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Edited by Mathias Jenny, Paul Sidwell and Mark Alves
The book deals in the first volume with 298 species and contains descriptions of 99 new notodontid taxa. A second volume will treat with the remaining 160 species and include also a comprehensive biogeographic analysis.
Diasporic Politics among the Second Generation
Edited by Robyn M. Rodriguez
Memory, Movement, and Modernities across Hemispheres
Edited by Richard Chu, Augusto F. Espiritu and Mariam Lam
Richard T. Chu, University of Massachusetts
Augusto F. Espiritu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Mariam Lam, University of California, Riverside
For some time now, studies on Southeast Asians have often situated the experiences of these peoples within the territorial boundaries of their countries and within the regional framework of Southeast Asia. Geographically fixed to the Philippines, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Brunei, East Timor, and Singapore, Southeast Asia emerges, as critical area studies underscore, as a site marked by multivalent politics, histories, and cultures. The processes of globalization, neoliberalism, and war have unmoored such fixities in the Eastern as much as in the Western Hemispheres, causing tectonic shifts in the constructions of memory, massive population movements and migrations, and ever new projects and worldings responding to various regimes of the “modern.” Whereas Southeast Asian studies may remain regionally focused, Southeast Asian American studies must increase its focus on the understudied complex, transnational flows and manifold expressions of the Southeast Asian diasporic experience.
Attendant to the rise of the Southeast Asian diasporas, Global Southeast Asian Diasporas (SEAD) provides a peer-reviewed forum for studies that specifically investigate the histories and experiences of Southeast Asian diasporic subjects across hemispheres. We especially invite studies that critically focus on the Southeast Asian experience from a transnational, comparative, and international perspective. SEAD welcomes submissions from a wide array of disciplinary fields (including history, sociology, political science, cultural studies, literary studies, and anthropology, among others) that innovatively interrogate themes such as refugees, political asylum, gender/sexuality, colonialism, globalization, empire, nation/nationalism, ethnicity, and transnationalism.
Manuscripts should be at least 90,000 words in length (including footnotes and bibliography). Manuscripts may also include illustrations, tables, and other visual material. The editors will consider proposals for original monographs, edited collections, translations, and critical primary source editions.
Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts by email to the publisher Chunyan Shu.
A Language of South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Edited by Paul James Sidwell
Sources from the Ottoman Archives
Ismail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
Contributors are: Giancarlo Casale, Annabel Teh Gallop, Rıfat Günalan, Patricia Herbert, Jana Igunma, Midori Kawashima, Abraham Sakili and Michael Talbot
Doreen G. Fernandez
Doreen Gamboa Fernandez (1934–2002) was a cultural historian, professor, author, and columnist. Her food writing educated and inspired generations of chefs and food enthusiasts in the Philippines and throughout the world. This Brill volume honors and preserves Fernandez’s legacy with a reprinting of Tikim, a foreword by chef and educator Aileen Suzara, and an editor’s preface by historian Catherine Ceniza Choy.
This article scrutinizes the controversy surrounding the resumption of Japanese Antarctic whaling from 1946, focusing on the negotiations and concessions that underline the nature of the Allied Occupation as an international undertaking. Britain, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand objected to Japanese pelagic whaling, chiefly on the grounds of its past record of wasteful and inefficient operations. Their opposition forced the Natural Resources Section of General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, to increase the number of Allied inspectors on board the two Japanese whaling factories from one to two, and to respond carefully to the criticisms they made of the conduct of Japanese whaling. U.S. sensitivity to international censure caused the Occupation to encourage the factory vessels to prioritize oil yields over meat and blubber for domestic consumption. Moreover, General Douglas MacArthur, the U.S. Occupation commander, summarily rejected a proposal to increase the number of Japanese fleets from two to three in 1947. With its preponderance of power, the United States successfully promoted Japanese Antarctic whaling, but a tendency to focus only on outcomes obscures the lengthy and difficult processes that enabled Japanese whaling expeditions to take place on an annual basis from late 1946.
In the decade following its founding in 1955, the men who led the foreign policy lobby the Committee of One Million Against the Admission of Communist China to the United Nations faced little concerted opposition to their attempts at preventing even the most minor alterations in the U.S. policy of both isolating and containing Communist China. But beginning with the Fulbright Hearings on China in March 1966, the trend of informed opinion moved sharply against them, as liberal Democrats became newly emboldened and moderates in both parties switched sides, inverting the bipartisan consensus against change the Committee relied upon. The 1968 election of former Vice President Richard M. Nixon, who had served alongside Committee hero John Foster Dulles, seemed to offer them newfound hope. But when the “New Nixon” proved unreceptive to the entreaties of his one-time allies, the Committee mounted a furious public relations campaign to rally belatedly the right-wing base and influence public opinion. Its failure illustrated both the limits of power of American conservatives over U.S. foreign policy while détente was ascendant, and the discontinuity in priorities between the Old Right from which the Committee emerged and the New Right that left it behind.
Carl A. Gabrielson
After seventy years, U.S. bases in Japan continue to inspire ambivalence, resentment, resistance, and even fear for many Japanese people. To improve the public image of the U.S. armed forces, base administrators create training materials designed to promote cultural awareness, prevent troops’ crimes, and discourage bad behavior. But how does the organization whose purpose is to violently oppose foreign threats to U.S. interests conceive of cultural understanding and sensitivity? Taking as a case study the materials that U.S. Marine Corps bases in Japan produce to instruct newcomers, this article argues that such materials tend to equip base personnel preemptively with strategies for erasing, coopting, and dismissing local anti-base perspectives. Specifically, these materials depict Japanese people as friendly supporters of the military, as irrational and brainwashed puppets of anti-military political forces, or simply as decorative pieces of the cultural backdrop. It concludes that the cultural education materials the U.S. Marine Corps produces at its bases in Japan not only help marines to feel that they have or deserve the support of the Japanese people in carrying out the U.S. military agenda abroad, but that they also promote a sense of cultural superiority that fosters the very behaviors that cultural training materials are meant to prevent.
Cultural workers have a vital role in making social change accessible to marginalized communities, through whatever art form. People may not connect with a theory-dense book on social change, but they will instantly connect to a song, a poem, or a visual art piece concerning social change. Art has the capacity to connect people, and the art cultural workers produce is passionately rooted in peoples’ struggles and hopes. It also gives relevance to marginalized communities’ struggles in ways that are accessible to them because they can identify with the stories and gives their struggles a voice.
Cultural workers view themselves as being deliberate in creating culture as an act of resistance to neocolonialism and imperialism, and much of the stories they tell though their creative work are not revealed in literature, society, and mainstream media. The concept of “cultural workers” is also to deconstruct the myth of artists working in isolation from the community. Cultural workers are not just artists, but more importantly are community organizers who are of and with the communities they work with.
One of the objectives for writing this chapter is to show how cultural work brings political consciousness to marginalized populations who do not have access to education, in other words, how cultural workers become educators of marginalized communities beyond the limitations of the classroom. Another objective is to show how cultural work is a tool for social change in the National Democratic Movement of the Philippines, a social movement that goes beyond the borders of the Philippines.
“Bayan Ko (my people/country),” focuses on the Katipunan ng mga Demokratikong Pilipino (KDP), the first national revolutionary mass organization of Filipinos in the United States that was directly linked to the Philippine left. With the onset of the Marcos dictatorship, Filipinos and their allies articulated a diasporic vision that linked homeland and domestic politics, the positionality of Filipinos in the homeland and in the diaspora, and the diaspora’s responsibility in supporting movements in the homeland. Sales documents how young activists in KDP became politicized through understanding their lived experiences as post-colonial subjects of U.S. empire, and how activists transformed this newfound consciousness into action by promoting the National Democratic Movement in the Filipino community. Through various efforts, such as their involvement in the Pilipino People’s Far West Convention, the Political Prisoners Program, and their ties to the National Democratic Front of the Philippines, KDP represented an important experiment of integrating overseas Filipinos into leftist movements in the homeland and testing radical transnationalism in the Filipino American community. Sales argues that KDP strived to make local/homeland politics legible and possible for the Filipino community.
While much of ethnoracial literature has explored interethnic and interracial divisions, they largely ignore intragroup boundaries, particularly along the lines of generational status. In this chapter, Gutierrez argues that second-generation migrants are raised within a social context that consistently reinforces the notion that their lives as Filipino Americans are vastly different from those that reside in and originate from the Philippines. The ways in which second-generation Filipino Americans develop their understanding of the country through various outlets, such as the familial context, transnational connections, media exposure, as well as educational and organizational resources, reinforce perceptions of the Philippines possessing cultural, social, economic and political conditions different from the conditions that respondents face in the U.S. While some identify as “Filipino” as a form of ancestral lineage, when asked for their race/ethnicity, their identification as Filipino as a form of national and cultural membership is less stable. Instead, many choose to identify as “Filipino American” to better encompass the ambivalence of their identification.
Karen Buenavista Hanna
This chapter offers a close analysis of two Filipina activist leaders, Ester Soriano-Hewitt and Prosy Abarquez Delacruz, who played pivotal roles in several Los Angeles-based activist organizations, including the National Committee for Restoration of Civil Liberties in the Philippines (ncrclp) Los Angeles Chapter, the Sunday Morning Group (smg) and the Alliance for Philippine Concerns (apc). It examines the role of Soriano-Hewitt, as a critical social network connector and democratic facilitator in the groups. Soriano-Hewitt acted as a “centerwoman” who paid attention to the needs of others, recognized potential interpersonal links, and forged connections. Delacruz, meanwhile, galvanized women of her Los Angeles apc chapter to take their husbands and male comrades to task for not undertaking their share of reproductive labor, particularly during what Hanna calls the “fourth shift” of care work that activist women typically provide men in their organizations. The chapter demonstrates that their interventions sparked what Hanna calls, “revolutionary intimacies,” or close bonds required for deeper political thinking and commitments. Hanna also offers an overview of transnational anti-imperialist Filipino organizing in Los Angeles in the 1970s and 1980s, arguing that their invisible labor was integral to the city’s synergistic proliferation of diasporic Filipino anti-martial law, civil rights, and internationalist political work during those decades.
L. Joyce Zapanta Mariano
This chapter begins with and builds upon American studies scholar Eric Estuar Reyes and his analysis of Rolling the R’s by R. Zamora Linmark to address developmentalism in Filipino American subject formation. It also examines developmentalism in the space and production of diaspora and Filipino American diasporic subjectivity. To extend Reyes’s analysis of Linmark’s commentary to the Filipino diaspora, the chapter reads Linmark’s second novel, Leche, in relation to Rolling the R’s. Less raucously funny than its predecessor, Leche is equally unrelenting and biting in its social and cultural commentary. The protagonist of Leche, Vicente De Los Reyes, was first introduced to readers as one of the pop-culture-loving Filipino youth in Rolling the R’s. As a boy having recently arrived in Honolulu from the Philippines, he was “Vicente” in Rolling the R’s. The time of Leche is 1991. Vicente is now “Vince,” a twenty-three-year-old college graduate, making his first return trip to the Philippines since he left in 1978 at age ten, when he and his siblings were sent to join their parents, who had been living and working in Honolulu since 1972. His is no simple homeland return, however. Through Vince’s entanglement of memories, dreams, and nightmares, Linmark reveals the anxieties of diasporic return, using multiple and simultaneous points of arrival and departure to call into question the categorical fixity and disconnection of migration and settlement. The chapter takes up an intertextual reading of the two novels to explore their broader resonance to diasporic developmentalism, which relies on an historical disconnect among these categories.
Darlene Marie “Daya” Mortel Edouard
Throughout the years, members of Habi Arts, a Filipinx arts collective based in Los Angeles, have created a number of murals. Their creation is unique in that they are often not the product of one artist. As a collective, there are several painters and muralists who participate in a collective mural making process. This chapter examines the collective mural making process of Habi Arts and how this process not only creates art, but as William Roy calls it, does culture. The members of Habi Arts used the collective mural making process to build community and model not only a new way to view and define art, but a collective lifestyle as well. Finally, through an analysis of one of the created murals, this chapter looks at how mural making participants partook in memory making, sharing certain memories with the FIlipinx community in the Philippines and the United States.
Mark John Sanchez
The alternative press played a formative role in the eventual overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos. In the Philippines, the “mosquito press”—which included publications such as We Forum, Malaya, Mr. and Ms., National Midweek, and many more—bravely covered the regime’s failings and outright lies. The underground press in the Philippines, including Ang Bayan, Signs of the Times, Balita ng Malayang Pilipinas, and many more, worked with activists outside of the Philippines to create a transnational press network. Through this network activists exchanged information regarding human rights abuses in the Philippines in order to draw international attention to the violences of the Marcos regime.
This chapter focuses on one small part of this remarkable history of press dissidence, the publication of Philippines Information Bulletin. Primarily organized by anti-imperialist activists in the Boston area, the Bulletin also relied upon the work of Filipino and Filipino American activists. Despite its short publication run, the Bulletin made space for discussing the complex politics of anti-imperialism, labor organizing, anti-authoritarianism, and diaspora. The publication’s history also brings together different components of the anti-Marcos movement in the United States, including the Katipunan ng Mga Demokratikong Pilipino (KDP), Friends of the Filipino People, and the Philippines Project at the Goddard-Cambridge School of Social Change. Ultimately, the publication was a space to work out what it meant to work on Philippine issues from outside of the Philippines and, for some, what it meant to be Filipino American.
Michael Schulze-Oechtering Castaneda and Wayne Jopanda
On June 1, 1981, Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes, two Filipino American labor activists in Alaska’s salmon canning industry were brutally gunned down in their Seattle-based union hall of the International Longshoremens’ and Warehousemens’ Union (ilwu) Local 37. Rather than focus on Domingo and Viernes’s tragic deaths, “Transpacific Freedom Dreams” centers their life-affirming activism. In particular, the authors pay attention to the ability of Domingo, Viernes, and other Filipino American cannery workers to productively fuse together two streams of radicalism within the Filipino diaspora: (1) the militant “old left” labor organizing of their “manongs” and (2) the revolutionary struggles of the National Democratic Movement of the Philippines. In our contemporary moment, when both the United States and Philippine ruling classes have taken an authoritarian turn, the authors make the case that the transpacific freedom dreams expressed in Domingo and Viernes’s organizing offers a useable history and a generative praxis of transnational activism that scholars and activists can learn from.
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
Southeast Asian Understandings of Ottoman Diplomatics
Annabel Teh Gallop, A.C.S. Peacock and İsmail Hakkı Kadı
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
İsmail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock
Ladylyn Lim Mangada and Yvonne Su
When Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on November 8, 2013, it took the lives of over 6,300 people. Many of those who died were men who did not evacuate in order to protect their homes. As a result, widowhood was a significant and devastating consequence of Haiyan, but widowed women were also one of the most neglected and underserved vulnerable populations in the aftermath of the disaster. The data used in this study were drawn from 15 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions with widowed women in three areas in the province of Leyte that were heavily affected by Haiyan: Tacloban City, Palo, and Tanauan. Our fieldwork uncovered that while the delivery of humanitarian assistance provided a modicum of human security to the survivors, the ability for widows to achieve human security was severely reduced and constrained. Thus, the main research question of this paper is: “What undermined the widows from attaining human security after Haiyan?” and we argue that there were four main factors: (1) the lack of equal access to economic opportunities; (2) the occurrence of new risks in the resettlement sites; (3) the inability of institutions to respond and adapt to change; and (4) the absence of survivor-centered decision making venues. To overcome these barriers to human security in the future, we make two key policy recommendations on how local government units, being the primary organizations that deliver prevention and response services, need to do. These are: (1) prioritize the elimination of existing economic and social vulnerabilities in the relocation sites, and (2) prepare the widows and their families for future climate shocks.
The Impact of ‘Ungrievable Lives’ on National Political Discourse
Eduardo T. Gonzalez
Following the approach of Judith Butler in Frames of war: When is life grievable? and similar theoretical perspectives, the paper examines how the war against ISIS in Southern Philippines discursively represents the “other” – the victims of war – as dispensable “collateral damage”. There is no disputing that the siege of Marawi City by an ISIS- inspired group has taken a terrible toll on human life and has exposed the increasing vulnerability of the country to terrorism. Yet, the relation between the state and the displaced victims that emerged, brought forth in and through media reporting and political commentaries, constitutes an epistemological border that casts the military (as the state’s instrument) as the uncontested heroic entity, yet at the same time keeps the dislocated inhabitants – mostly Muslim minorities – out of sight, inaccessible, and in due course ungrievable. Media texts and commentaries, privileging state perspectives and sources, implicitly establish what counts as “grievable” lives. A privileged hegemonic perspective has kept the war victims de-subjectified, rendering their suffering and the grave humanitarian conditions on the ground unproblematic. The paper then looks into how a “desensitized” political discourse is structured by this new cognitive orientation. While some Marawi voices still surface, the focus is on gaining direct public empathy and identification toward a particular side and engendering moral indifference toward the victims. Lastly, the paper looks at epistemological crossings in the form of alternative (and potentially disruptive) discourses that have emerged, despite the narrowed liminal space. It argues that war victims, in a context of new meanings, retain some form of agency that might engender change, and could reemerge as recognizable voices who can participate as full partners in the collective restoration of Marawi and the Muslim community.
Cielo Magno and Ricardo Rafael S. Guzman
Economies that derive substantial government revenues from natural resources face the unique challenge of implementing fiscal regimes that deliver a fair share of rents without discouraging private investment in extractive sectors. However, designing progressive and non-distortionary fiscal tools requires an evaluation of the current fiscal regime and the extent to which it captures the resource rent – the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, and opportunity costs incurred to exploit the resource. To evaluate the efficiency of the Philippines’ fiscal regime, we compare the resource rent to government revenues from mining activity. Then, we estimate the effective tax rates under the current fiscal regime and other combinations of fiscal tools. First, we look at aggregated tax payments of all large-scale mining companies over a ten-year period and compare them with the estimated resource rent. Second, we model the different tax regimes using firm-level data from a nickel mine. We propose a fiscal regime for the mining sector in the Philippines that is least distortionary while appropriate given the country’s regulatory context and administrative capacity.
Maria Ela L. Atienza
Noel Christian A. Moratilla
The uprising alternately called EDSA Revolution or People Power Revolution or EDSA People Power Revolt, which led to the downfall of Filipino dictator Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, supposedly ushered in the formal restoration of civil freedoms that had been snatched away by Marcos’ martial law. In the aftermath of the uprising, formal democratic institutions and civil rights were returned, including the right to free elections and the right to peaceful assembly. But as this article seeks to show, the administrations after EDSA have been marred by the neglect of workers’ welfare and the failure to address old labor concerns such as inadequate wages, job precarity, and contractualization. Given the shortage of employment opportunities in the Philippines, the administrations after EDSA have also promoted migration as its de facto job-generating mechanism. But the export of human resources is not without its ugly consequences, such as making overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) susceptible to abuse and exploitation. Deploying the notion of counter-history and using various materials from both government and non-government organizations, this article undertakes to critically assess the labor conditions during the historical period after the fabled EDSA People Power Revolt, and concludes that no notable changes have taken place.
2018 is a year of so much uneasiness and tension in Philippine politics. It saw one of the greatest crises in the Supreme Court, the bloodiest period in local politics of late, and successive attempts to silence critics of the president and the government. This year also witnessed major political alignments in the Duterte administration: a change in the leadership of the Senate, the election of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as Speaker of the House, the rivalry between Hugpong ng Pagbabago and Partido Demokratiko ng Pilipinas-Lakas ng Bayan, and the eventual termination of the alliance with the radical left. This review aims to understand these developments in Philippine politics. It seeks to know why are there so many rifts and shifts in the political rule of Duterte. These changes can be interpreted as part of an ongoing transition toward democratic regression under the Duterte regime. The disruptive events that ensued throughout the year should be understood as the offshoot of the extant efforts to alter the political status quo since the election of Duterte in 2016. The administration uses these events to consolidate its power by rallying its supporters for the 2019 midterm elections and reconfiguring the alignments within the Duterte bloc.
Dennis V. Blanco
The paper analyzes urban water governance paradigms in the Philippines using available literature and describes the various water policies with specific emphasis on the underlying main legal frameworks which relate to urban domestic water governance. It also focuses on various urban domestic water governance actors, institutions and stakeholders involved and engaged in water governance as an added dimension. Employing a synthesis integrative review and policy-capacity analysis, the paper proposes some key policy-capacity solutions in which urban domestic water governance actors and stakeholders can adopt and replicate, such as capacity-building, epistemic governance, and hydrosolidarity, as possible recommendations or ways forward in urban domestic water good governance studies. Finally, the paper recommends the need for potential review and reform of the main legal foundations, functions, and responsibilities of water institutions through the assignment and determination of jurisdictional capacities exclusively to specialized agencies within the urban domestic water governance framework.
North Vietnam announced its intention to unify its country with armed struggle in 1959. Thereafter, Hanoi consistently requested military assistance from the People’s Republic of China (prc). However, Beijing did not grant Hanoi’s request until 1962. Why did the prc agree to provide military assistance to North Vietnam? This article argues that China did so because the United States greatly increased its military presence in South Vietnam in late 1961 and 1962. Therefore, Beijing provided military assistance to Hanoi to secure China’s southern border. Employing primary sources, this study traces changes in Beijing’s attitude toward its Vietnam policy from 1958 to 1962. It shows that when U.S. military presence was limited, Beijing paid more attention to the avoidance of war with the United States and maintaining a hospitable environment in neighboring Indochina. However, when the prc perceived the U.S. presence as a threat to its security, the objective of seeking security overwhelmed other objectives.
The U.S. conservative movement in the mid-20th Century argued that the United States needed to continuously get tougher in the fight against communism worldwide. It remained supportive of U.S. efforts throughout the Vietnam War. However, in the period immediately preceding Americanization of the war in 1965, conservatives were uncertain about the outcome of any fighting in Vietnam. Specifically, they claimed that optimism for the Republic of Vietnam was lost with the assassination of President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963. Without Diem, conservatives claimed, the Vietnam War was likely lost before it began. This article discusses how Diem went from a barely talked-about anti-Communist ally prior to his death to becoming posthumously the last great hope for Southeast Asia. Conservatives argued that without Diem, the only way the United States would be able to stop Communist expansion in Indochina would be to engage in a massive aerial bombing campaign and find a regional partner to deploy troops. Had he survived, this might not have been necessary. Learning why and how conservatives supported Diem after his death helps us better understand how conservatives reacted to the Vietnam War once Americanization began in 1965.
During the Vietnam War, South Vietnamese students were some of the most vocal activists asserting multiple visions for Vietnam’s future. Students’ attitudes spanned the political spectrum from staunchly anti-Communist to supportive of the National Liberation Front. Like young people throughout the world in the 1960s, students in South Vietnam embodied the spirit of the global Sixties as a hopeful moment in which the possibility of freedom energized those demanding political change. South Vietnam’s university students staged protests, wrote letters, and drew up plans of action that tried to unite the disparate political interests among the nation’s young people as politicians and generals in Saigon attempted to establish a viable national government. South Vietnamese government officials and U.S. advisors paid close attention to student activism hoping to identify and cultivate sources of support for the Saigon regime. While some students were willing to work with Americans, others argued that foreign intervention of any kind was bad for Vietnam. The Saigon government’s repressive tactics for dealing with political protest drove away students who otherwise might have supported it.
Nietzsche influenced Strauss throughout the composer’s mature career, from Also sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (1896), which shares the same name as the treatise by Nietzsche, to Eine Alpensinfonie, Op. 64 (1911–15), which initially bore the title Der Antichrist, after Nietzsche’s 1888 essay. Nietzsche, through Zarathustra, stresses the idea of the Übermensch, which proposes that the human occupies the stratum between the primal and the super-human. The Übermensch is not, however, the zenith for a man. The goal for man is rather his journey toward self-overcoming, his struggle within himself. In Ein Heldenleben (A Hero’s Life, 1898), Strauss incorporates Nietzschean concepts without any direct references to Nietzsche. The designation of a man as a hero, the battle as an obstacle with which one struggles, the alternation between peace and war and the cycle of recurrence in this tone poem all reflect Nietzsche’s ideas. This research considers the tone poem from a hermeneutical perspective and argues that Strauss’s hero in Ein Heldenleben embodies qualities encompassing the true Nietzschean hero.
This research on the images of Thai women in a magazine for older adults aims to analyze the structure and components of interview columns and examines the linguistic strategies used to present images of Thai women within the context of a magazine for older adults by associating textual analysis with visual methodology. The data collection in this research was grounded on O-lunla magazine, a magazine targeting people in their 60s and older. Twenty-two interview columns from ten magazine issues from January 2017 to October 2017 were included. The study discloses how this magazine for older adults defines the meaning of ageing and the role of the magazine in passing particular notions about desirable ageing and images of older women in Thai society through the use of linguistic strategies, as well as emphasizing the concepts of desirable ageing for women. The results with regard to the content reveal that the meanings of ageing and the images of Thai women in their older age in this magazine for older adults are formed in a positive way. That is to say, older women are depicted as archetypes of a pleasant life in terms of happiness, work and health.
Joey Andrew Lucido Santos
Trickster tales can be found in the folklore of various preliterate people. Nasrdin Avanti is a series of humorous trickster tales from the Uyghur people. In this series, the protagonist Nasrdin Avanti confronts a variety of problems or difficulties, but is able to overcome or solve them. This paper explores Nasrdin Avanti’s problem-solving strategies as found in the book, The Frog Rider: Folk Tales from China, which contains 29 of his stories. Moreover, this paper discusses the functions of these folktales in their cultural and social contexts. It finds that the trickster hero uses eight strategies, the most frequent of which is talking nonsense (six stories), while the others include: feigning ignorance (four stories), satirizing (four stories), using the same reasons as the antagonists (four stories), playing on words (three stories), staying one jump ahead (three stories), taking advantage of the situation (three stories), and flattering (two stories). These problem-solving strategies can cause antagonists to lose face, stop people from bothering the trickster hero or prevent them from taking advantage of him, provide other people with new perspectives, and make them happy. In addition, the folktales of Nasrdin Avanti fulfil different social and emotional functions. Paradoxically, they provide amusement and allow people to escape from the harsh realities in their everyday lives, while at the same time, helping to retain social values and inculcate moral lessons.
Oak Joo Yap
This paper examines the musical Orientalism and representation of Oriental Others in Haydn’s seraglio opera, L’incontro improvviso. In seraglio opera, one of the Turkish-themed musical genres of “Turcomania” that swept Europe in the eighteenth century, Oriental Others were defined by their supposed negative human traits such as slyness, crudeness or irrationality. Alla turca topos in L’incontro, as in other seraglio operas, are extensively used to accentuate the inferiority of Others, their customs or religions. The representation of Others demonstrates little ethical complexity, exhibiting a stark dichotomy between morally upright Westerners and unsophisticated Others with dubious morals. I argue that despite presenting no European characters dueling with Others and thus foregoing such a narrative format as “East meets West on stage,” Haydn’s L’incontro is, nonetheless, more diminishing in its portrayal of Others than in most seraglio operas: even the male protagonist is among the degraded Others who are usually subplot characters from a low social echelon. No “rescuer,” the protagonist in L’incontro is rendered as an incompetent figure. Ali’s unmanly stature is further highlighted by the active, counter-stereotypical Oriental heroine, Rezia, who is presented as a foil to emphasize the inadequacy of Ali. The ultimate male Other, the Sultan, suffers equally from a weak stage presence despite fulfilling his role as a conveyer of Enlightenment ideals in a typical lieto fine of Turkish opera.
This paper reveals the concepts of taste in the Patani Malay ethnic group. Forty-five Patani Malays living in Pattani province, Yala province, and Narathiwat province participated in this study. The analysis uses the framework of componential analysis in ethnosemantics. The results show that there are ten basic taste terms in the Patani Malay dialect: /masɛ/ ‘sour’, /maseŋ/ ‘salty’, /manih/ ‘sweet’, /paheɁ/ ‘bitter’, /lɨcah/ ‘a little bit spicy and causing tongue pain’, /lɨta/ ‘unpleasant taste, sticking on the tongue and causing tongue numbness’, /khɨlaɁ/ ‘astringent’, /pɨdah/ ‘spicy’, /lɨmɔɁ/ ‘nutty’ and / tawa/ ‘bland’. All of them are distinguished by eight dimensions: taste buds, tongue side, tongue tip, acidity, tongue body, pain, tongue numbness, and nuttiness. Besides using each taste term individually to describe tastes of food, Patani Malays also use them repeatedly, combine each taste term together, and combine them with modifiers.
From these ten basic taste terms, there are two taste terms that concern pain in the mouth and on the tongue. These are /lɨcah/ ‘a little bit spicy and causing tongue pain’ and /pɨdah/ ‘spicy’. This reflects the preference for spicy flavours in the Patani Malay ethnic group. It may be due to the influence of using spices and chili in cooking adopted from foreign countries since ancient times. It may also be due to the geographical characteristics of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat provinces, which are located along the coast. People, therefore, prefer eating spicy food to keep their body warm and prevent illness.
Prasirt Runra and Sukanya Sujachaya
The objective of the study was to analyze the transmission and application of Rahu symbolism in contemporary Thai society. Data was collected from both documents and a field study in central and eastern Thailand. It was found that in traditional Thai art, the Rahu symbol is portrayed as his face swallowing the sun or the moon. This kind of Rahu symbol is found in Buddhist temples. Such appearances of the Rahu symbol are related to the belief that Rahu has a protective function. Interestingly, the sculpture of Rahu’s body rather than only his face has become popular in contemporary Thai society. Nowadays, Rahu sculptures tend to be located in specific places. A ritual of worshipping Rahu is often created with offerings of food generally of black color. In addition, the Rahu symbol is now created in several other forms such as posters, magic cloths and amulets. Such newly created art forms of Rahu are due to modern interpretations and meanings of the Rahu symbol in contemporary Thai society. These newly-developed meanings of the Rahu symbol are interesting since they can be applied to deal with people’s problems in the socio-cultural and political context of contemporary Thai society.
In Bali, heritage is more-or-less synonymous with tradition. The popular view of what constitutes Bali’s heritage tends to focus on the village and wider district of Ubud. Through examining at the strategies employed by the lords of Ubud during the middle part of the twentieth century, we can better understand how the image of heritage sites is created. In the case of Ubud, the construction of centre of tradition was carried out through alliances with local artists and with expatriates, notably Rudolf Bonnet. The latter were able to mobilize publicity and networks to attract resources and elevate the district’s reputation.
Reflections on archiving Indonesian and Southeast Asian art
This article is a collection of reflections of art archiving work in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, focusing on building an Indonesian art archive at Indonesian Visual Art Archive (IVAA), 2006-2015, and Southeast Asian art archives at National Gallery Singapore, from 2015 to the present. The article provides insights, learning points, and perspectives on the importance of art archives to support art historical research and the development of art history in Southeast Asia. It sheds light on the challenges, opportunities, and current developments in the field of building archives.
Redefining museum collection in the disruption era
The last two decades show how artefacts and heritage that have become museum collections have experienced the development of meaning. Along with that, disruption era, a period filled with changes caused by new innovations, which results in instability, during the last decade has affected various lines of life including museums. Meanwhile, the study on disruptive impacts on museums is considered rare, and specific studies in Indonesia, mainly in Jakarta, have not been found. This paper discusses the change of visitors’ point of view on collection and the strategy to invite the public so that they are willing to visit museums during this time. The methods used in this research are literature studies, observation, and predictive analysis by applying the theory of disruptive innovation (King and Baatartogtokh 2015). It is concluded that museums should display real collection as well as intangible culture, try to present real natural environment, increase community members’ participation, and keep themselves up-to-date with socio-cultural changes in the society.
Making archaeology relevant for the contemporary community
Archaeological relevance for the present has become an important issue in the world of archaeology. This paper aims to examine how the biography of artefacts of pottery fragments from the old Banten site, the site of Banten Sultanate of the sixteenth century AD, became a marker of the cultural identity of Banten people today. These pottery fragments were studied using Michael Thompson’s rubbish theory (1979), which observes how the value of objects shifts from transient to rubbish to durable. Using the rubbish theory, archaeological practices that have only been aimed at scientific purposes can be useful for the people of Banten today. This paper will also discuss how people who have been ignored become an important part of archaeological practice and how archaeology can have an economic impact on today’s society.
The preliminary results of the inventorization project
Nadia F. Dwiandari and Johan van Langen
The National Archives of Indonesia (Jakarta) and the National Archives of the Netherlands (The Hague) have been collaborating on the Java Archival Guide Project. This project, which initially ran from 2016 to 2017, will be continued in a second phase. It will provide insight into the size and richness of the local and provincial archives formed on Java during the colonial period after the dissolution of the Dutch East India Company (1800-1949). The whereabouts of these archives in Indonesia have been unknown to many researchers, preventing access to academics, local historians, and family researchers. The collections encountered during the research for this project date from the last days of the Dutch East India Company to the Japanese invasion and the years of the Indonesian National Revolution. The completed phase of the project was limited to the repositories of local and provincial governmental agencies on Java. In some cases the colonial collections seem to have disappeared, and in others, the records seem to have survived the years almost intact.
In search of Indonesian television archives
The television serial Siung Macan Kombang (The Panther’s Fang), produced and broadcast by TVRI Stasiun Yogyakarta in 1992, has lived on in the collective memory of Javanese television audiences. Likewise, Indosiar’s Javanese drama programmes, broadcast in the mid-1990s, retrieve reminiscences of past times, when private broadcasters served specific ethnic and linguistic audiences with local entertainment linked to tradition. However, since most Indonesian television stations have not archived their audio-visual collections, the public no longer has access to audio-visual content from a deeper past. Hence these cultural resources have become intangible heritage; when the programmes cease to be recollected in tales and blogs, they vanish from Indonesian media history and fall into oblivion. This lack of archives affects historical research significantly. As I demonstrate in the main part of this article, resources like scripts and the print press could assist television scholars to approximate historical broadcasts and broadcasting history as closely as possible. Nevertheless, however useful they are, they do not disclose the performative and televisual aspects of the programmes. To demonstrate the value and riches of audio-visual archives, in the final part I show how a small collection of Javanese-language television programmes in a Dutch university library could reveal a wealth of information concerning performance on Indonesian television and about television itself.
Colonialism and propaganda literature in 1920s Yogyakarta
This article examines the social realities of literary works and the colonial perceptions of socio-political movement inspired by the ideologies of Islam, communism, and the Just King (Ratu Adil). The main sources for this study are four propaganda literatures published by the Resident of Yogyakarta, Louis Frederik Dingemans (1924-1927). It employs post-colonial literary theory to analyse the colonial authority’s perceptions of Islam, communism, and Ratu Adil, and examines how colonial rulers (as colonizers) positioned themselves as above indigenous society (the colonized) as the guardians of moral, social, and political order.
Joëlla van Donkersgoed
The history of the Banda Islands is revealed in material and immaterial heritage which can still be narrated, visited and experienced today. Using the technological tools available in the Digital Humanities, this paper proposes a project to create a virtual interactive platform in which documents and stories related to the colonial past can be gathered. Tools like crowd-sourcing and crowd-mapping can be used to establish this archive from the bottom-up, creating a platform allowing both the former colonizer and colonized to reflect on the past. Moreover, it will provide scholars with a source of information to revisit the history of the Banda Islands. This particular history is part of the current public debate in the Netherlands regarding the colonial past, moreover, it is central to the narrative concerning the ongoing conservation efforts to prepare the islands’ heritage to become an UNESCO World Heritage site for Indonesia.
This paper contextualises a cultural construction of hegemonic masculinity and discusses ways in which Thai action film heroes in historical and Muay Thai films are represented. Traditionally, the quality of nakleng is desirable for Thai action heroes along with having mastery in a particular skill. In the moral realm, the idea of gratitude or khwam-katanyu in Thai, is prioritised and highly regarded to be the inevitable requisite for good men, which includes action heroes. This sense of gratitude extends to one’s ideological obligations to one’s motherland or matuphum, which is often thematically portrayed in Muay Thai and historical films through the struggle of the hero. Based on a reading of the two exemplar films, Ong Bak (Muay Thai Warrior 2003, dir. Prachya Pinkaew) and The Legend of King Naresuan: The Elephant Duel (2014, dir. Chatri Chalerm Yukol), the different social backgrounds of the two heroes, their hegemonic masculinity, autonomy and lack can be explained in relation to the discourse of Buddhist spirituality. In addition, the ways in which the two heroes are differently depicted is a cinematic device with the aid of which, in addition to the observance of filmic verisimilitude, the representations are designed to cater to segmented subject/citizen audiences. In psychoanalytic terms, each hero from the two films is similarly made to acquire autonomy and experience ‘lack’ in different realms of the symbolic order.
Rhys William Tyers
Many of Murakami’s novels demonstrate his appropriation of the terminology, imagery and metaphor that are found in hardboiled detective fiction. The question of Haruki Murakami’s use of the tropes from hardboiled detective stories has been discussed by scholars such as Hantke (2007), Stretcher (2002) and Suter (2008), who argue that the writer uses these features as a way to organize his narratives and to pay homage to one of his literary heroes, Raymond Chandler. However, these arguments have not adequately addressed the fact that many of Murakami’s novels fit into the definition of the metaphysical detective story, which is “a text that parodies or subverts traditional detective-story conventions” (Merivale & Sweeney 1999:2). Using this definition as a guiding principle, this paper addresses the issue of the metaphysical detective features apparent in Murakami’s third novel, A Wild Sheep Chase, and, more specifically, looks at his use of the non-solution and labyrinth as narrative devices. The main argument, then, is that Murakami’s A Wild Sheep Chase fits in with the metaphysical detective novel and uses the familiar tropes of the labyrinth and the non-solution to highlight our impossible search for meaning.
The Magical Journey to Celtic Cultural Resurrection and the Re-Discovery of Self in Song of the Sea
This study examines the deployment of magical realism along with cinematic techniques in Song of the Sea. Analysing the animated film as a cultural text in light of magical realism, it argues that the film intermingles two different worlds, the mundane and the fantastic, to provide audiences with a more inclusive view of reality. The existence of Celtic mythical beings, selkies, brought to life by magical realism, becomes the cornerstone in the protagonists’ healing process as their interactions with these mythical beings gradually reshape their conception of reality. A new “reality” is, thus, employed to vex the protagonists’ mind and make them reconsider reality in a new light by helping them vividly see Irish cultural aspects in their mundane life. Taking two selkies, Bronagh and Saoirse, as a metaphor for Irish cultural roots, this paper asserts that the protagonists’ embarking on their magical journey to retrieve the selkie’s coat not only heals their shattered selves but also induces them to hark back to their cultural roots. Ultimately, the research posits that the protagonist’s newly developed self, which eventually allows him and his family to come to terms with their loss, resolves his conflict with Saoirse, who successfully prevents the Irish cultural roots from being forgotten.
Adis Idris Raksamani
The objective of this study is to examine the purpose and meaning of portrayals of Muslims in the Thai traditional art and architecture of temples and palaces. The focus is on the Siamese concepts of Muslims and the features of Muslims that Siamese people in the past intended to communicate to Siamese society. The study deals with the concept and design of painting found in Thai traditional mural paintings. The findings reveal that the portrayals of Muslims in the mural paintings represent the symbolic meanings which can be traced according 4 chronicle stages as follows:
- 1.The otherness of Muslims from afar in the late Ayutthaya.
- 2.The trace of Islamic civilization in the end of Ayutthaya, the Thonburi and the Reigns of King Rama i-ii.
- 3. The multicultural guests in the Reigns of King Rama iii-iv.
- 4.Unity under the royal patronage in the Reigns of King Rama v-vi.
The benefit of the research can be applied to enhance the good relationship and understanding among different cultures in Thai society.
The reality of global capitalism and development ideology has made Thailand uncertain. In the 1980s, Thailand’s reduced political activity accelerated the export-oriented economy. The move in policy from political control to development ideology for the pursuit of economic advancement can be argued to have presented a collective threat to the people. The economic disparity prevalent in Thai society shows that people at the community level must face hazardous and insecure treatment from the more dominant party. In this paper, I have conducted an in-depth analysis of the film Khru Somsri (1986) which is a “social mirror” of Thai society amid this economic growth. I argue that statist development ideology, which is interchangeable with modernity, engenders two things. They are, firstly, the discourse on participation pertaining to class and gender and, secondly, the empowerment discourse, particularly of women. This paper shows that people at the local level must struggle in order to prolong their survival in the slum community. Furthermore, how the discourse of participation is being maneuvered is manifold. Participation, as seen in this film, is hierarchical and gendered. The latter aspect of gender relations amid the accelerated market economy ultimately challenges the propriety of how Thai women embody their femininity. This paper re-examines the enmeshed affiliations between the development discourse and disintegrated participation with special attention to gender relations where women’s participation in the development discourse unveils them as ardent, impassioned actors and empowered women.
When newspaper archives crumble, history dies
Gerry van Klinken
Historians accept the death of oral sources, but expect newspaper archives in state institutions to be available for ever. Yet the majority of Indonesian newspaper titles in the National Library are today endangered. These crumbling papers are often the only copy in the world. This article first reviews the role these archives have played in pathbreaking historical work, both Indonesian and foreign. Provincial newspapers record the chatter of a new, literate middle class that emerged in the middle of the tumultuous twentieth century. Indonesian historiography is transformed by the many surprises scholars experience when reading their lives there. When those sources turn to dust, historical research dies. This will affect not just specialized historians, but social scientists in many fields. The article then maps quantitatively the extent to which these papers are endangered. It finally urges the social science community as a whole to campaign to save them through comprehensive digitization.
Variation in illustrated Javanese pawukon manuscripts
Dick van der Meij
Many libraries in the world own illustrated manuscripts containing calendrical divination based on the Javanese 30 seven-day wuku cycle. Although the contents of these pawukon manuscript have been studied, the illustrations they often contain have almost been ignored. Apart from stating that these illustrations usually depict the gods, trees, buildings, and birds associated with each individual wuku, the variety among these illustrations has escaped scholars so far. Variation is found at many levels such as the general lay-out of the illustrations, the depiction of the various gods, trees, et cetera but also with reference to the position of the illustrations and the accompanying texts that explain the characteristics and divination possibilities of each wuku. This article intends to offer a start into the study of these illustrations by offering examples of these illustrations and the connections that may have existed between the makers of these illustrated manuscripts.
Personal albums from the KITLV collection and their captions
This article examines captions found in the various personal albums in the KITLV photo collection (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde / Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Carribean Studies). The article shows that two types of captions can be distinguished: descriptive or identifying and commentary or reflective captions. These captions are an important part of the albums’ materiality and composition. Hence, captions turn the albums into autobiographical objects for both compiler and intended audiences. It is argued that photo albums and their image content should not be read separately from the captions either physically or digitally in image databases.
Edwin P. Wieringa
Since 2018 the private collection of Ben Mboi (1935-2015), who is best known as Governor of East Nusa Tenggara – NTT – from 1978 to 1988, has been part of the Library of Atma Jaya Catholic University in Jakarta, where it is publicly accessible under the name of Ben Mboi Research Library. The collection totals 22,890 items; the majority of the books are written in English, Indonesian, and Dutch. After briefly introducing the life and work of Ben Mboi, this article first discusses the phenomenon of private libraries in Indonesia, making it clear that Mboi’s collection is highly unusual. The main part of the paper explores the question as to what is specifically “Mboian” about the library and what it tells us about his mindset. Mboi’s library functioned as a collection for a working mind and the essay focuses on his books dealing with good governance, which increasingly occupied Mboi’s mind after he entered the world of politics. Special attention is paid to reader’s marks and annotations: Mboi read his books from a decidedly Indonesian perspective. This is particularly evident in the case of Dutch books written by Dutch academics on contemporary Dutch society, which Mboi studied intensively in order to reflect upon the situation in post-Suharto Indonesia. Mboi’s own political thinking, which advocated elitism and organicist statecraft, conformed to mainstream ideological discourse in the New Order, but is still de rigueur in post-Suharto Indonesia, showing a remarkable overlap with colonial ideas about leadership in the period of Dutch high imperialism.
Collecting, exhibiting, and performing wayang at the Tropenmuseum from colonial times until the present
The Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam has a rich history in collecting, exhibiting, and presenting wayang performances. This paper traces this history of collection, exhibition, and performance practice of wayang at the Colonial Institute, from 1950 known as Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from colonial times until the present. It demonstrates the entanglement of colonial and postcolonial power structures, collection, and exhibition legacies of the colonial past. The paper will show that from the moment wayang puppets entered the museum’s collection there has been continuous interaction between collecting and exhibition practices and performance practices. The emphasis on tangible elements of performance practice in collection and exhibition practices contributed to a dominant and static understanding of wayang.
Annabel Teh Gallop
Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) was the founding father of the British Museum and its Library, which later became the British Library. Sloane’s vast collections of natural history specimens, coins, medals, ethnographic items, and books included four thousand manuscripts, twelve of which were from Southeast Asia. These twelve Southeast Asian manuscripts, including eight from the Indonesian archipelago, are described in detail here. Although Sloane is not known to have had personal connections with Southeast Asia or any particular interest in the region, this small collection nonetheless encompasses an exceptionally wide range of the languages, scripts, writing supports and books formats found in the region, manifest in some of the earliest manuscripts known in certain genres.
Leiden University Libraries houses the greatest collection of Panji manuscripts in the world. This became evident while preparing the successful nomination of Panji tales manuscripts for UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme. This article begins with observations on Panji tales in general. They originated in East Java and have subsequently spread to other areas in Southeast Asia. This is followed by a description of the collection’s composition and its history. The collection exists of over 260 manuscripts in eight languages, the majority of manuscripts written on palm leaf or paper. I have described four manuscripts in detail paying special attention to their provenance and history. Originating from four locations, written in four languages in three different scripts, they can be considered representative of the collection. A complete listing of all manuscripts is given in the appendix.