In Modern Architecture, Empire, and Race in Fascist Italy, Brian L. McLaren examines the architecture of the late-Fascist era in relation to the various racial constructs that emerged following the occupation of Ethiopia in 1936 and intensified during the wartime. This study is conducted through a wide-ranging investigation of two highly significant state-sponsored exhibitions, the 1942 Esposizione Universale di Roma and 1940 Mostra Triennale delle Terre Italiane d'Oltremare. These exhibitions and other related imperial displays are examined over an extended span of time to better understand how architecture, art, and urban space, the politics and culture that encompassed them, the processes that formed them, and the society that experienced them, were racialized in varying and complex ways.
Carolingian, Byzantine and Romanesque Buildings (800-1200) as a Source for New All’Antica Architecture in Early Modern Europe (1400-1700)
In early modern times scholars and architects investigated age-old buildings in order to look for useful sources of inspiration. They too, occasionally misinterpreted younger buildings as proofs of majestic Roman or other ancient glory, such as the buildings of the Carolingian, Ottonian and Stauffer emperors. But even if the correct age of a certain building was known, buildings from c. 800 – 1200 were sometimes regarded as ‘Antique’ architecture, since the concept of ‘Antiquity’ was far more stretched than our modern periodisation allows. This was a Europe-wide phenomenon. The results are rather diverse in style, but they all share an intellectual and artistic strategy: a conscious revival of an ‘ancient’ architecture — whatever the date and origin of these models.
[Mamluk Palaces and Houses in Cairo: An Archaeological and Civilizational Study]
Author: Ghazwan Yaghi
Mamluk Palaces and Houses in Cairo studies the types of extant residential buildings in Cairo from the Mamluk era (1250-1517 C.E.) and the factors affecting their design, architectural and decorative elements, and building materials. It provides an archaeological, architectural, historical, and documentary study of all the surviving palaces and houses, focussing on the structural and architectural status of its various parts. The author also discusses its present-day restoration and rehabilitation projects.
In this book, Ghazwan Yaghi presents a variety of empirical material that sheds more light on the social and economic history of the Mamluk era, as well as a glossary of archaeological and documentary terminology that could serve as a tool for further research in Islamic architecture.

القصور والبيوت المملوكية في القاهرة يدرس أنواع المباني السكنية الموجودة في القاهرة من العصر المملوكي (1250-1517 م) والعوامل المؤثرة في تصميمها، وعناصرها المعمارية والزخرفية، ومواد بناءها، إضافة لتقديم دراسة أثرية ومعمارية وتاريخية ووثائقية لكل القصور والبيوت الباقية، مع التركيز على الحالة الإنشائية والمعمارية لكافة أجزاءها، وملقية الضوء على مشاريع ترميمها وإعادة تأهيلها حتى الوقت الحالي.
في هذا الكتاب، يقدم غزوان ياغي مادة ثرية تساهم في زيادة فهمنا للتاريخ الاجتماعي والاقتصادي للعصر المملوكي، كما يوفر مسرد المصطلحات الأثرية والوثائقية مادة علمية تزيد من فهمنا للعمارة السكنية الإسلامية التي يأتي المنتج المعماري فيها معبراً بصورة دقيقة عن أصحابه سواء منهم من أمر به أو من قام بتنفيذه.
Reproduction of an Archetype: Episodes of Urbanism 1945–1979
Author: Rana Habibi
In Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran – Reproduction of an Archetype, Rana Habibi offers an engaging analysis of the modern urban history of Tehran during the Cold War period: 1945–1979. The book, while arguing about the institutionalism of modernity in the form of modern middle-class housing in Tehran, shows how vernacular archetypes found their way into the construction of new neighborhoods. The trajectory of ideal modernism towards popular modernism, the introduction of modern taste to traditional society through architects, while tracing the path of transnational models in local projects, are all subjects extensively expounded by Rana Habibi through engaging graphical analyses and appealing theoretical interpretations involving five modern Tehran neighborhoods.
Author: Rana Habibi

Abstract

This chapter investigates the Iranian encounter with and influence on the international modernist movement. The reception of international modernist discourses and their weaving into Iranian housing and city building practices, contributed to the formation of a peculiar, alternative, and indigenous version of modernism that took hold in the 1950s. While such practices were clearly part of the international modern movement, they were at the same time definable as uniquely Iranian. By analyzing the Nārmak quarter in Tehran, this chapter explores how the production of a middle-class neighborhood became part of a nation-building strategy. Through processes of moderation and appropriation, the idealistic modernist version was made more practical based on pre-existing socio-cultural characteristics and typological elements. Ultimately, this local version of modernism led to its acceptance, provoked urban reaction and produced some unexpected social consequences.

In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
Author: Rana Habibi

Abstract

Since the late nineteenth century, Iranian domestic culture has been confronted with several imported image guides that projected new lifestyles, being instrumental in the gradual transformation of the same. This chapter focuses on transformations during the 1960s, the role of the architect as a mediator of change, and housing as an embodiment of all those imported images. The 1960s were characterized by the Kennedy Doctrine that spread throughout the world and initiated decades of development in many countries. At the same time, Iran was celebrating and embracing its American century. Most of the imported images were from the United States. Some of these images were in the form of comprehensive plans. Others were simply advertisements for household commodities. Many of these images had directly to do with housing, lifestyle and household culture. This chapter will also discuss how Iranian architectural journals influenced the popular taste for mass housing by proposing the global modernist movement and its achievements. It also demonstrates how the construction of modernist middle-class neighborhoods further wove this modern taste and lifestyle into Iranian society. The two case studies of Kuy-e Farah, built in 1961, and Kuy-e Chahārom-e Ābān, built in 1969, demonstrate how middle-class houses adapted to this new taste. The approval of apartment ownership in 1965 is another factor in the transformation of housing and lifestyle; it dramatically altered the relations between indoor and outdoor space and introduced a new definition of urban block.

In short, this chapter will discuss how Iranian architects built up a taste based on the aforementioned imported domesticity. It will also illustrate, through two case studies, Kuy-e Farah and Kuy-e Chahārom-e Ābān, how the global imagination of domesticity guided the reorientation of Iranian dwelling tastes, from the row house to the apartment building complex.

In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
Author: Rana Habibi

Abstract

In the 1970s Tehran was considered the oil capital of Iran and the Middle East. As such, it captured the interest of many international – and often American – investors. Consequently, Iran, particularly Tehran, underwent a wave of internationalism during this decade. To cope with Tehran’s housing crisis, massive building projects were undertaken in cooperation with international companies. These housing projects were indicative of the “open to internationalization” mindset, while, at the same time, emblematic of the search for Iran’s own local culture. The projects accommodated elements of the local along with international way of life, providing a transnational model in Iran. In Tehran, however, this combination of lifestyle was, in comparison to previous decades, more in line with international standards than with vernacular rules. The construction of various types of towers and high-rises in the city in the 1970s demonstrates this new application of international architectural standards.

This chapter analyzes the development of the Ekbātān housing complex, as a product of 1970s internationalism and situated within the complex transnational flows of ideas, architectural theories and models. Construction of the Ekbātān housing complex started in 1976 under the supervision of Rahmān Golzār, an Iranian architect and partner of the American construction firm Starrett, along with the South Korean architect Kim Swoo Geun. An iconic housing complex, Ekbātān was indeed emblematic of the wave of internationalism experienced during the 1970s. Its development continued after the Iranian revolution of 1979, becoming a distinct neighborhood with a strong local identity and sense of pride among residents.

In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
Author: Rana Habibi

Abstract

In the 1940s, Iran experienced dramatic changes in its urban form, as worldwide modernization movements were embodied in new, modern neighborhood units in Tehran. Proposals for these neighborhoods, like those in other countries, not only included new housing typologies, but were also aimed to alter existing social structures and facilitate nation-building. The Iranian government advanced the modernization of the state by unveiling and promoting a new social spirit which took the form of new urban districts. Discussions and proposals regarding new neighborhoods centered on creating healthy, suitable, low-cost housing for new government employees – a group emblematic of Iran’s newly established, modern middle class.

However, the traditional lifestyle was an undeniable fact of society. Dealing with the modern socio-urban policies while deriving from a socially traditional way of living led to both cultural change and landscape transformation. This chapter discusses questions like: How the archetypical elements of traditional Iranian architecture transform the international housing model; how Western conventions of modernity were transformed by regional tradition and a different lifestyle. It also deals with how the institutionalization of modern neighborhoods, based on the lifestyles of its people, created an indigenous modernity.

This chapter illustrates how urban and social reform practices in the early twentieth century were embodied by Tehran’s first modern neighborhood, Chahārsad Dastgāh, as well as how domestic Iranian lifestyles influenced the modern neighborhood and distinguished it from its contemporaries.

In: Modern Middle-Class Housing in Tehran
Author: Thomas Barrie
In Architecture of the World’s Major Religions: An Essay on Themes, Differences, and Similarities, Thomas Barrie presents and explains religious architecture in ways that challenge predominant presumptions regarding its aesthetic, formal, spatial, and scenographic elements. Two positions frame its narrative: religious architecture is an amalgam of aesthetic, social, political, cultural, economic, and doctrinal elements; and these elements are materialized in often very different ways in the world’s principal religions. Central to the work’s theoretical approaches is the communicative and discursive agency of religious architecture, and the multisensory and ritual spaces it provides to create and deliver content. Subsequently, mythical and scriptural foundations, and symbols of ecclesiastical and political power are of equal interest to formal organizations of thresholds, paths, courts, and centers, and celestial and geometric alignments. Moreover, it is equally concerned with the aesthetic, visual and material cultures and the transcendent realms they were designed to evoke, as it is with the kinesthetic, the dynamic and multisensory experience of place and the tangible experiences of the body’s interactions with architecture.
Author: Thomas Barrie

Abstract

In Architecture of the World’s Major Religions: An Essay on Themes, Differences, and Similarities, religious architecture is presented and explained in ways that challenge predominant presumptions regarding its aesthetic, formal, spatial, and scenographic elements. Two positions frame its narrative: religious architecture is an amalgam of aesthetic, social, political, cultural, economic, and doctrinal elements; and these elements are materialized in often very different ways in the world’s principal religions. Central to the essay’s theoretical approaches is the communicative and discursive agency of religious architecture, and the multisensory and ritual spaces it provides to create and deliver content. Subsequently, mythical and scriptural foundations, and symbols of ecclesiastical and political power are of equal interest to formal organizations of thresholds, paths, courts, and centers, and celestial and geometric alignments. Moreover, it is equally concerned with the aesthetic—visual and material cultures and the transcendent realms they were designed to evoke, as it is with the kinesthetic—the dynamic and multisensory experience of place and the tangible experiences of the body’s interactions with architecture.

In: Architecture of the World’s Major Religions
Byzantium in Eastern European Visual Culture in the Late Middle Ages, edited by Maria Alessia Rossi and Alice Isabella Sullivan, engages with issues of cultural contact and patronage, as well as the transformation and appropriation of Byzantine artistic, theological, and political models, alongside local traditions, across Eastern Europe. The regions of the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathian Mountains, and early modern Russia have been treated in scholarship within limited frameworks or excluded altogether from art historical conversations. This volume encourages different readings of the artistic landscapes of Eastern Europe during the late medieval period, highlighting the cultural and artistic productions of individual centers. These ought to be considered individually and as part of larger networks, thus revealing their shared heritage and indebtedness to artistic and cultural models adopted from elsewhere, and especially from Byzantium.