EUHORMOS is an international book series intended for monographs and collective volumes on classical antiquity. Specifically, it welcomes manuscripts related to the concept of ‘anchoring innovation’ by classical scholars of all disciplines from all over the world. All books will be published in Open Access (online) as well as in print. The series publishes book-length studies (single-authored or edited) of ancient innovations and their societal perceptions and valuations, in particular in connection with their ‘anchoring’, the various ways in which ‘the new’ could (or could not) be connected to what was already familiar. ‘The new’ is not restricted to the technical or scientific domains, but can include the ‘new information’ imparted by speakers through linguistic means, literary innovation, political, social, cultural or economic innovation, and new developments in material culture. EUHORMOS is one of the results of the Dutch so-called Gravitation Grant (2017), awarded to a consortium of scholars from OIKOS, the National Research School in Classical Studies. See https://www.ru.nl/oikos/anchoring-innovation.
EUHORMOS is the Homeric term for a harbour ‘in which the anchoring is good’. Under this auspicious title, we aim to publish a book series striving to afford ‘good anchorage’ to studies contributing to a better understanding of ‘anchoring innovation’ in Greco-Roman Antiquity.
Persuasion has long been one of the major fields of interest for researchers across a wide range of disciplines. The present volume aims to establish a framework to enhance the understanding of the features, manifestations and purposes of persuasion across all Greek and Roman genres and in various institutional contexts. The volume considers the impact of persuasion techniques upon the audience, and how precisely they help speakers/authors achieve their goals. It also explores the convergences and divergences in deploying persuasion strategies in different genres, such as historiography and oratory, and in a variety of topics. This discussion contributes towards a more complete understanding of persuasion that will help to advance knowledge of decision-making processes in varied institutional contexts in antiquity.
Genre in Archaic and Classical Greek Poetry foregrounds innovative approaches to the question of genre, what it means, and how to think about it for ancient Greek poetry and performance. Embracing multiple definitions of genre and lyric, the volume pushes beyond current dominant trends within the field of Classics to engage with a variety of other disciplines, theories, and models. Eleven papers by leading scholars of ancient Greek culture cover a wide range of media, from Sappho’s songs to elegiac inscriptions to classical tragedy. Collectively, they develop a more holistic understanding of the concept of lyric genre, its relevance to the study of ancient texts, and its relation to subsequent ideas about lyric.
From the fifth century bc onwards, the scientific interests of the ancient Greeks—already traceable in the earliest remaining sources—expanded to include zoology and related matters. The first philosopher known to have written a book about human biology was Alcmaeon of Croton, who is described as a pupil of Pythagoras. One important basic question in his research concerned the origin and nature of semen. According to the Viennese medical historian Erna Lesky, Alcmaeon held merely that semen has its origin in the brain. My suggestions are that Alcmaeon saw the abdomen as the place of origin of the material part of semen and that in his theory all (or at least more) parts of the body were present in the semen, while the brain functioned as a necessary transit port through which life entered.
The speech of Spurius Ligustinus in Livy (42.34.2-15) presents a full account of the life and career of a Middle Republican centurion, sometimes dismissed as patriotic invention, but alternatively used as evidence for the social, economic and military history of the second century BCE. This article argues that the information for Ligustinus’s life and career was culled from archived census records, a theory that best explains the biographical details that would not turn up if Livy or his annalistic source simply wanted to generate a conventional rhetorical account of military accomplishment.
This article argues that Lucan references Hesiod’s Typhonomachy in the voice of Erictho (Luc. 6.685-694). The intertext is significant in two respects. It casts Erictho as a nonpartisan proponent of Gigantomachy and cosmic war itself, a portrayal that informs aspects of her character as a theomachos and vates. Likewise, it presents an innovative use of Hesiod’s Theogony: instead of a poem of peace, Lucan adapts it as a paradigm of civil war.
The sublime plays an important role in recent publications on Greek and Latin literature. On the one hand, scholars try to make sense of ancient Greek theories of the sublime, both in Longinus’ On the Sublime and in other rhetorical texts. On the other hand, the sublime, in its ancient and modern manifestations presented by thinkers from Longinus to Burke, Kant and Lyotard, has proved to be a productive tool for interpreting the works of Latin poets like Lucretius, Lucan and Seneca. But what is the sublime? And how does the Greek rhetorical sublime in Longinus relate to the Roman literary sublime in Lucretius and other poets? This article reviews James I. Porter, The Sublime in Antiquity: it evaluates Porter’s innovative approach to the ancient sublime, and considers the ways in which it might change our understanding of an important, but somewhat enigmatic concept.
The search for purity of language during the Palaeologan age has often been regarded as a revival of the Atticist movement of the second century AD. Students who had access to the higher education aimed at mastering this new form of Attic Greek: a large set of ancient authors deemed to be models of language and style served as repositories of lexical materials. Within this framework the need of school handbooks, dictionaries is quite understandable. In the first section of the paper I offer an overview of the multifarious typologies of scholarly texts largely used in the first Palaeologan age. Then, I focus more specifically on some miscellaneous excerpts merged into anthological manuscripts, by taking into account a largely overlooked series of grammatical and lexical annotations on Lucian. Differently from what is often stated in the catalogues, I show how the order of the items follows closely Lucian’s texts. These annotations could be the transcription of teachers’ notes and/or lecture notes taken during collective/private readings of texts.
This paper sketches how the investigation both of Atticist lexica produced or copied during the Palaeologan age and of Atticist entries in more general lexicographic works of that period can contribute to historical sociolinguistic studies. When examining Byzantine lexicography from this perspective, the highly conservative character of the content should always be kept in mind. Despite the re-use of linguistic categories elaborated and employed in earlier scholarly traditions, Byzantine Atticist lexica still offer evidence to help us understand how some of these categories such as ‘Attic’ vs ‘non-Attic’ were applied during the Palaeologan age.
In this paper I investigate the formulaic language of fifth-century BCE honorific decrees and the extent to which the Athenians used specifically democratic language: were men honoured for benefiting the city or specifically the democracy? Despite the general belief that the rhetorical formula ‘being good towards the demos’ had a democratic meaning, consideration of all the readable fifth-century BCE honorific decrees demonstrates that a standard formula to indicate the addressee of the benefits did not exist; rather, it is apparent that honorific decrees enacted under the democracy used indifferently the formulae ‘being good towards the demos’, ‘being good towards the polis’ and ‘being good towards the Athenians’. Moreover, a final consideration of an oligarchic honorific decree will show that oligarchs were perhaps more careful with their language (avoiding ‘demos’ and preferring ‘polis’) than the democrats might have been.
Manuel Moschopoulos’ Peri schedon, one of the most popular grammatical manuals in Byzantium and beyond, represents a comprehensive textbook composed with a broader scope in mind, namely to cover not only the teaching of grammar but also poetry and rhetoric.
This article explores two episodes from Pseudo-Oppian’s Cynegetica which both feature domestic animals: the horse in 1.239-270 and the dog in 4.354-376. Both of these episodes are highly intertextual, alluding to, respectively, Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus and the abduction narratives from Moschus’ Europa and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. I argue that the poet of the Cynegetica invites his readers to reflect on the potentially problematic nature of the power dynamic for these animals through sophisticated allusions to the poetic tradition, through which the relationship between man and animal is compared to that between the gods and humans.
The aim of the paper is to provide a unitary reading of Plutarch’s De genio Socratis by concentrating on the character of Epameinondas. Against those who claim that the philosophical speeches are the main theme of the dialogue, it is argued that Epameinondas, one of the speakers, also plays an active role in the liberation of Thebes. Against those who insist on the political action alone, it is shown that Epameinondas’ commitment is not the same as that of the other conspirators. His goal—like that of Plato and Socrates (as they are represented in the text)—is to take care of his fellow citizens, and lead them to moral virtue, in accordance with the divine order. This idea may appear piously unrealistic, but it clearly illustrates the merits and limits of Plato’s political philosophy.
In this paper work on building a linguistically tagged corpus of Byzantine texts (ByzTec) is discussed. In its present form the corpus consists of texts from the 10th and 14th centuries, and genres such as history, letter-writing and oratory are represented. Technical aspects of the corpus are described, as well as the different kinds of linguistic phenomena covered, such as morphology and semantics. So far, the primary purpose of the undertaking has been to facilitate the author’s own work on linguistic variation within an elite of Byzantine society. However, it is to be hoped that the corpus can be of use to others, including those interested in sociolinguistic aspects of Byzantine Greek.
The paper draws attention on the secondary chorus of frogs in Aristophanes’ Frogs. Its actual presence on the stage is matter of discussion between scholars. The dramatic function of the frogs, the rapid dialogue with Dionysus and the close construction of verse in this lyrical dialogue seem to suggest the hypothesis of a visible chorus.
After displaying the theory of Theodosian nominal morphology, the paper offers an overview of the development of Greek grammar in Byzantium between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries. Starting from Theodoros Prodromos’ handbook it takes on the study of the Erotemata of Moschopoulos and examines their relationship with the erotematic genre.
The paper deals with the linguistic typology and the manuscript tradition of the interlinear glosses to the Pindaric victory odes, and demonstrates that some glosses to Pindar’s Pythian odes (1–4) can be ascribed to Magister.
One aspect of the Greek epic that has yet to be thoroughly explored is the possibility of differentiating, in the midst of formulaic wording, the different genres that from the point of view of Greek literature comprise, for example, the telling of heroic deeds (Iliad, Odyssey), gnomic-paraenetic poetry (Works and Days), or the stories of genealogies, be they divine (Theogony), or heroic (Ehoiai). However, each of these forms of poetic expression had available a specific formulaic apparatus apart from the other much more abundant and more visible, the epic one, shared among the different genres. Thus has it been pointed out on some occasions, although the critics have scarcely pursued the consequences. Here my proposal consists of investigating the dynamics of the formulaic diction of oral poetry of the genealogical type, based on information provided in this regard by the Hesiodic poems of the Theogony, and above all, of the Catalogue of Women.
The Orphic Argonautica features a scene involving a group of Sirens. Their number is assumed to be two, since the text mentions one each throwing away a flute and a lyre. This paper argues that the author leaves open the possibility and even hints that there are in fact three Sirens, one of whom holds no instrument. This conclusion is supported by numerous—both literary and artistic—representations of three Sirens, which include one bare-handed such creature and two holding flute and lyre. It also finds confirmation in an allusion to an epigram by Antipater about three Muses, as well as some intra-textual parallels. The final part of the article discusses the implications of this ambiguity, such as reconciling the Homeric tradition of two Sirens with the number of three that was current in the author’s lifetime, but also allowing for an allegorical reading of the episode.
Whereas initially texts from the past were given relatively little attention in sociolinguistic studies, nowadays historical sociolinguistics as a discipline has come to maturity, too. A central notion in (historical) sociolinguistics is that of context: regrettably, however, there is still no generally accepted theory of how context can be captured and related to language. One of the few frameworks that has attempted to provide a coherent and unifying account is the so-called Functional Sociolinguistic framework. In this article, I illustrate the potential of this model for the study of Post-classical and Byzantine Greek complementation.
Deductive reasoning (as Hipponax composed choliambic verses in a psilotic Ionic, his Hellenistic imitators must also have reproduced psilosis in their choliambic works), the comparison with Theoc. Idyllls 28–31 (where he imitated the psilotic Aeolic dialect of Alcaeus) and above all the attested psilotic words in the verses of Phoenix of Colophon, Herodas and Callimachus suggest that the entire Hellenistic choliambic poetry was written in an Ionic characterised by psilosis.
The Ethiopian literary tradition extends over a time frame beginning even before the christianization of the Country (first half of the 4th cent.) up to modern times. In this long period we frequently register phenomena of interference both among different languages (Greek, Gǝ‘ǝz, Arabic, Amharic, agaw languages and so on) and between various registers of the same language, produced or conditioned by specific cultural or religious contexts. Particularly, in the Middle Ages the differentiation between Gǝ‘ǝz as the language of the clergy and the written discourse, and Amharic as the language of the court and the verbal communication, had momentous reflexes on the traditional teaching, related to Gǝ‘ǝz liturgical texts, but orally transmitted in Amharic. This development proved to be crucial for the start of the literarization process of Amharic, to be dated back to the second half of the 16th cent., as an effect of the missionary propaganda of the Portuguese Jesuits and of their polemics against the Ethiopian Orthodox clergy.
The many scholars who have supposed that there were persons known as iatromanteis (healing-seers) who offered medical assistance in archaic and classical Greece have been in error—there was no such occupation. But manteis (seers) did sometimes offer medical advice in classical Greece, in addition to their other roles, especially—so it seems—during epidemics and to chronic patients, and notwithstanding the rise of Hippocratic medicine. The evidence to this effect is more extensive than is commonly realized.
This article reviews two new commentaries on Silius Italicus’ Punica published in 2017 by Oxford University Press: by Neil Bernstein on book 2 and by Joy Littlewood on book 10. Both volumes offer an introduction, translation and commentary as well as an analysis of important thematic points. This review considers each book’s main strengths, discusses their limitations, and demonstrates their immense contribution to Flavian scholarship. Moreover, it examines the place of these two particular books in current Silian studies, considering how they inscribe themselves into current trends.
The paper points out and discusses further manuscript tradition of two De littera grammatical texts, namely the De littera ex libro dom⟨i⟩ni Donati and two versions of the so-called De littera. The critical study of both tracts is brought up to date in light of the new witnesses as well as by re-evaluation of the known copies.