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Jeffrey Kotyk

Abstract

This study compares the astrological doctrines of the Twelve Houses and Lot of Fortune as they are explained in Xingxue dacheng 星學大成 of Wan Minying 萬民英 (1521–1603) and Christian Astrology by William Lilly (1602–1681). These two astrologers, who were near contemporaries, lived on opposite sides of Eurasia, yet both were heir to traditions of astrology that together reached back to identical origins in the Near East. The use of largely similar doctrines between both authors testifies to the enduring integrity of astrology throughout centuries of transmission westward and eastward through multiple cultures and languages.

Michael Lackner and Charles Burnett

Joanna Komorowska

Abstract

In his Allegoriae Iliadis, John Tzetzes makes frequent use of contemporary astrological teachings: he references planetary aspects, transits, and the respective positions of luminaries, and several important passages of the Iliad are treated as openly astrological in nature. In Tzetzes’s poem, both life and death are decided by changing positions of stars, Alexander (Paris) is favored by Aphrodite (the planet Venus), and Hector is protected by Zeus (the planet Jupiter). The idea of royal birth (or imperial horoscope) plays an important part in Tzetzes’s exploration of the myth of Heracles, and the tropical nature of the sign of Libra, due to the sun’s entry into it at the autumnal equinox, is reflected in the (non-)efficiency of the Greek ramparts. This article considers these references to astrological lore against the wider background of the surviving Fachliteratur and thus seeks to provide insight into Tzetzes’s attitude toward astrology, and, simultaneously, into his own knowledge of the lore.

László Sándor Chardonnens

Abstract

Hemerology, the study of the auspicious and inauspicious qualities of time, plays a role in the astral magic that entered medieval European magic from Arabic sources, although in other areas of magic it seems to have been less present. Yet in three isolated and independent cases from fifteenth-century Germany and early modern England, lunaries, a type of hemerology that originated from the field of divination and prognostication, were adapted to introduce hemerological aspects to a variety of magical practices. These lunaries are here published and analyzed in light of their mantic origins and recontextualized magic uses.

H Darrel Rutkin

Abstract

What is the relationship between astrology and divination? In particular, is astrology a type of divination, as is often asserted or assumed? In both astrology and divination, knowledge and prediction of the future are primary goals, but does this warrant calling astrology a form of divination? I approach these questions by exploring the response of Thomas Aquinas, which was to be extremely influential for many centuries. First I analyze in some detail Thomas’s answer in his Summa theologiae 2-2.92–95; then I discuss two significant sixteenth-century examples of its influence: the 1557, 1559, 1564, and later indexes of prohibited books; and Pope Sixtus V’s anti-divinatory bull, Coeli et Terrae Creator (1586). In this way, we can explore some of the complex historical dynamics at play in the construction of a legitimate astrology in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Anne Schmiedl

Abstract

This paper analyzes how fate is understood in imperial Chinese anecdotes on character divination (cezi 測字). It demonstrates that character divination, due to its qualities as a script-based method, allows the protagonists of divination anecdotes to intervene creatively in the predictive process. The protagonists use this opportunity to seize agency and attempt to influence or change their fate through different strategies. The paper explores these strategies in detail. To transform the outcome of the predictions, protagonists make use of apotropaism, repetition, mimesis, name changing, and the interpretative techniques of diviners. This paper contributes to the study of the notion of fate in imperial China by proving the unique role of character divination. It shows that in anecdotes on character divination, unlike in many other divinatory methods, fate is presented as determined. Even though protagonists attempt to assume agency over their fate, they ultimately fail. In Chinese character divination, fate is written in stone.

Between Uniatism and Arabism

Missionary Policies and Diplomatic Interest of the Melkites in Jordan during the Interwar Period

Norig Neveu

Abstract

In the Emirate of Transjordan, the interwar period was marked by the emergence of the Melkite Church. Following the Eastern rite and represented by Arab priests, this church appeared to be an asset from a missionary perspective as Arab nationalism was spreading in the Middle East. New parishes and schools were opened. A new Melkite archeparchy was created in the Emirate in 1932. The archbishop, Paul Salman, strengthened the foundation of the church and became a key partner of the government. This article tackles the relationship between Arabisation, nationalisation and territorialisation. It aims to highlight the way the Melkite Church embodied the adaptation strategy of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches in Transjordan. The clergy of this national church was established by mobilising regional and international networks. By considering these clerics as go-between experts, this article aims to decrypt a complex process of territorialisation and transnationalisation of the Melkite Church.

Catholic Missionaries of the ‘Holy Land’ and the Nahda

The Case of the Salesian Society (1904–1920)

Paolo Pieraccini

Abstract

At the beginning of the twentieth century, some Palestinian and Lebanese Salesians, influenced by the Arab Renaissance movement, began to claim the right to oppose the ‘directorships’ of the institutes of the Don Bosco Society in Bethlehem and the surrounding area. They also began to request better recognition of their native language, in schools and within the religious community. They clashed with their superiors who, in the meantime, had signed an agreement with the Salesian government in Rome, committing them to developing the Italian language in their teaching institutes. The struggle became particularly fierce after the Holy See rebuked the Palestinian religious congregations for teaching the catechism and explaining the Sunday Gospel to people in a foreign language and urged them to do so in Arabic. The clash caused a serious disturbance within the Salesian community. Finally, after the First World War, the most turbulent Arab religious were removed from the Society of Don Bosco. All converged in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, where they continued forcefully (but in vain) to put forward their national demands. This article is based on several unpublished sources.

Paolo Maggiolini

Abstract

Reconsidering the relationship between the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the Melkite Catholic Church, the paper aims to analyze the changes and developments of the Catholic Church’s presence in post-World War I Palestine and Transjordan. It specifically examines how the dialectic and debate on the issue of Arabization and Latin-Melkite competition during the Mandate period went beyond the traditional inter-Church rivalry, epitomizing the progression of a complex process of reconfiguring the Catholic ecclesiastical and missionary presence in the Holy Land in efforts to amalgamate and harmonize its “national-local” and “transnational” scopes and characters. The paper will specifically look at the local Catholic dimension and its religious hierarchies to understand the logic behind their positioning in regard to such issues. This perspective makes it possible to reveal how local religious Catholic leaderships (of both the Latin Patriarchate and Melkite Catholic Church) sought to interpret and promote the reconfiguration of their respective Church and religious community organizations and structures in these two lands during the Mandate. The intra-Catholic perspective will help us understand how intra-denominational as well as inter-denominational competition acted as tools for missionary, ecclesiastical and community development as well as a catalyst of change, anticipating most of the issues that still characterize the complex position and condition of the Church in this territory.

Philippe Bourmaud and Karène Sanchez Summerer

Missionary Politics in Late Ottoman Palestine

The Stance of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem

Konstantinos Papastathis

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to elaborate on the Jerusalem Orthodox Patriarchate’s missionary work in late Ottoman times, paying special attention on its incapacity to counteract the activities of its rivals within the religious market of Palestine. In particular, the article addresses the following research questions: What was the extent of the Patriarchate’s missionary activity, and its stance vis-à-vis the work of the other Church missions, i.e. the Roman-Catholic, and Protestant? Was its policy effective; and if not, why? Overall, the article argues that neither the missionary enterprise nor the blocking of the western missions’ conversion activities were at the top of the patriarchal agenda. It is suggested that the causes of this stance were mainly: a) the financial and political disadvantageous position of the institution; b) the centrality of the custodianship of the Holy Places as the primary aim of its function; and c) the development of Greek nationalism as the nodal point of the discourse.

Une interprétation politique de la représentation pontificale en Syrie et au Liban

Frediano Giannini et les Églises orientales face au mandat français (1918-1936)

Édouard Coquet

Résumé

Au début du mandat français en Syrie et au Liban, le Saint-Siège renouvelle ses objectifs et ses moyens d’ action dans la région. Nous avons étudié ce mouvement à travers les lettres adressées à Rome par Mgr Frediano Giannini, vicaire apostolique d’ Alep et délégué apostolique en Syrie de 1905 à 1936. Les rapports de Giannini constituent un bon exemple de la manière dont les missionnaires participent à la production de connaissances sur les communautés chrétiennes orientales. En rendant compte des épreuves et des migrations qui leur sont imposées, Giannini participe au développement d’ une nouvelle perception de ces communautés, vues comme des minorités persécutées. Giannini sollicite les autorités françaises pour défendre les intérêts des chrétiens (à la fois les catholiques et les orthodoxes). Sa position est ambiguë : alors qu’ il exprime sa nostalgie au sujet du fonctionnement traditionnel du protectorat français, Giannini s’ implique lui-même dans le domaine politique et prend en charge une partie de l’ ancien rôle des Français. Cette ambivalence révèle l’ émergence d’ une nouvelle politique pontificale, fondée sur un double mouvement d’ autonomisation et de centralisation.

Une mission catholique en mutation

Les salésiens dans l’ Égypte nassérienne

Annalaura Turiano

Résumé

Les décennies 1950-1960 constituent un tournant pour les multiples sociétés missionnaires implantées en Égypte depuis le XIX e siècle. De nombreuses missions se retirent du pays pour laisser la place à des Églises qu’ elles ont elles-mêmes contribué à créer. D’ autres ordres parviennent, au prix de plusieurs réajustements, à assurer leur présence. Cet article interroge les restructurations à l’ œuvre dans une mission italienne – la mission salésienne – et la manière dont elle relève le défi de l’ arabisation. Au-delà des stratégies d’ adaptation d’ une mission catholique dans l’ Égypte nassérienne, cet article propose une réflexion sur l’ évolution des formes et des contenus de l’ action missionnaire durant deux décennies.

David Muthukumar Sivasubramanian

Abstract

Universal salvation (apokatastasis), once considered as an anathema, has recently gained a lot of currency in theological reflections. This paper will attempt to explore the possibilities for such a universal restitution of all creation using Irenaeus’ conception of the double mission of the Son and the Spirit in relation to creation as “the two hands with which God creates and perfects.” Toward this purpose, it will try to address the inherent limitations within the traditional notion of conceiving Christ as the Redeemer and the Spirit as the Sanctifier that has often resulted in a binary understanding of the role of Christ as “objective” and that of the Spirit as “subjective.” It will argue for a complementary understanding of the “twin mission” through a dialectical-chiastic pattern that will balance the subjective-objective and particular-universal aspects of the Logos and the Ruach.

David Ngong

Abstract

This article argues that Emmanuel Katongole’s theology focuses on contesting conversions in African Christianity. To him, conversions that have so far taken place in much of African Christianity, especially those informed by the theology of inculturation, have not adequately emphasized the formation of critical Christian social imagination that would challenge the violent politics of the postcolonial nation-state in Africa. The article engages Katongole’s theology by showing how his understanding of conversion aligns him with a form of African Christianity which he criticizes – the neo-Pentecostal and Charismatic variety of African Christianity. It critiques Katongole’s proposal by suggesting that the social and political transformation he seeks may be enhanced by forms of conversion rooted in the theology of inculturation which he minimizes.

Steve Taylor

Abstract

This essay analyzes Christian witness, applying a post-colonial lens to Drusilla Modjeska’s The Mountain to account for conversion and transformation in Papua New Guinea. A hapkas (half-caste) Christology of indigenous agency, communal transformation and hybridity is examined in dialogue with New Testament themes of genealogy, redemption as gift and Jesus as the new Adam. Jesus as “good man true” is placed in critical dialogue with masculine identity tropes in Melanesian anthropology. Jesus as ancestor gift of Canaanite descent is located in relation to scholarship that respects indigenous cultures as Old Testament and post-colonial theologies of revelation which affirm cultural hybridity and indigenous innovation in conversion across cultures. This hapkas Christology demonstrates how a received message of Christian mission is transformed in a crossing of cultures.

Kirsteen Kim

Alexander Chow

Abstract

Studies on mission and migration have often focused on the propagation of Christianity from a home context to a foreign context. This is true of studies of Christian mission by Catholics and Protestants, but also true in the growing discussion of “reverse mission” whereby diasporic African and Korean missionaries evangelize the “heathen” lands of Europe and North America. This article proposes the alternative term “return mission” in which Christians from the diaspora return to evangelize the lands of their ancestral origins. It uses the case study of Jonathan Chao (Zhao Tian’en 趙天恩), a return missionary who traveled in and out of China from 1978 until near his death in 2004 and is considered an instrumental figure in the revival of Calvinism in China. This article suggests that “return mission” provides a new means to understand the subjects of mission and migration, and raises new challenges to questions about paternalism and independency.

Martin Ward

Abstract

By 1920 Fujian became one of the most missiologically prominent regions in China. This article examines the development of the veteran missionary of the Church Missionary Society, J.R. Wolfe’s missiological ideology in relation to the implementation of the Treaty of Tianjin in Fujian from 1862–1878. Amidst considerable frustration at perceived scant manpower and finances commensurate to his evangelistic zeal, he discovered the expedience of consular intervention in cases of persecution and came to seek it as a matter of course. His subsequent experiential epiphany of the British Government’s slighting of the articles in the Treaty relating to the safeguarding of the missionary enterprise exacerbated his sense of frustration. This article argues that the disparity between his hagiographical title of “Moses of Fujian” and the controversy surrounding his politicalness is irreconcilable, and that the example of Wolfe demonstrates the complexities of the evolution of missionary ideology and the importance of a thorough archival reappraisal.

Mika Vähäkangas and Aron Engberg

Francis Benyah

Abstract

Until recently, religion has been quite a neglected subject of enquiry to development workers and policy makers. This neglect is as a result of the suspicious, corrosive and irrational view many attach to religion as a vital instrument for development. This article, discusses how Pentecostal theology of salvation evinces a development ethos that needs to be taken seriously by policy makers and development workers. Focusing on some of the religious practices and initiatives undertaken by Pentecostal/Charismatic churches as an aspect of their theology of salvation, this article demonstrates how the Pentecostal movement in sub-Saharan Africa, especially Ghana, has made what others see as developmental goals part of an indigenous faith. The paper argues that in order to achieve a desired transformative development, development workers and policy makers need to recognize and place maximum attention to the religious resources that serve as a driving force for most development initiatives in Africa.

Fenggang Yang

The speed and the scale with which traditional religions in China have been revived and new spiritual movements have emerged in recent decades make it difficult for scholars to stay up-to-date on the religious transformations within Chinese society.

This unique atlas presents a bird’s-eye view of the religious landscape in China today. In more than 150 full-color maps and six different case studies, it maps the officially registered venues of China’s major religions - Buddhism, Christianity (Protestant and Catholic), Daoism, and Islam - at the national, provincial, and county levels. The atlas also outlines the contours of Confucianism, folk religion, and the Mao cult. Further, it describes the main organizations, beliefs, and rituals of China’s main religions, as well as the social and demographic characteristics of their respective believers. Putting multiple religions side by side in their contexts, this atlas deploys the latest qualitative, quantitative and spatial data acquired from censuses, surveys, and fieldwork to offer a definitive overview of religion in contemporary China.

An essential resource for all scholars and students of religion and society in China.

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Comparative Theology

A Critical and Methodological Perspective

Series:

Paul Hedges

In this first volume of Brill Research Perspectives in Theology, the field of comparative theology is mapped with particular attention to the tradition associated with Francis Clooney but noting the global and wider context of theology in a comparative mode. There are four parts. In the first section the current field is mapped and its methodological and theological aspects are explored. The second part considers what the deconstruction of religion means for comparative theology. It also takes into consideration turns to lived and material religion. In the third part, issues of power, representation, and the subaltern are considered, including the place of feminist and queer theory in comparative theology. Finally, the contribution of philosophical hermeneutics is considered. The text notes key trends, develops original models of practice and method, and picks out and discusses critical issues within the field.

Comparative Theology

A Critical and Methodological Perspective

Series:

Paul Hedges

Abstract

The nature and field of comparative theology is mapped with particular attention to the tradition associated with Francis Clooney but noting the global and wider context of theology in a comparative mode. There are four main parts. Firstly, mapping the current field and exploring its methodological and theological aspects, with particular attention to global and intercultural theologies, comparative religion, and the theology of religions. Secondly, considering what the deconstruction of religion means for comparative theology and how the term “religion” may be deployed and understood after this. It also takes into consideration turns to lived and material religion. Thirdly, issues of power, representation, and the subaltern are considered, including the place of feminist and queer theory in comparative theology. Finally, an original and constructive discussion on philosophical hermeneutics, as well as the way certain hermeneutical lenses can bring issues into focus for the comparative theologian, is offered. The text notes key trends, develops original models of practice and method, and picks out and discusses critical issues and lacunae within the field.

Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume 1

History, Literature, Society, Beyond Punjab

Series:

Edited by Knut A. Jacobsen, Gurinder Mann, Kristina Myrvold and Eleanor Nesbitt

Sikhism is one of the most important religious traditions of South Asian origin. Sikhs are historically connected to the Punjab region in South Asia, but their religious traditions are transnational and have a worldwide presence. The study of their history and traditions has become a significant field of scholarship and research, but no academic, authoritative, and up-to-date reference work exists. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Sikhism aims to make available in-depth critical scholarship on all the main aspects of the Sikh traditions in a number of original essays written by the world's foremost scholars on Sikhs and Sikh traditions.
The encyclopedia is thematic and seeks to present a balanced and impartial view of the Sikh traditions in all their multiplicity and as both historical and contemporary institutions. The articles, published in two volumes, focus on history, literature, and the rich social landscape of the Sikh community; their practices, places, arts, and performances; specialists and leadership; migration both within South Asia and beyond; and contemporary issues and relations.



Personal Religion and Magic in Mamasa, West Sulawesi

The Search for Powers of Blessing from the Other World of the Gods

Series:

C.W. Buijs

In Personal Religion and Magic in Mamasa, West Sulawesi, Kees Buijs describes the traditional culture of the Toraja’s, which is rapidly vanishing. The focus is on personal religion as it has its centre in the kitchen of each house. In the kitchen and also by the use of magical words and stones the gods are sought for their powers of blessing.

This book adds important information to Buijs’ earlier Powers of Blessing from the Wilderness and from Heaven (Brill, 2006).

Folklore, Religion and the Songs of a Bengali Madman

A Journey between Performance and the Politics of Cultural Representation

Series:

Carola Lorea

This book explores historical and cultural aspects of modern and contemporary Bengal through the performance-centred study of a particular repertoire: the songs of the saint-composer Bhaba Pagla (1902-1984), who is particularly revered among Baul and Fakir singers. The author shows how songs, if examined as 'sacred scriptures', represent multi-dimensional texts for the study of South Asian religions. Revealing how previous studies about Bauls mirror the history of folkloristics in Bengal, this book presents sacred songs as a precious symbolic capital for a marginalized community of dislocated and unorthodox Hindus, who consider the practice of singing in itself an integral part of the path towards self-realization.



Series:

Guying Chen

Translator Dominique Hertzer

Series:

Guying Chen

Translator Dominique Hertzer

Series:

Guying Chen

Translator Dominique Hertzer