Alexander T. Schubert and Petra M. Sijpesteijn

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Edited by Alexander T. Schubert and Petra M. Sijpesteijn

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Edited by Alexander T. Schubert and Petra M. Sijpesteijn

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Edited by Alexander T. Schubert and Petra M. Sijpesteijn

Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies

Studies on Diplomacy and Diplomatics

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Edited by Frédéric Bauden and Malika Dekkiche

Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies offers an up-to-date insight into the diplomacy and diplomatics of the Mamluk sultanate with Muslim and non-Muslim powers. This rich volume covers the whole chronological span of the sultanate as well as the various areas of the diplomatic relations established by (or with) the Mamluk sultanate. Twenty-six essays are divided in geographical sections that broadly respect the political division of the world as the Mamluk chancery perceived it. In addition, two introductory essays provide the present stage of research in the fields of, respectively, diplomatics and diplomacy. With contributions by Frédéric Bauden, Lotfi Ben Miled, Michele Bernardini, Bárbara Boloix Gallardo, Anne F. Broadbridge, Mounira Chapoutot-Remadi, Stephan Conermann, Nicholas Coureas, Malika Dekkiche, Rémi Dewière, Kristof D’hulster, Marie Favereau, Gladys Frantz-Murphy, Yehoshua Frenkel, Hend Gilli-Elewy, Ludvik Kalus, Anna Kollatz, Julien Loiseau, Maria Filomena Lopes de Barros, John L. Meloy, Pierre Moukarzel, Lucian Reinfandt, Alessandro Rizzo, Éric Vallet, Valentina Vezzoli and Patrick Wing.

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Elizabeth Agaiby

In The Arabic Life of Antony Attributed to Serapion of Thmuis, Elizabeth Agaiby demonstrates how the redacted Life of Antony, the “Father of all monks and star of the wilderness”, gained widespread acceptance within Egypt shortly after its composition in the 13th century and dominated Coptic liturgical texts on Antony for over 600 years – the influence of which is still felt up to the present day. By providing a first edition and translation, Agaiby demonstrates how the Arabic Life bears witness to the reinterpretation of the religious memory of Antony in the Coptic Orthodox Church.

The Materiality of Texts from Ancient Egypt

New Approaches to the Study of Textual Material from the Early Pharaonic to the Late Antique Period

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Edited by F.A.J. Hoogendijk and Steffie van Gompel

The volume The Materiality of Texts from Ancient Egypt contains nine contributions from well-known papyrologists, Egyptologists, archaeologists and technical specialists. They discuss the materiality of ancient writing and writing supports in various ways through methodological considerations and through practical case studies from the early Pharaonic to the Late Antique periods in Egypt, including Greek and Egyptian papyri and ostraca, inscriptions and graffiti.
The articles in this volume present new approaches to the study of textual material and scribal practice, especially in the light of the ongoing development of digital techniques that uncover new information from ancient writing materials. The aim of the book is to encourage researchers of ancient texts to consider the benefits of using these new methods and technological resources.

Uroš Matić

Abstract

The process of epistemological de-colonization of the historiography and archaeology of ancient Egypt and Nubia has begun unfolding only in the last two decades. It is still set in the context of descriptive disciplinary history with little reflection on and criticism of background theories and methods. As a consequence, some of the old approaches and concepts live on in the discipline. Utilizing the concepts of “thought collective” and “thought style” (sensu Ludwik Fleck) this paper analyzes previous works on ancient Egypt and Nubia written in the colonial discourse. Three key ideas run like threads through these works: 1. scientific racism, 2. socio-cultural evolution, and 3. colonial and imperial discourse. In this paper the emphasis will be put on scientific racism, its development, and its remnants in the archaeology and historiography of Egypt and Nubia.

Kate Liszka

Abstract

Aashyet’s sarcophagus (JE 47267) offers a unique case for understanding how the intersection of a person’s identities, such as ethnicity, gender, age, or religion, is portrayed on a funerary object within the historic and religious circumstances of a specific context. Aashyet’s sarcophagus portrays her as a wealthy, elite priestess, and the head-of-household, while being a Nubian who celebrated her non-Egyptian origins. The sarcophagus’s archaeological context also demonstrates the importance of Priestesses of Hathor within Montuhotep II’s funerary complex at Deir el-Bahri for the legitimation of his kingship before he unified Egypt, late in his reign.

Juan Carlos Moreno García

Abstract

The term “Libyan” encompasses, in fact, a variety of peoples and lifestyles living not only in the regions west of the Nile Valley, but also inside Egypt itself, particularly in Middle Egypt and the Western Delta. This situation is reminiscent of the use of other “ethnic” labels, such as “Nubian,” heavily connoted with notions such as ethnic homogeneity, separation of populations across borders, and opposed lifestyles. In fact, economic complementarity and collaboration explain why Nubians and Libyans crossed the borders of Egypt and settled in the land of the pharaohs, to the point that their presence was especially relevant in some periods and regions during the late 3rd and early 2nd millennium BCE. Pastoralism was just but one of their economic pillars, as trading activities, gathering, supply of desert goods (including resins, minerals, and vegetal oils) and hunting also played an important role, at least for some groups or specialized segments of a particular social group. While Egyptian sources emphasize conflict and marked identities, particularly when considering “rights of use” over a given area, collaboration was also crucial and beneficial for both parts. Finally, the increasing evidence about trade routes used by Libyans points to alternative networks of circulation of goods that help explain episodes of warfare between Egypt and Libyan populations for their control.

Danielle Candelora

Abstract

This paper presents a historiographical critique of Hyksos scholarship and the impact of Imperialism and Orientalism on the foundations of such studies. I trace the creation and maintenance of the misconception of the Hyksos as a race through the scholarship, examining the context and influences behind the research, and discuss the appeal of new scientific techniques for the question of Hyksos origins.

Stuart Tyson Smith

Abstract

The construction of ethnic self and other played a central role in ancient Egyptian ideology as well as at a more quotidian level. Ethnic groups are usually seen as self-defined, distinctive entities, often corresponding neatly to political or cultural units, but in reality, expressions of ethnic identity are mutable and socially contingent. Adopting a multi-scalar approach informed by practice theory, this paper examines ancient Egyptian constructions of ethnicity, taking into account ideological and elite expressions of ethnic identity from art and texts and everyday practices revealed by archaeology. A carefully contextualized analysis shows how pejorative constructions of an ethnic other by the state contrast with more positive interactions and patterns of mutual influence at a more individual level.

Juan Carlos Moreno García

Abstract

The study of ethnicity in the ancient world has known a complete renewal in recent times, at several levels, from the themes studied to the perspectives of analysis and the models elaborated by archaeologists, anthropologists, sociologists and historians. Far from traditional approaches more interested in detecting and characterizing particular ethnic groups (“Libyans,” “Medjay”) and social organizations (“tribe,” “clan”, etc.), in identifying them in the archaeological record through specific markers (pottery, ornaments, weapons, etc.) and, subsequently, in studying their patterns of interaction with other social groups (domination, acculturation, assimilation, resistance, centre periphery), recent research follows different paths. To sum up, a deeper understanding of ethnicity in ancient Egypt cannot but benefit from a close dialogue with other disciplines and is to enrich current debates in archaeology, anthropology, and ancient history.

Uroš Matić

Abstract

Two pits (L1016 and L1055) from the early New Kingdom cemetery in areas H/I and H/III at ʿEzbet Helmi, Tell el-Dabʿa (ancient Avaris), have long been identified as remains of execration rituals in which Nubians were killed. In this paper I will argue that nothing in these two pits suggests execration of Nubians. The racial attribution of the individuals found in these pits can be questioned on both a theoretical and methodological basis. The Nubian pottery and supposedly Nubian arrowheads often associated with these “execration” pits do not come from either the burials in the cemetery nor from the pits. These finds are later than the cemetery and the “execration” pits in H/I and H/III. In the case of Nubians and “execration” pits from Tell el-Dabʿa we are dealing with a case of mistaken identity, an erroneous interpretation based on culture-historical and racial anthropological assumptions—a hidden theory.

Thomas Schneider

Abstract

This contribution will look at the impact that the discovery of the site of Tell el-Dabʿa (Avaris), the capital of the Hyksos, has had on the discipline of Egyptology—in other words, to assess in what ways the disciplinary and public narrative about the Hyksos Period has (or has not) changed as a consequence of the discovery of Avaris.1 It will become clear that the cultural specifics of Avaris and its historical place have had a varied reception, and that the diverging representations that can be encountered pay tribute to different strategies of acceptance or denial that perpetuate certain traditions of scholarly and public engagement with ancient Egypt.

Christelle Fischer-Bovet

Abstract

The study of ancient states brings a historical perspective to the creation of official identities. By looking at legal and fiscal documents preserved on papyri from Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt (323 BCE to c. 70 CE), this study compares how the Ptolemies and then the Romans established official identities, that is, what priorities they gave to occupation, social status, citizenship, and/or ethnicity in order to construct legal and fiscal identities. It explores how these different priorities created overlaps between the categories, for instance, by an occupation permitting some flexibility with ethnicity, in order to include those in service of the state into privileged official categories. First, it shows that the fiscal and cleruchic policies of the Ptolemies partially reshaped societies so that social status became preeminent and ethnicity did no longer matter to the state already before the Roman annexation. Second, it compares how the demographic and social configuration in Egypt at the time of each conquest stimulated slightly different priorities when constructing official identities.

The Reconfiguration of Hebrew in the Hellenistic Period

Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira at Strasbourg University, June 2014

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Edited by Jan Joosten, Daniel Machiela and Jean-Sébastien Rey

The present volume of proceedings offers cutting-edge research on the Hebrew language in the late Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods. Fourteen specialists of ancient Hebrew illuminate various aspects of the language, from phonology through grammar and syntax to semantics and interpretation. The research furthers the exegesis of biblical and non-biblical texts, it helps determine the chronological outline of Hebrew literature, and contributes to a better understanding of the sociolinguistic aspects of the language in the period of the Second Temple. Hebrew did not die out after the Babylonian exile, but continued to be used in speaking and writing in a variety of settings.

The Chapters of the Wisdom of My Lord Mani

Part III: Pages 343-442 (Chapters 321-347)

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Iain Gardner, Jason D. Beduhn and Paul Dilley

The Chapters of the Wisdom of My Lord Mani, a Coptic papyrus codex preserved at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, describes Mani’s mission, teachings and debates with sages in the courts of the Sasanian empire during the reign of Shapur I; with an extended account of his last days and death under Bahram I. The text offers an unprecedented new source for the history of religions in Late Antiquity, including interactions of Manichaean, Zoroastrian, Christian, Jewish, and Buddhist traditions in Iran, remarkably transmitted into the Mediterranean world as part of Manichaean missionary literature. This is the first of four fascicles constituting the editio princeps, based on enhanced digital and multispectral imaging and extended autoptic study of the manuscript.

Hieratic, Demotic and Greek Studies and Text Editions

Of Making Many Books There Is No End: Festschrift in Honour of Sven P. Vleeming

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Edited by Cary J. Martin, Francisca A.J. Hoogendijk and Koenraad Donker van Heel

This volume is a Festschrift in honour of Sven Vleeming containing the contributions of thirty-eight friends and colleagues, often renowned specialists in their respective fields. It includes the editions of fifty-four new texts from Ancient Egypt that date from the 7th century BCE to the 2nd century CE and covers a very wide range of subjects in (Abnormal) Hieratic, Demotic and Greek papyrology. As such, it reflects the equally wide range of knowledge of the scholar to whom this book is dedicated.

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Bart L.F. Kamphuis

In New Testament Conjectural Emendation in the Nineteenth Century Bart L.F. Kamphuis investigates the life and work of Jan Hendrik Holwerda (1805-1886), who should be seen as the father of the Dutch Movement of Conjectural Criticism. Through a close study of his correspondence, Kamphuis reconstructs Holwerda’s remarkable scholarly biography. He then positions his text-critical theory against the views of Lachmann, Tischendorf and Tregelles. Finally, Holwerda’s corpus of New Testament conjectures is analysed by means of a newly proposed classification, while specific conjectures are discussed in the context of the history of scholarship on the passages concerned.
This study not only significantly contributes to our understanding of the history of New Testament textual criticism, but also shows that several of Holwerda’s conjectures have lasting relevance.

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Edited by Koenraad Donker van Heel, Francisca A.J. Hoogendijk and Cary J. Martin

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Heinz-Josef Thissen† and Karl-Theodor Zauzich

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Françoise de Cenival, Didier Devauchelle and Michel Pezin†

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Edited by Koenraad Donker van Heel, Francisca A.J. Hoogendijk and Cary J. Martin

The Early Textual Transmission of John

Stability and Fluidity in its Second and Third Century Greek Manuscripts

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Lonnie Bell

In The Early Textual Transmission of John Lonnie D. Bell utilizes a fresh approach for assessing the character of transmission reflected in the second and third century Greek manuscripts of the Gospel of John. The textual transmission of New Testament writings in the period prior to the fourth century has been characterized by a number of scholars as error-prone, free, fluid, wild, and chaotic. This study is an inquiry into the validity of this general characterization. Since John is the most attested New Testament book among the early papyri, is the best attested in the second century, and has the highest number of papyri that share overlapping text, it serves well as a case study into the level of fluidity and stability of the New Testament text in the earliest period of transmission.

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Leon Goldman

The manuscript S1 is one of the chief witnesses to the Sanskrit Yasna, containing the Avestan text of the Zoroastrian Yasna liturgy to chapter 46.19, together with a Sanskrit translation and commentary. This book contains the complete, full-colour set of facsimile images of S1.
An introduction by Leon Goldman provides an overview of the Zoroastrian Sanskrit tradition together with a discussion of the S1 manuscript covering its physical appearance, its age and history, and for the first time, a detailed palaeographic analysis of the Avestan and Sanskrit text.
The series Corpus Avesticum is designed to provide a forum for new editions of Avestan texts. It includes works by different authors on the transmission of the Avesta and editions of Avestan texts and their exegesis in Pahlavi and Sanskrit. The editions will be based on a fresh collation of the manuscripts available today and on a critical analysis of the manuscript tradition. Editions would vary according to the focus individual authors have chosen for their work.
The series comprises three types of works. The first type would be editions of the ritual Avesta. They provide the Avestan text of complete rituals together with a text-critical apparatus. The second type comprises editions of the Avestan, Pahlavi or Sanskrit versions of a text with translation, commentary and dictionary of that particular text. Depending on the size of the text, the edition would be either of a complete text, or of a constituent part of a larger text (such as, for example, part of the Yasna). The third type comprises analyses of the history and dependencies of the manuscripts.

To the Madbar and Back Again

Studies in the languages, archaeology, and cultures of Arabia dedicated to Michael C.A. Macdonald

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Edited by Laïla Nehmé and Ahmad Al-Jallad

Michael C.A. Macdonald is one of the great names of Arabian Studies. He pioneered the field of Ancient North Arabian and made invaluable contributions to the history of Arabia and the nomads of the Near East, their languages, and their scripts. This volume gathers thirty-two innovative contributions from leading scholars in the field to honor the career of Michael C.A. Macdonald, covering the languages and scripts of ancient Arabia, their history and archaeology, the Hellenistic Near East, and the modern dialects and languages of Arabia. The book is an essential part of the library of any who study the Near East, its languages and its cultures.

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Edited by F.A.J. Hoogendijk

The Berichtigungsliste der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden aus Ägypten, compiled under the auspices of the 'Association Internationale de Papyrologues', is an indispensable tool for any editor or user of Greek papyrus documents. Like its predecessors, this thirteenth volume lists, in alphabetical order of papyri, the new corrections of readings and datings of published documents, as well as supplementary information, as they have appeared in recent literature. The book is supplied with indexes of addenda lexicis and ghost-words. This volume is the first to have been compiled on the basis of the newly created BL-interface. The value of the book lies in providing an overview of research in Greek papyrology, the fruits of which appear in such an extremely wide spectrum of publications, that it may not completely be known or available to professional papyrologists, let alone to historians and philologists who also make use of papyrological resources.

Agents of Construction

Ancient Egyptian Rock Inscriptions as Tools of Site Formation and Modern Functional Parallels

Marina Wilding Brown

Abstract

This new analysis of the interaction between graffiti and their physical context examines the functionality of rock inscriptions for the ancient Egyptians and finds that the annexation and redefinition of the landscape was a key factor motivating the production of rock art and rock inscriptions spanning the Egyptian Predynastic and Dynastic Periods. Casting off the modern, negative, connotations of “graffiti,” new research comparing ancient and modern graffiti traditions—including a proper understanding of the territorial and artistic implications of modern “gang” graffiti—illuminates certain functional parallels and assists in the formulation of a new framework based on Alfred Gell’s theory on the material agency of art and subsequent critiques. In this framework graffiti simultaneously mark territorial boundaries and work actively to create and maintain territory on an ongoing basis. The application of the framework to an ancient Egyptian case study illuminates the dynamic relationship between rock inscriptions and site formation.

Integration of Foreigners in Egypt

The Relief of Amenhotep ii Shooting Arrows at a Copper Ingot and Related Scenes

Javier Giménez

Abstract

The relief of Amenhotep ii shooting arrows at a copper ingot target has often been considered as propaganda of the king’s extraordinary strength and vigour. However, this work proposes that the scene took on additional layers of significance and had different ritual functions such as regenerating the health of the king, and ensuring the eternal victory of Egypt over foreign enemies and the victory of order over chaos. Amenhotep ii was shooting arrows at an “Asiatic” ox-hide ingot because the ingot would symbolize the northern enemies of Egypt. The scene belonged to a group of representations carved during the New Kingdom on temples that showed the general image of the king defeating enemies. Moreover, it was linked to scenes painted in private tombs where goods were brought to the deceased, and to offering scenes carved on the walls of Theban temples. The full sequence of scenes would describe, and ritually promote, the process of integration of the foreign element into the Egyptian sphere.

Rita Gautschy, Michael E. Habicht, Francesco M. Galassi, Daniela Rutica, Frank J. Rühli and Rainer Hannig

Abstract

A recently discovered inscription on an ancient Egyptian ointment jar mentions the heliacal rising of Sirius. In the time of the early Pharaohs, this specific astronomical event marked the beginning of the Egyptian New Year and originally the annual return of the Nile flood, making it of great ritual importance. Since the Egyptian civil calendar of 365 days permanently shifted one day in four years in comparison to the stars due to the lack of intercalation, the connection of a date from the Egyptian civil calendar with the heliacal rising of Sothis is vitally important for the reconstruction of chronology. The new Sothis date from the Old Kingdom (3rd–6th Dynasties) in combination with other astronomical data and radiocarbon dating re-calibrates the chronology of ancient Egypt and consequently the dating of the Pyramids. A chronological model for Dynasties 3 to 6 constructed on the basis of calculated astronomical data and contemporaneously documented year dates of Pharaohs is presented.

Claus Jurman

Abstract

The correct order of the first two kings of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty has been the subject of a growing debate since Michael Bányai proposed a revision of the traditional chronological model in 2013. By placing Shabataka1 before Shabaka Bányai challenged the commonly accepted view according to which it was Shabaka who established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and secured Kushite control over all of Egypt after having re-conquered the North and disposed of his adversary Bocchoris of the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. Since then Bányai’s proposal of modifying the sequence of the Kushite kings, thus making Shabataka Bocchoris’ opponent, has received a growing number of supporters who have brought forward additional arguments in favour of it.

The present article introduces new arguments based on a careful analysis of prosopographic, archaeological, and epigraphic data from the Eastern Desert and Thebes—especially relating to the Kushite Nile Level Records at Karnak—which provide the strongest evidence for the sequence “Shabaka—Shabataka” hitherto adduced.

New Frontiers of Arabic Papyrology

Arabic and Multilingual Texts from Early Islam

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Edited by Sobhi Bouderbala, Sylvie Denoix and Matt Malczycki

New Frontiers of Arabic Papyrology contains research presented at the 5th congress of the International Society for Arabic Papyrology (ISAP) held in Tunis in 2012. Like previous ISAP volumes, this one focuses on the transformative era of the Islamic conquests, although some of the articles treat later periods. The volume contains articles relevant to Arabic, Coptic, and Greek papyrology. There is also work on folk religion, astronomy, and epigraphy.

Contributors: Lotfi Abdeljaouad, Lajos Berkes, Ursula Bsees, Janneke de Jong, Manabu Kameya, Marie Legendre, Matt Malczycki, Tonio Sebastian Richter, Johannes Thomann, Khaled Younes

Numerals in Early Greek New Testament Manuscripts

Text-Critical, Scribal, and Theological Studies

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Zachary Cole

In Numerals in Early Greek New Testament Manuscripts, Zachary J. Cole provides the first in-depth examination of the seemingly obscure, yet important topic: how early Christian scribes wrote numbers and why. While scholars have long been aware that Christian scribes occasionally used numerical abbreviations in their books, few have been able to make much sense of it.
This detailed analysis of numerals in manuscripts up through the fifth century CE uncovers a wealth of palaeographical and codicological data. Among other findings, Zachary J. Cole shows that some numerals can function as “visual links” between witnesses, that numbers sometimes—though rarely—functioned like nomina sacra, and that Christians uniquely adapted their numbering system to suit the needs of public reading.

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Peter Malik

Since ancient works were preserved by means of handwritten copies, critical enquiry into their texts necessitates the study of such copies. In P.Beatty III (P47): The Codex, Its Scribe, and Its Text, Peter Malik focuses on the earliest extensive copy of the Book of Revelation. Integrating matters of palaeography, codicology, and scribal practice with textual analysis, Malik sheds new light on this largely neglected, yet crucially important, early Christian papyrus. Notable contributions include a new proposed date for P47, identification of several previously unreported scribal corrections, as well as the discovery of the manuscript’s close affinity with the Sahidic version. Significantly, Malik’s detailed, data-rich analyses are accompanied by a fresh transcription and, for the first time, high-resolution colour photographs of the manuscript.

Karl Jansen-Winkeln

In this short Beiträge three points relevant to the history of the Third Intermediate Period are presented.

1. The genealogical data of the family of the army scribe Nespaqashuty written on a fragmentary block statue from Karnak have hitherto been misunderstood. The owner of the statue is not Nespaqashuty ii, who lived in the time of Siamun, but a grandson of Amenemone i. The statue may have been dedicated by his son Ankhefenkhons during the time of Osorkon ii.

2. According to stela Cairo je 66285, the Libyan chief and later king Shoshenq i had a statue of his father Nimlot A erected in the temple of Abydos. The offering established for this statue is written with a hieroglyph simply to be read ḥtp “offering,” not ẖntj “statue” or qnyt “portable image” as proposed before.

3. Some aspects of the chronological and political relations between Bocchoris and Shabako and their predecessors Tefnakhte and Piankhy are considered as well as the supposed reason for the attack on Bocchoris by “Sabakôn.”

Maxim Panov

This brief article deals with a unique seal impression currently housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (mma 10.130.1563). Dating to the Ptolemaic Period, it belonged to a priest of the cults of Arsinoe and Philotera, but until now has not been analyzed in detail. The hieroglyphic text, transliteration, and translation is presented here along with a discussion of its date.

Gilles Gorre

This article explores the relevance of the Middle Ground theory for the study of relationships between the Egyptian priesthood and the Macedonian kings. This concept will then be applied to the interpretation of one document in particular, the Satrap Stela. It suggests that the Middle Ground concept allows the identification of the Persian ruler mentioned in the document as Xerxes, Great King of the Second Persian Wars, and supports an interpretation of the text centered on Ptolemy Satrap rather than Khababash.

Alba María Villar Gómez

Considered as the legitimate son and heir of Amun, Khonsu gained importance during the Ramesside Period in parallel with the birth of the Renaissance doctrine. This prominence is reflected in the biographical and genealogical information, which documents a substantial increase in the number of individuals performing administrative and religious functions for the different forms of Khonsu by the Twenty-First Dynasty.

The complete prosopography of the personnel relating to the cult of Khonsu in Thebes Neferhotep presents new insights into a collective, subordinated to the clergy of Amun and active in more than one cult throughout the Karnak complex, but which fulfilled a significant role at Thebes. In this regard, the title of Third ḥm-nṯr priest of Khonsu must be highlighted; the contextualization of the emergence of this office and the study of its holders builds solid foundations for a better understanding of the Theban cultic and administrative domains leading up to and during the Twenty-First Dynasty.

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Edited by Malcolm Choat and Mariachiara Giorda

As senders of letters, copyists of literary texts, compilers of accounts, readers, and teachers, the monks of late antique Egypt articulated their interactions with their ascetic and secular environments via their role as authors, scribes, and owners of written text. This volume edited by Malcolm Choat and Maria Chiara Giorda examines the presence and practice of writing, modes of written communication, and the symbolic and spiritual value of the written word in monastic communities. Contributions cover evidence from papyri and inscriptions to literature transmitted in manuscripts, positioned within the shift in recent scholarship away from literature such as hagiography as a source of positivistic history, towards evidence that derives more directly from the monk or period in focus.

Kate Liszka and Bryan Kraemer

The Semna Dispatches hold unparalleled importance as one of the only papyri remaining for our understanding of Egypt’s control over its Lower Nubian forts in the late Middle Kingdom. Here, we provide an edition and commentary on P. Ramesseum 18 (EA10771), another text concerning the forts. Its only previous publication was as a photograph in Alan Gardiner’s The Ramesseum Papyri: Plates in 1955. The text provides evidence for oversight from the Office of the Vizier in the form of letters to the forts, in support of which only seal impressions and the Duties of the Vizier attested formerly. One letter alerts the fortresses of Elephantine and Kuban about upcoming inspections. Another mentions an official from Edfu connected with the Medjay commanding a wꜤr.t-district at Kuban. Dating to the transition of Dynasty 12 and 13, the letters verify the continuing control of the forts, including rotations of personnel from Upper Egypt.

Lucia Rossi

This contribution proposes a study of the river guard in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. It aims to enlighten the social, administrative, and fiscal peculiarities of this institution by which public powers ensured the security of human mobility on the Nile. This study starts from the analysis of Greek and Latin vocabulary of the “river guard” according to literary and epigraphic evidence found on papyri and ostraca. Next, it focuses on the actors ensuring the “river guard,” notably on their social and ethnic background, on their official status, as well as on the public regulations governing the “river guard.” Finally, it examines the different functions assigned to river guards, the material means for this institution’s effective functioning, and the tax system organized for its financing.

Le présent article est centré sur l’étude de la « garde du fleuve » dans l’Egypte hellénistique et romaine. Dans le cadre d’une réflexion historique large, il vise à rendre compte des spécificités sociales, administratives et fiscales de cette institution ayant assuré la sécurité des circulations humaines sur le Nil. Cette réflexion est ainsi fondée en premier lieu sur l’étude du vocabulaire grec et latin de la garde du fleuve, conservé dans les papyrus et les ostraka égyptiens, dans les textes littéraires et épigraphiques. Dans un second temps, il est question d’étudier les acteurs de la garde du fleuve, notamment les milieux socio-ethniques de recrutement, les statuts et les formes publiques de leur encadrement. Il s’agit enfin de s’intéresser aux différentes fonctions assurées par la garde du fleuve, aux moyens matériels nécessaires à son exercice et à la fiscalité préposée à son financement.

This article is in French.

Arkadiy Demidchik

The history of the Heracleopolitan royal “House of Khety,” comprising Manethonian Dynasties ix and x, remains unknown to us. The only monarch whose place in the Heracleopolitans’ succession is believed to be well established is Merikare, the addressee of the famous treatise on kingship. For almost eight decades he has been alleged to be the final or penultimate Heracleopolitan ruler. However, even this hardened opinion rests on erroneous presumptions. Close scrutiny of all pertaining records permits rather to identify Merikare with the sixth Heracleopolitan pharaoh, listed in the Turin King-list, v. 24, with the nomen “Khety.” Merikare’s father, the fifth king of Heracleopolis, managed to restore the capital back to Memphis. Therefore, later he was at times considered as founder of a new, Dynasty “x”, with his four “purely Heracleopolitan” predecessors forming “Dynasty ix.” Such is an explanation for Manetho’s much debated division of the Heracleopolitans into two dynasties.

Series:

Egidia Occhipinti

This book involves a new historiographical study of the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia that defines its relationship with fifth- and fourth-century historical works as well as its role as a source of Diodorus’ Bibliotheke. The traditional and common approach taken by those who studied the HO is primarily historical: scholars have focused on particular, often isolated, topics such as the question of the authorship, the historical perspective of the HO against other Hellenica from the 4th century BC. This book is unconventional in that it offers a study of the HO and fifth- and fourth-century historical works supported by papyrological enquiries and literary strategies, such as intertextuality and narratology, which will undoubtedly contribute to the progress of research in ancient historiography.

Bryan Kraemer and Kate Liszka

Evidence for the system of written communications used in Egypt’s administration of its forts is sparse. Of the papyri that exist, the “Semna Dispatches” has provided most of the information available about this system as it existed in Lower Nubia during the late Middle Kingdom. In 1945, Paul Smither posthumously published P. Ramesseum C (bm ea 10752) as “The Semnah Despatches.” Smither was unaware of two fragments, framed with P. Ramesseum 19 (bm ea 10772.2). This study edits the unpublished fragments and incorporates them into the larger discussion about the Semna Dispatches. They provide clarity for the document as a whole. They show that the dispatches were, primarily, used to coordinate surveillance around the Semna Gorge and, secondarily, to record security concerns for other fortresses. Furthermore, they were written in a surveillance office at Semna West and not in Thebes. This study resolves several debates about the dispatches and the control of Lower Nubia in the late Middle Kingdom.