Browse results

A Practical Review of Research and Application
In Terror Management Theory: A Practical Review of Research and Application, Robert B. Arrowood and Cathy R. Cox discuss relevant research from the experimental, existential psychology tradition. Outlining the past thirty years of research within terror management, the authors discuss such topics as religion, close relations, politics and law, existential growth, and physical and mental health.

Although the inevitable outcome of all humanity is death, according to terror management theory we adhere to cultural worldviews and establish close relations in order to boost our self-esteem. With heightened self-esteem, we deny our death and attain a degree of immortality, staving off existential fear by being part of an enduring cultural system that will outlive any individual member.
Fears and stories about an underground religion devoted to Satan, which demands and carries out child sacrifice, appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century and became the subject of media reports supported by some mental health professionals. Examining these modern fantasies leads us back to ancient stories which in some cases believers consider the height of religious devotion.

Horrifying ideas about human sacrifice, child sacrifice, and the offering to the gods of a beloved only son by his father appear repeatedly in Western traditions, starting with the Greeks and the Hebrews. In Flesh and Blood: Interrogating Freud on Human Sacrifice, Real and Imagined, Beit-Hallahmi focuses on rituals of violence tied to religion, both imagined and real. The main focus of this work is the meaning of blood and ritual killing in the history of religion. The book examines the encounter with the idea of child sacrifice in the context of human hopes for salvation.
Multiple forms of oppression, injustice, and violence today have roots in histories of colonialism. This connection to the past feels familiar for some and less relevant for others. Understanding and responding to these connections is more crucial than ever, yet some resist rather than face this task directly. Others resist oppressive postcolonial conditions.

Using intercultural stories and pastoral care scholarship, this book charts pathways through five resistances (not me, not here, not now, not relevant, not possible) to awaken creative pastoral care in a postcolonial world. McGarrah Sharp recommends practices that everyone can do: believing in each other, revisiting how histories are taught, imagining more passable futures, heeding prophetic poets, and crossing borders with healthy boundaries.
The 30th volume of Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion consists of two special sections, as well as two separate empirical studies on attachment and daily spiritual practices. The first special section deals with the social scientific study of religion in Indonesia. Indonesia is a predominantly Muslim country whose history and contemporary involvement in the study of religion is explored from both sociological and psychological perspectives. The second special section is on the Pope Francis effect: the challenges of modernization in the Catholic church and the global impact of Pope Francis. While its focus is mainly on the Catholic religion, the internal dynamics and geopolitics explored apply more broadly.

Abstract

Science and religion represent important facets of human experience. Yet, they are related in complex and sometimes conflicting ways. The present study examines how religious people think about the science-religion relations by focusing on their epistemic cognition, i.e. thoughts about the nature and justification of knowledge when making sense of competing claims to truth. The study’s main question was whether people express different beliefs with regards to “religiously-neutral” vs. “religiously-loaded” issues in the social-psychological and biological domains. The religiously-neutral issues explored were (a) motivation and work performance, and (b) sugar as the cause of obesity; while the religiously-loaded issues were (c) homosexuality as a disorder, and (d) human evolution. On each of the four issues, undergraduate students from Islamic and Christian backgrounds (N = 317; mean age = 21.4 years; 74.1% female) were asked to express their epistemic beliefs along the three dimensions: (1) ontology, i.e. whether there is a single, objective truth (ontology); (2) fallibility, i.e. whether knowledge of the issue could be wrong; and (3) decidability, i.e. whether there are rational ways to decide on truth. The findings show when thinking about religiously-loaded scientific issues such as homosexuality and evolution, people tend to believe that there is a single objective truth, that their own beliefs are infallible, and that there is no rational method to evaluate knowledge claims. This thinking pattern may be one reason underpinning the difficulty of learning about science concepts which are seen to contradict religious doctrine. Some implications for science education are also entered into the discussion.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Religious studies in Indonesia mostly examined the relationship between religiosity and student psychosocial variables, such as emotional regulation, self-concept, and well-being in educational settings, but those studies mostly used religious construct from the West while religious construct based on Indonesia seemed to get less attention. Religiosity measurement in Indonesia in the past was an adaptation of religiosity scales developed in Western cultures. Furthermore, the adaptation process was limited by the homogeneity of subject religious belief, which mainly consisted of the Muslim sample. This study aims to explore religiosity within Christians by incorporating local religious leader perspectives on the meaning and expression of religiosity to develop religiosity construct based upon Indonesian context. The data were gathered from focused group discussions consisting of the local representatives of Christian denomination leaders and were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Three themes identified during the discussion were religion as self-identity, comprehensive measurement, and local incorporation. Further studies could include these themes to measure religiosity.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

As demonstrated by Benedict Anderson, media are powerful means in creating imagined community, and accordingly, mighty poles of both nationalism and cosmopolitanism. While the former gains much popularity in scholarly analysis, the latter needs to be considered as well, in understanding religious expression in present-day Indonesia, and both in particular with regard to the tensions of “nationalism” (often appeared in term of neo-tribalism and political populism) and religious transnationalism.

The present article takes Anderson’s insight and through it explores the rhetoric represented in the series of historical comic entitled Baladeva, published by Tantraz Comics Bali, Denpasar. The analysis sought inspiration from the notions of micro-cosmopolitanism and cosmopatriotism. A micro-cosmopolitanism is a cosmopolitanism from below that is concerned with freedom, openness, tolerance, and respect for difference, while cosmopatriotism is a double articulation of patriotism and cosmopolitanism that grapples with the condition of territorialism and de-territorialism in the context of postmodern society. Through those conditions and framing, the analysis might reveal the complicated meaning of cosmopolitanism, beyond the popular understanding of the celebration of being the global citizen and the transcendence of traditional and national boundaries.

Taking the last period of the Medang Kingdom (Hindu-Buddhist Mataram) as the historical context of the comic’s plot, the author consciously portrayed the glory and power of the pre-Islam, pre-colonial ‘Indonesian’ past. This narrative directly and indirectly became a critical position against the present condition of Indonesia, which is presumably Westernized, modernized, and implicitly Islamicized. Balinese socio-political and religious dynamic as the immediate context for the author is also part of the equation. Hence, the analysis might touch upon where the pressing questions of nationalism and cosmopolitanism, counter-transnational religious discourse, and religious minority are played out.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Spiritual experiences are related to a plethora of personal and relational outcomes. In this study, we examined if daily spiritual experiences buffer the impact of stressors on compassionate love, which is a salient aspect of personal and professional relationships. We used a smartphone-based, experience sampling method (S-ESM) to test the moderating effect of daily spiritual experiences on stressors and love in 1,691 participants, using mixed-effects multilevel regression models. Our analyses indicated that increased stressors predicted reduced attitudes of love for others while increased daily spiritual experiences were associated with greater attitudes of love. We also found that increased daily spiritual experiences over time moderated the negative effect of stressors on love. Specifically, we found that daily spiritual experiences that were higher than the individual’s average, rather than merely a higher average spiritual experience, were key to this moderating effect. Implications are discussed.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

This essay aims to explain why Pope Francis hasn’t had a strong impact in Mexico. Unlike John Paul II, who had a huge charismatic impact in Mexico and a political one in the church’s visibility in the political sphere, Pope Francis did not have the same effect after his pastoral visit in 2015. This is explained because the country that he found was not similar to 20th-century Mexico. Instead, contemporary Mexico is the most Catholic country in Latin America, and does not represent the exclusive fidelity of Catholics to the church, much less the secular and anticlerical country that it represented in the 20th century. However, despite the fact that the pope visited Mexico in 2015 and that on his pastoral tour, he addressed several critical messages about the role that bishops should play, including the defense of human rights, his message has not had the desired effect for the pontiff because the clerical structure was designed by John Paul II and it does not respond to the new directions of Francis.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Indonesia is a country known for its religious diversity. Studies on hope and religion have had their impact on individual’s lives. In fact, studies that connect religion and hope have thus far remained somewhat scarce. However, there is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, and psychometrically sound tools to identify individuals with a high level of hope and religious state. Though support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Hope scale using classical test theory approaches, it has not been subject to modern test theory analysis. This study aims to use the modern test theory approach for assessment of psychometric properties of the newly created Religious Hope Scale (RHS). Findings from this study confirmed that RHS is a valid and reliable scale to measure religious hope.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Religion plays an important part in modern Indonesia. To understand its contemporary outlook, this chapter offers a historical sketch of the arrival and development of religion. It proposes that the process involves three important stages, namely syncretism, polarisation, and Islamisation. The complex process of the making of religions in Indonesia has distinctive features from their origins. Early in history, religion in Indonesia was a blend of animism and ancestor worship, but with the arrival of new religions there was syncretistic blend between the old and the new beliefs. Later on with the development of religious institution, there was polarisation between the purist and the syncretistic camps. This is true in general, but the divide between putihan (purist) and abangan (syncretistic) was particularly important in the case of Islam. The modern outlook of religion in Indonesia is greatly affected by the process of Islamisation and the shift from abangan majority toward putihan majority.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

The study of the religious lives of persons with same-sex attractions (PSSA) has recently grown. Researchers have explored ways in which PSSA use religion to deal with two commonly experienced stresses; statements that homosexuality is a violation of the sacred and the challenges of integrating religious and sexual identities. The majority of these studies sample young adult PSSA who are religious. The present study filled a gap in the literature by examining the correlates of religious coping with a variety of general life stressors in 363 paid and volunteer American PSSA of various ages and levels of religiosity. Positive religious coping was associated with beneficial adjustment to a general life stressor, over and above demographic and general religious variables. Negative religious coping was uniquely related to poorer outcomes from a stressful event. There was a significant interaction between level of religiosity and sexual identity development in their relationship to negative religious coping. Religious adults with less sexual identity development were more likely to use negative religious coping methods as compared to more developed religious persons or nonreligious participants. There was no interaction between religiosity and sexual identity development concerning their relationship with positive religious coping. Implications and limitations of the current study are discussed.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

The education system at the university level in Indonesia teaches religion as a mandatory course for the students, and it can form their religious orientation. Religion orientation and hope have played an important role in the educational field. Both hope and religious orientation play essential roles for university students. The study aimed to examine the relationship between hope and religious orientation among university students. The Adult Hope Scale was used to measure hope, while the Intrinsic/Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale was used to measure religious orientation. Participants of this research were 439 people, consisting of religion-based university students (N = 314) and non-religion based university students (N = 125). This study found only internal religious orientation significantly contributed to the level of hope, both in religion-based university and non-religion-based university. The result will be discussed in detail, and further research will be suggested in this paper.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Indonesians have historically believed in the reality of God. God-self connectedness is a spiritual matter of socialized intergeneration and a foundation in which individual self-growth should be grounded. When religions entered Indonesia in the 14–16th centuries, those religions merely supported the devotion that had become an essential feature of the Indonesian self. Indonesian individuals grow up being taught to assign spiritual meaning in everyday experiences. The central purpose of the socialization is to ensure a consciousness of the presence of extraordinary power in everyone’s life, that is, God, the creator of the universe and humans. Indonesian people live the reality of God through spiritual experience, or rituals and practices until they uncover the truth of the spiritual existence they believe in.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

As the largest archipelagic state in the world, Indonesia has a unique and diverse religious landscape in various aspects. The spread of religions in the country that assimilate with local culture results in the difference of religious life in society. Religious politics run by the government and the rapid development of information technology have increased the complexity of relations between various institutions related to religion. Thus, in this context, the religious phenomenon is often a challenging field to study. This paper aims to examine religious life in Indonesia from a sociological perspective by discussing four main sub-themes: socio-historical development, the relationship between the state and religion, religious-based social conflict, and the impact of information technology on religious life in Indonesia.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Indonesia is one of the countries vulnerable to natural disasters. Positive changes or impacts after disasters are called posttraumatic growth. Spirituality, as one protective factor, was found to have contributed to posttraumatic growth. Spirituality is a sense that extends beyond circumstances and the personal quest for understanding answers to ultimate questions about life, meaning, and relationship with the sacred or transcendent. How people make sense of the world is influenced by spiritual beliefs. Survivors may find comfort from their beliefs, and they will assist them in positive growth. In this chapter, the author describes more about the relationship between spirituality and posttraumatic growth among disaster survivors in Indonesia.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

This article explores the religiosity of Muslim women joining Srikandi Lintas Iman, a women interfaith community in Yogyakarta. Using Glock and Stark’s theory on religiosity from the sociological perspective and Tiliouine & Belgoumidi’s domains of religiosity, the research questions are how the religiosity of Muslim women in SRILI, and how their activities in interfaith dialogue contribute to their religiosity dimensions as an individual. Data was gathered through questionnaires and in-depth interviews. This paper finds out that Muslim women joining an interfaith community can improve their religiosity in several ways. Activities and programs of SRILI contribute to its member religiosity both directly and indirectly.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

This writing aims to map the trends in Islamic psychology intervention in Indonesia. The result of the analysis showed that Islamic psychology intervention is divided into two categories: original Islamic psychology intervention, and integrative Islamic psychology intervention. Original Islamic psychology intervention consists of intervention that is based on worship and on morals (akhlaq). The category of original Islamic intervention based on worship includes Dhikr, prayer (shalat), Quranic, and duʾa therapy, while patience therapy, gratitude therapy, and repentance therapy are in the category of original Islamic psychology intervention based on morals. Meanwhile, integrative Islamic psychology intervention covers general integrative Islamic psychology intervention, Islamic psychology intervention based on worship, and Islamic psychology intervention based on morals. General integrative Islamic psychology interventions consist of Islamic cognitive therapy, religious cognitive behavioral therapy, religious coping therapy, and Islamic counseling. Integrative psychology interventions based on worship consist of dhikr relaxation therapy and relaxation by reciting Quran. Integrative Islamic psychology intervention based on morals consists of gratitude cognitive therapy, gratitude cognitive behavioral therapy, and forgiveness therapy.

In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30
In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30

Abstract

Fears and stories about an underground religion devoted to Satan, which demands and carries out child sacrifice, appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century and became the subject of media reports supported by some mental health professionals. Looking at these modern fantasies leads us back to ancient stories which in some cases believers consider the height of religious devotion. Horrifying ideas about human sacrifice, child sacrifice, and the offering to the gods of a beloved only son by his father appear repeatedly in Western traditions, starting with the Greeks and the Hebrews. This publication focuses on rituals of violence tied to religion, both imagined and real. The main question of this work is the meaning of blood and ritual killing in the history of religion. The publication examines the encounter with the idea of child sacrifice in the context of human hopes for salvation.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Religion and Psychology

Abstract

Fears and stories about an underground religion devoted to Satan, which demands and carries out child sacrifice, appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century and became the subject of media reports supported by some mental health professionals. Looking at these modern fantasies leads us back to ancient stories which in some cases believers consider the height of religious devotion. Horrifying ideas about human sacrifice, child sacrifice, and the offering to the gods of a beloved only son by his father appear repeatedly in Western traditions, starting with the Greeks and the Hebrews. This publication focuses on rituals of violence tied to religion, both imagined and real. The main question of this work is the meaning of blood and ritual killing in the history of religion. The publication examines the encounter with the idea of child sacrifice in the context of human hopes for salvation.

In: Flesh and Blood: Interrogating Freud on Human Sacrifice, Real and Imagined

Abstract

Jung’s dreams about Africa reveal the Whiteness and colonialist assumptions typical of the twentieth century educated European. Jung’s visits to Africa and New Mexico, and his dreams are critically discussed, showing how, even decades later, Jung failed to use his own theory of dreaming with regard to his own dreams. The compensatory function of his dreams was never effected, and his transference fantasies of Africa and blackness were reinforced rather than analyzed. There were unfortunate consequences for the development of his thinking and his understanding of the individuation process, since his oppositional thinking in terms of White and Black remained as a concrete transference fantasy as well as a colonialist attitude towards his internal world. The Nguni term ubuntu, will be used to reimagine individuation in more explicitly ethical and socially embedded ways. With regard to the development of consciousness, a distinction is developed between the withdrawal of projections and as a helpful therapeutic issue and as an epistemological approach to the place of meaning. If Jung’s dreams of Africa had managed to “heal” him, Jungian psychology would look rather like it does today, because the way out of Jung’s Colonialism is to be found in Jung’s life and work, especially in his alchemical studies.