This collection of essays proposes that while the various lenses of established methods of higher criticism offer insight into the lives of children, by filtering these methods through the new field of Childist Criticism, children can be heard and seen in a new light.
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Listening To and Learning From Children in the Biblical World
Edited by Kristine Henriksen Garroway and John W. Martens
This collection of essays proposes that while the various lenses of established methods of higher criticism offer insight into the lives of children, by filtering these methods through the new field of Childist Criticism, children can be heard and seen in a new light.
The Making of the Matthean Self
Edited by Douglas Estes
Thomas E. Hunt
Judith V. Stack
While traditional theology has often sought to pinpoint a single cause of sin and evil, Matthew’s use of a spectrum of metaphors undermines theologically reductionist approaches and opens up a rich range of ways for conceiving of and talking about the cause of sin and evil. Ultimately, the use of metaphor (necessary to discussions of sin) destabilizes foundationalist theologies of sin, and any theology of sin must grapple with the inherently tensive nature of metaphorical language.
Edited by Stefan Alkier and Thomas Paulsen
Der Text der Johannesapokalypse wird in zwei Fassungen geboten: Während die Lesefassung die Übersetzung als Fließtext ohne Unterbrechung durch die Vers- und Kapiteleinteilungen präsentiert, bietet die Studienfassung die Zählungen der Verse und Kapitel, um so einen Vergleich mit dem Original und anderen Übersetzungen zu ermöglichen. Die Abfolge beider Fassungen macht nicht allein die ästhetische und theologische Sprachkraft dieses hochberühmten letzten Buches der Bibel auf ungewohnte Weise lesbar, sondern führt zu zahlreichen überraschenden Erkenntnissen über die sprachliche Gestaltung und den Sinngehalt dieses äußerst komplexen Textes. Der Übersetzung beigegeben sind eine Einführung mit Erläuterung der Übersetzungsprinzipien, ein Epilog, in dem zentrale Interpretationsansätze vorgeführt werden und ein Glossar mit den markantesten semantischen Entscheidungen, das sich nicht an späteren kirchlichen Traditionen, sondern am Koine-Griechisch des 1. Jh. n. Chr. orientiert.
A Perspective Shaped by the Themes of Reversal and Right Response
Rachel L. Coleman
Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary
Jacques van der Vliet and Jitse Dijkstra
Edited and Translated with Notes and Commentary
Rifaat Ebied, Malki Malki and Lionel R. Wickham
John J. Peters
Research on Luke-Acts and the Gospels has largely overlooked the major distinction within ancient historiography between accounts written about events contemporary with the author (e.g., by Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius) and accounts written about non-contemporary events (e.g., by Diodorus, Dionysius, Plutarch, Arrian). As ancient authors writing about contemporary events represented their sources primarily in terms of autopsy and eyewitness testimony, so Luke’s preface corresponds with this practice. I argue that a proper understanding of ancient historical method, epistemology, and the use of ἐπιχειρέω (Luke 1.1; Acts 9.29; 19.13) confirm that Luke represented as the sources for his account not the ‘many’ prior accounts but rather the ‘eyewitnesses’ and ‘servants of the word’.
Howard Thurman, Jesus and the Disinherited
Richard A. Horsley
In Jesus and the Disinherited Thurman recognized that the all-important historical context of Jesus was among a people subjugated, similar to that of segregated and colonized peoples. He discerned the cost in human degradation for people subjected by overwhelming power as they struggled with fear, deception, and hate. In the Gospels he discerned Jesus’ uniquely creative response: His assurance that people are ‘children of God’ establishes a ground of personal dignity that leads to a new courage in the face of violence. Key was Jesus’ command to ‘love your enemies’, which Thurman understood broadly, as enabling the disinherited to forgive people who subjugated them. He finds in Jesus a transformative teaching and embodiment of non-violent direct action, which decisively influenced leaders of the civil rights movement. This essay will compare established scholarly interpretations of Jesus’ sayings with Thurman’s insights and explore how subsequent studies can build on them.
Survival of the Disinherited and Womanist Wisdom
Mitzi J. Smith
This essay examines Howard Thurman’s interpretation of the historical Jesus and the religion of Jesus in his 1949 book Jesus and the Disinherited (jatd). Thurman interprets Jesus within his first century CE socio-historical context and from the perspective of disinherited African Americans. He articulates the significance of the religion of Jesus, versus religion about Jesus, for the disinherited and how it can ensure their survival. Since jatd addresses race/racism and class/classism but not the intersection of race, gender, and class, I place jatd in conversation with black feminist Audre Lorde’s Sister Outsider, womanist theologian Delores Williams’ Sisters in the Wilderness, and Angela Sim’s Lynched, who focus on the survival of black women (Lorde and Williams) and the resilience of black people living in a culture of fear.
This essay contextualizes Thurman’s “Jesus” within academia and the larger Western milieu of the 1940–1950s. Thurman offered a usable construction in order to encourage people to eliminate their “fear” of the other, discourage their use of “deception” as a strategy of survival, and replace their “hate” with love for the other, as a means of maintaining their own human dignity for the purpose of thriving in an American society that preferred their ghettoized isolation and dehumanized existence.
This short introduction to the life of Howard Thurman contextualizes his most celebrated book, Jesus and the Disinherited, with attention to the conditions of his childhood, social placement, career, and religious life.
Dennis R. Edwards
First Peter relies heavily upon the Jesus tradition found in the Gospels in order to motivate and encourage followers of Jesus who were being marginalized and harassed by the dominant society. Howard Thurman’s Jesus and the Disinherited does the same work as 1 Peter. The social condition of Thurman and his audience mirrors that of the addressees of 1 Peter. This essay compares Jesus and the Disinherited and 1 Peter, demonstrating how both authors relied upon the Jesus tradition, especially the Sermon on the Mount and the Passion.
2019 marks the 70th anniversary of Howard Thurman’s Jesus and the Disinherited (1949). Thurman’s classic was not a work of dogma nor a variation on the so-called “Quest for the Historical Jesus.” Instead, Thurman’s classic primarily offered a mystic’s message of hope to many marginalized persons in the first half of the twentieth century. In part, Jesus and the Disinherited reveals Jesus’s insight about the importance of personal dignity for dispossessed persons in any age. In part, Jesus and the Disinherited also frames the mystic’s message of hope as a defense of Thurman’s affinity for a religion that reputedly was linked to a long history of oppression, colonization, violence, and exploitation. Thus, in Jesus and the Disinherited, Thurman avers that there is a distinction between the religion of Jesus (which Thurman put on the side of the marginalized) and institutional Christianity (which Thurman saw as aligned with dominant societal structures).
Howard Thurman’s Jesus and the Disinherited in Conversation with Jens Schröter and Dale Allison
Written in honor of the seventy-year anniversary of Howard Thurman’s Jesus and the Disinherited, this paper takes up Thurman’s plea that we should consider the relevance of historical Jesus studies to the oppressed. I heed his call by examining Thurman’s claims about Jesus’ life and ministry in light of the work of two contemporary Jesus scholars whose work on social history have moved the conversation forward in our day, Jens Schröter and Dale Allison. This comparison shows that many of Thurman’s insights about Jesus stand up to critical scrutiny. I then ask probing questions of Schröter and Allison’s work, particularly what their scholarship has to say to the disinherited.
Edited by Edmondo F. Lupieri
Archaeology of Spaces, Structures, and Objects
Edited by Daniel Schowalter, Sabine Ladstätter, Steven J. Friesen and Christine Thomas
Politico-Cultural, Philosophical, and Religious Forms of Critical Conversation
Edited by George H. van Kooten and Jacques van Ruiten
A Commentary on Leueitikon in Codex Vaticanus
Introduction, Critical Edition, and Commentary
Lorne R. Zelyck
The paper seeks to shed light on the ministry and reception of Jesus of Nazareth as perceived through the lens of the Gospel of John in the light of Samaritan, Galilean, and Judean perspectives. Flavius Josephus and the Samaritan tradition help us to gain a better understanding of certain details expressed or alluded to in the gospels. In particular, on the basis of these two sources the paper puts into context the gospel passage that is best informed about the relations between Samaritans and Jews, viz. John 4:1–42. It thus aims at elucidating the Samaritan references in the Gospel of John by current research on Samaritanism.
J. K. Elliott
A Note on Phil 2:7
Robert Matthew Calhoun
The 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece, followed by the 27th and 28th editions, deleted a punctuation variant in Phil 2:7 noted in the 25th, which drew attention to a syntactical ambiguity in the construal of three successive participial phrases (7b–d). Resolutions of this ambiguity have significant consequences for the passage’s christological perspective. Future editions should revise and restore this variant.
This essay discusses the text of the 3rd c. uncial 0171. The uncial consists of three fragments, two pertaining to the text of Luke, and one pertaining to the text of Matthew (10: 17-32), which is the focus of the present study. Despite its extremely fragmentary nature, certain letters are sufficiently legible to permit a faithful reconstruction of the text. Although the “Western” character of the manuscript is well-established, some of the earlier studies of the textual variants seem to have overlooked or misinterpreted a number of key elements. Through a verse by verse reassessment of the textual variants in MS 0171, this study suggests some new explanations for their origins, and concludes that this is an important witness to the transmission of the text of the Greek New Testament.
Robert J. Myles and Michael Kok
John 18:15–16 mentions an unknown disciple of Jesus who “was known to the high priest” giving him access to the events in Caiaphas’s courtyard. A minority of scholars maintain the identity of this disciple is consistent with John, the son of Zebedee, whom they also maintain was the author of the Fourth Gospel. To support this position, the commonplace fiction of Galilean fishermen belonging to an aspiring “middle-class” is asserted. This article reviews the arguments and suggests that a more robust representation of class stratification in the ancient world demonstrates the implausibility of such a scenario.
The Wretched “I” and His Biblical Doppelgänger
Will N. Timmins
Relatively little attention has been paid to biblical parallels to the wretched “I” of Rom 7:14–25. A few scholars have observed features shared with the psalms of lament, but these studies have been limited in scope and have proved inconclusive in identifying the “I.” A comparison between Romans 7 and one of the psalms of lament, namely Psalm 119, reveals a number of significant verbal and conceptual correspondences, which throw fresh light onto previously unclear aspects of the “I”’s monologue. In addition, Paul’s wretched “I” is revealed as inhabiting the same symbolic world as the Christ-believers in Rome, experiencing with them the resurrection of lament in Christ.
A Salvation-Historical Interpretation of Heb 1:2c
K. R. Harriman
The default translation of the phrase δι’ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας in Heb 1:2c is spatial: “through whom he made the worlds/universe.” The typical explanation for why this temporal term should have a spatial meaning is that αἰών can have the sense of “the ages and everything in them,” so that it is roughly equivalent to the universe of space and time. In contrast, this paper demonstrates on the bases of lexical-historical, broad contextual, and immediate contextual evidence that a temporal translation (“ages” as in history) is preferable and that this temporal sense is more specifically salvation-historical in meaning.
The consensus of present-day historians that Jesus was crucified around the year 30 ce has been challenged by a minority of scholars who argue that the execution of John the Baptist could not take place earlier than 35 ce, and for that reason Jesus must have been crucified at the Passover of 36 ce. This paper argues that both parties have strong and convincing arguments, and for that reason we must conclude that John was probably executed after Jesus’ death. The collective memory of the early Christians did not succeed in retaining the chronological order of these events, and this circumstance allowed the synoptics to turn the Baptist into a forerunner of Christ.
Edited by Antti Laato
This article challenges the emerging consensus that Jesus was a faithful Jew whose teaching could be understood within the bounds of first-century Jewish legal discussion. It is argued that Mark’s remark, that “Jesus declared all foods clean” (Mk 7:19b), adequately represents the originally intended meaning of an authentic saying regarding ethical and ceremonial purity (Mk 7:15, 18–19 par.). If so, he did not consider all of the stipulations of the Mosaic law to be binding.
Edited by Jörg Frey, Matthijs Dulk, den and Jan van der Watt
An Exploration of Literary Divergence in Greek Narrative Discourse
Andrew W. Pitts
Eine Studie zur kulturellen Positionierung des Apostels der Völker
Editorial-board Sandra Huebenthal, Jacqueline Eliza Vayntrub, Zeba Crook and Anselm C. Hagedorn
Editorial-board Sandra Huebenthal, Zeba Crook, Anselm C. Hagedorn and Jacqueline Eliza Vayntrub
Die Reihe konzentriert sich überwiegend auf Monographien, ist aber auch offen für inter- und transdisziplinäre wissenschaftliche Sammelbände über die Texte und Zusammenhänge einzelner biblischer Bücher, darunter Werke aus Ästhetik, Kunst und Poesie. Akzeptiert werden Beiträge in Englisch, Französisch und Deutsch. Alle Manuskripte werden in einem Peer-Review-Verfahren bewertet.
Diskurse zur sozialen Bedeutung von Tischgemeinschaft, Speiseverboten und Reinheitsvorschriften
In Essen im antiken Judentum und Urchristentum Christina Eschner examines the Early Christian disputes about the Jewish law against the background of Ancient Jewish discourses on commands of the law, in order to situate the Early Christian practice of the law within its broader context. Jewish sources include the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jewish writings in Greek and early rabbinic texts. This study focusses on rules concerning prohibited food, table fellowship and the permissible way of food intake. Pagan traditions are also considered. Thus, the work has an interdisciplinary orientation, discussing issues at the junction of New Testament studies, Classics, Ancient History and Jewish studies. It concludes that Early Christian food discourses do not aim for the complete abolition of the law.
Why a Philosophical Analysis Elucidates the Historical Discourse
Festschrift in Honour of Cilliers Breytenbach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday
Edited by David du Toit, Christine Gerber and Christiane Zimmermann
Jonathan E Soyars
Various Authors & Editors
Investigating the Semantic Background of a New Testament Syntagma
Marion Christina Hauck
This study shows that the syntagma δύναµις εἰς σωτηρίαν was widely used in ancient Greek literature of the Classical, Hellenistic, and Greco-Roman periods. A semantic context analysis reveals that “danger” is the common intersection of all contexts in which the syntagma δύναµις εἰς σωτηρίαν occurs. In a modified way it also appears in texts of the New Testament (Rom 1:16; 1 Pet 1:5): By using δύναµις (θεοῦ) εἰς σωτηρίαν in a context focused on danger, Paul (as well as the author of 1 Peter) indicates that his use of the syntagma is consistent with the pagan, non-biblical use of δύναµις εἰς σωτηρίαν.
Philologische Überlegungen zu Joh 8:19
Jesus’ statement in John 8:19 is most often interpreted from the perspective of a theology of revelation. From a philological perspective, however, there is also a possible interpretation that understands Jesus’ interaction with his jewish audience in John 8:13-20 as a typical Johannine Misunderstanding.
The Fourth Gospel portrays Jesus as having special knowledge of himself and his future, but also of the people and events around him. While John’s Jesus always has divine insight, he does not always share it. Jesus neither shares nor hides special knowledge haphazardly, but in service of two interrelated goals: sharing special knowledge persuades doubting characters in order to build a group of believers to receive the Spirit after his death. Jesus hides special knowledge in order to ensure a proper death at his hour. In this way, John explains how a character who exerts sovereign control throughout the Gospel is nevertheless betrayed and executed.
Bringing King Job (T.Job 31–33) into the Conversation on Exalted Patriarchs and Early Christology
Gregory R. Lanier
In the field of research on the Jewish background of NT Christology, exalted patriarchs (famous OT figures endowed with transcendent characteristics) play a prominent role. One key figure has been almost overlooked in such comparative work: Job as portrayed in the Testament of Job. As a king with a glorious heavenly throne, a position at the right hand of God, and an eternal kingdom, this Job bears a profile on par with—if not exceeding—that of other important figures in post-biblical Jewish literature (Adam, Abel, Enoch, Melchizedek, Joseph, and Moses). This study argues that Job should be added to the roster of such Jewish figures for future work on early Christology.
Costume and Character in Eph 4:22–24
This article argues that the principal background against which the clothing metaphor in Eph 4:22, 24 would have been understood by the letter’s original hearers is that of the theater, within which changes of costume signalled changes of identity, character, or fate. After a brief survey of recent scholarly commentaries (which pay surprisingly little attention to the possibility of a theatrical background to the metaphor in these verses) it highlights instances of similar expressions within Greco-Roman theatrical contexts, both literal and metaphorical, discusses the relevant aspects of ancient dramatic theory and practice, and explores the implications of this reading for theological interpretation of Ephesians.
A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics
Valentinians have often been associated with determinism, which has been presented as “Gnostic” and then not taken seriously, or been disregarded as an invention of ancient intra-Christian polemics. Linjamaa challenges this conception and presents insights into how early Christian determinism actually worked, and how it effectively sustained viable and functioning ethics.
Cross-Cultural and Community Readings in Owamboland, Namibia
Helen C. John
Alan Segal rejected the claim that the “empty tomb” must be taken as the fulcrum of analysis for Jesus’ Resurrection. He characterized that argument as the project of “a small group of scholars made up entirely of the faithful trying to impose their faith in the form of an academic argument.”1 Although Segal’s criticism is too broadly articulated to be convincing, it identifies a weakness in recent discussion. The tomb of Jesus, judged by the statements of the texts involved and their developing tendencies, is better described as “emptying” as time went on than as “empty” from the outset. More importantly, reference to the tomb conveyed differing emphases among tradents, and distinctive outlooks on the Resurrection. Awareness of both the exegetical trajectory of the relevant texts and their varying perspectives leads to the suggestion that the “empty tomb” needs to be replaced as the point of departure in discussion.
This article is devoted to Leon Modena’s anti-Christian polemical work Magen ve-herev (1643 ca.) as a useful source for the reconstruction of notions about the historical Jesus in the early modern period. In this work, Modena depicts Jesus in a sympathetic way, placing his religious activity against the backdrop of second Temple Judaism. Modena’s Jesus is fully Jewish, and Magen ve-herev offers different perspectives on the religious and historical context of Jesus’ life, and on the development of Christianity. The text is interpreted not exclusively against the backdrop of Jewish anti-Christian polemics but as the result of an increasing interest in the history of Christianity and ecclesiastical history, mainly as a response to the religious strife that resonated in the Republic of Venice and its ghetto.
Jesus in the Rhetoric and Methods of Early Modern Intellectual History
Jonathan C.P. Birch
This article contributes to a new perspective on the historical Jesus in early modern intellectual history. This perspective looks beyond German and academic scholarship, and takes account of a plurality of religious, social, and political contexts. Having outlined avenues of research which are consistent with this approach, I focus on radicalised socio-political contexts for the emergence of ‘history’ as a category of analysis for Jesus. Two contexts will be discussed: the late eighteenth century, with reference to Joseph Priestley, Baron d’Holbach, and their associations with the French Revolution; and the interregnum period in seventeenth-century Britain, with reference to early Quaker controversies and the apologetic work of Henry More. I identify ideas about Jesus in those contexts which have echoed in subsequent scholarship, while challenging the notion that there is a compelling association between sympathetic historical conceptions of Jesus (as opposed to theological) and a tendency towards radical and revolutionary politics.
This study helps critically distance future scholarship from the rhetorical and religious agenda of Albert Schweitzer’s Quest of the Historical Jesus, with the corollary aim of problematizing the widespread ‘Three Quests’ heuristic, so dependent upon it. The pronounced ambitions and strongly marked German Protestant social location of Schweitzer’s project will be exposed by calling to witness a very early, yet widely neglected reception of his work: Marie-Joseph Lagrange’s The Meaning of Christianity according to German Exegesis (1917). The quite different, though no less contextualized socio-religious location of this French Catholic priest will serve to highlight some significant phenomena obscured by the standard picture of the history of Jesus research, above all its deep theoretical roots in the Radical Reformation.
A Proposal for a Paradigm Shift in Understanding the Quest
Criticisms addressed to the historiographical paradigm of the so-called ‘three quests’ by several scholars with different ideological backgrounds and who have worked independently have debunked it by proving its untenable character. The present paper makes a proposal for a new paradigm which allows us to understand the quest of the historical Jesus in a more comprehensive, lucid and explanatory way. This proposal has been articulated through a set of theses, accompanied in each case by an explanation (and, sometimes, by corollaries), accomplishing a threefold task: a broader characterization of historical Jesus research, a summary discussion of the main distortions contained in the ‘three-quests’ model, and, more importantly, an exposition of the basic principles of a new paradigm.
On the Place of the Sefer Hizzuq Emunah in the Quest for the Historical Jesus
The Jewish anti-Christian polemical literature includes in its arguments the figure of Jesus of Nazareth, since one of its main goals is to discredit certain attributes of the Christian Messiah. This literature, however, has been so far almost completely overlooked in the Leben-Jesu-Forschung. The present paper draws attention to the figure of Jesus that can be seen in the famous text of Isaac ben Abraham Troki, the Sefer Hizzuq Emunah (end of the 16th century), whose controversial deconstruction of the Christological figure of Jesus allows us to discover a particular type of historical construction.
David I. Yoon
The first half of the book introduces the New Perspective on Paul and discourse analysis, followed by a detailed model of SFL discourse analysis with respect to register and context of situation. The second half is a discourse analysis of Galatians. This is the first monograph-length study to address the New Perspective on Paul from a linguistic approach, and will as such be of great interest to scholars of Pauline Studies, linguistics, and theology.
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Authorship and Meaning
Edited by Clarissa Breu
Ethnic Labeling in the Gospel of John
Edited by Stanley E. Porter and Christopher D. Land
Analysis and History of Exegesis
Edited by David Frankfurter
The individual essays in this volume cover most of Mediterranean and Near Eastern antiquity, with essays by both established and emergent scholars of ancient religions.
In a burgeoning field of “magic studies” trying both to preserve and to justify critically the category itself, this volume brings new clarity and provocative insights. This will be an indispensable resource to all interested in magic in the Bible and the Ancient Near East, ancient Greece and Rome, Early Christianity and Judaism, Egypt through the Christian period, and also comparative and critical theory.
Paul “Beside Himself” in 2 Cor 5:13
Clair E. Mesick
Paul’s enigmatic claim of being “beside himself” (ἐξίστηµι) in 2 Cor 5:13 has been interpreted as a reference to an episode of religious ecstasy, an incident of erratic behavior, or a criticism of Paul’s poor rhetoric and leadership. Among its wide range of meanings, however, ἐξίστηµι denotes excessive emotion; it is used in classical texts to describe those swept away by immoderate anger or grief or even those moved or transported by the power of a rhetor’s words. Drawing on these texts, and following a suggestion by James Kennedy in 1903, the author will argue that in 2 Cor 5:13 Paul is controlling for the legitimate possibility that his prior correspondence with the Corinthians, specifically 2 Corinthians 10–13, might have been seen as furious, emotional, or even violent, and reinterpreting any seemingly immoderate anger or foolish speech as done wholly in service of God and compelled by Christ.
A Sixth-Century Purple Fragment of Mark’s Gospel
The purpose of this short article is to give an edition and brief assessment of the sixth-century fragment of a purple Gospel codex, 080. The fragment has never been fully published in an accessible form or edition, and no legible, complete images of it currently exist to my knowledge. Therefore in light of the forthcoming Editio Critica Maior for Mark’s Gospel, it seems helpful to track down what can be known about the fragmentary manuscript and to publish an edition of its text.
Bird Imagery in the Lament over Jerusalem (Matt 23:37–39; Luke 13:34–35)
In this article the author analyses the lament over Jerusalem (Matt 23:37–39; Luke 13:34–35) and its use of bird imagery. He argues the picture of Jesus as a mother hen builds on an established metaphor that uses the imagery of a protective bird to refer to Yhwh’s divine protection over Israel. The author therefore asserts this pericope most likely portrays Jesus as the person of Yhwh.
Friedrich Gustav Lang
The disposition of Hebrews is analyzed in terms of literary structure and significant proportions. The discussion of differing proposals for the letter leads to an outline of five main parts. Two christological sections (1:1–2:18; 7:1–10:18) alternate with two hortatory ones calling to faith (3:1–6:20; 10:19–12:29), then follow general exhortations (13:1–21), finally an epistolary appendix (13:22–25). The stichos of 15 syllables is introduced as the ancient standard measure of Greek prose. Counting stichoi in Hebrews reveals remarkable proportions seemingly due to intentional disposing. The letter’s first main part, for example, is half the size of the second one, and both together half the size of the whole. All results of the structural and stichometrical analysis are then condensed in a tabular outline.
Here follow two reviews of works within the field of New Testament textual criticism: one is of the final five fascicules of Jean-Claude Haelewyck’s Mark for the Vetus Latina series; the other is of Didier Lafleur’s analysis of a good number of the Greek New Testament manuscripts currently in Tirana, Albania.
Paul models his autobiography in Phil 3:4–14 not as a paradigmatic embodiment of Phil 2:6–11 but as a Jewish sage. Framed by dramatic and apocalyptic passages, Phil 3:4–14 include the fundamental change of heart, when the wise one becomes aware that all advantages of noble birth and virtues count for nothing in comparison with the overwhelming gifts Wisdom resp. Christ will offer to those who constantly seek and love her and him. Like the sage of Sirach 51:13–30 and Wisdom of Solomon 6–9 Paul will never attain perfection. But similar to the Jewish sage he calls his students to join him in imitation (Phil 3:17). In accordance with ancient philosophy, rhetoric and ethics mimesis does not mean copying or imitation in a modern sense, but describes a creative activity, a call to take the ideal that Paul’s actions represent and join in applying it to one’s own behavior and actions.
A Study of Their Secular Education and Educational Ideals
A Study of Primogeniture and Christology
Kyu Seop Kim
The six chapters include Pentecost, Noli me tangere, the woman with an issue of blood, the Johannesschüssel, the dancing Salome, and the role of the wind.
The reader is shown a medieval and early modern visual culture as a history of artistic solutions, as the fascinating approach between biblical texts, plastic imagination, and the art-scientific métier. This makes him a privileged guest in a unique in-between space where humans and their artistic expression can meet existentially.
Studies in Philosophy, Struggle, and Endurance
Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity
Edited by Garrick Allen and John Anthony Dunne
Discipleship as Moral Progress
Edited by Eric F. Mason and Edmondo F. Lupieri
H.A.G. Houghton, C.M. Kreinecker, R.F MacLachlan and C.J Smith
This volume presents a collation of Old Latin evidence for the four principal Pauline Epistles (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Galatians). The sources comprise twenty-six Vetus Latina manuscripts, ten commentaries written between the fourth and sixth centuries and four early testimonia collections. Their text differs in many ways from the standard Vulgate version.
Created using innovative digital editing tools, this collation makes this valuable data available for the first time and is complemented by full electronic transcriptions online.
Paul’s Argumentation by Quotations
The Charge of Barbarism and Early Christian Apologetics
Postcolonialism and New Testament Studies
biblical studies. One of the most dynamic and continually expanding contributions to this
development is that of postcolonial studies, known for its fresh approaches as well as for its
complex theoretical foundations. The present book aims at introducing both student and scholar to
this emerging field. Part One discusses in a structured and pedagogical way the theoretical location
of postcolonial biblical studies as well as its critique of and contributions to New Testament
exegesis more specifically. Part Two presents five articles by scholars from Africa, Asia, and North
America, illustrating the diversity of current postcolonial studies as applied to individual New
État de la question et étude de cas (1 Corinthiens dans le Vat. Ar. 13)
This work provides an insight into the transmission of the Letters of Paul into Arabic. It aims to understand the lack of interest since the beginning of the 20th century for the Arabic manuscripts of the New Testament and to contribute to the current scholarly rediscovery for this field by studying the largely unexplored corpus of the Arabic manuscripts of the Letters of Paul. After a broad overview with the help of a list of witnesses, the study focuses on a specific manuscript: Vaticanus Arabicus 13. The edition of First Corinthians of this 9th century document is followed by a close analysis of linguistic and philological aspects, while the underlining of interesting exegetical points reveals the theological interest of the text.
Edited by AnneMarie Luijendijk and William E. Klingshirn
Contesting the Pro-Gnostic Reading
Stephen Robert Llewelyn, Alexandra Robinson and Blake Edward Wassell
John 8:44 has been a source of concern because of its ambiguity. Is it to be read “of (your) father, the devil” or “of the father of the devil”? This article contends that the former, traditional reading is not ungrammatical as suggested in the grammars and more recently by DeConick and that accordingly the verse cannot be considered pro-gnostic.