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Imitationen

Systematische Zugänge zu einem kulturellen Prinzip des Mittelalters

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Edited by Michael Grünbart, Gerald Schwedler and Jörg Sonntag

Imitation und Mimesis sind epochenübergreifende Kulturphänomene. Doch wie erkennt, analysiert oder bewertet man das Imitieren im Mittelalter? Der Band präsentiert unterschiedliche fachdisziplinäre Methoden und Ansätze und erläutert diese an einschlägigen Beispielen. Imitieren kann für das Mittelalter als bislang unterschätzte, höchst komplexe Kulturtechnik angesehen werden, deren Potential nicht nur darin lag, Traditionen zu konservieren, sondern durchaus Innovationen hervorzubringen.

Illuminating the Middle Ages

Tributes to Prof. John Lowden from his Students, Friends and Colleagues

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Edited by Laura Cleaver, Alixe Bovey and Lucy Donkin

The twenty-eight essays in this collection showcase cutting-edge research in manuscript studies, encompassing material from late antiquity to the Renaissance. The volume celebrates the exceptional contribution of John Lowden to the study of medieval books. The authors explore some of the themes and questions raised in John’s work, tackling issues of meaning, making, patronage, the book as an object, relationships between text and image, and the transmission of ideas. They combine John’s commitment to the close scrutiny of manuscripts with an interrogation of what the books meant in their own time and what they mean to us now.

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Edited by Joshua Byron-Smith and Georgia Henley

A Companion to Geoffrey of Monmouth brings together scholars from a range of disciplines to provide an updated scholarly introduction to all aspects of his work. Arguably the most influential secular writer of medieval Britain, Geoffrey (d. 1154) popularized Arthurian literature and left an indelible mark on European romance, history, and genealogy. Despite this outsized influence, Geoffrey’s own life, background, and motivations are little understood. The volume situates his life and works within their immediate historical context, and frames them within current critical discussion across the humanities. By necessity, this volume concentrates primarily on Geoffrey’s own life and times, with the reception of his works covered by a series of short encyclopaedic overviews, organized by language, that serve as guides to further reading.

Contributors are Jean Blacker, Elizabeth Bryan, Thomas H. Crofts, Siân Echard, Fabrizio De Falco, Michael Faletra, Ben Guy, Santiago Gutiérrez Garcia, Nahir I. Otaño Gracia, Paloma Gracia, Giorgia Henley, David F. Johnson, Owain Wyn Jones, Maud Burnett McInerney, Françoise Le Saux, Barry Lewis, Coral Lumbley, Simon Meecham-Jones, Paul Russell, Victoria Shirley, Joshua Byron Smith, Jaakko Tahkokallio, Hélène Tétrel, Rebecca Thomas, Fiona Tolhurst.

Conflict in Fourteenth-Century Iberia

Aragon vs. Castile and the War of the Two Pedros

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Donald J. Kagay and L.J. Andrew Villalon

In Conflict in Fourteenth-Century Iberia, Kagay and Villalon trace the complicated economic military, political, and social background of the relationship of Iberia’s two greatest Christian states of the fourteenth century, Castile and the Crown of Aragon and their rulers, Pedro I (r. 1350-1366/69) and Pere III (r. 1336-1387). Besides chapters discussing the War of the Two Pedros (1356-1366) and the Castilian Civil War (1366-1369), the authors provide extended treatments of the strategical and tactical elements of the conflicts, the parliamentary, diplomatic, and governmental developments that occurred because of the conflicts as well as their social and political aftermaths. This work, along with authors’ earlier book on the battle of Nájera (1367) provides a much-needed review of Iberia’s violent fourteenth century.

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Julie Van Peteghem

The Latin poet Ovid continues to fascinate readers today. In Italian Readers of Ovid from the Origins to Petrarch, Julie Van Peteghem examines what drew medieval Italian writers to the Latin poet’s works, characters, and themes. While accounts of Ovid’s influence in Italy often start with Dante’s Divine Comedy, this book shows that mentions of Ovid are found in some of the earliest poems written in Italian, and remain a constant feature of Italian poetry over time. By situating the poetry of the Sicilians, Dante, Cino da Pistoia, and Petrarch within the rich and diverse history of reading, translating, and adapting Ovid’s works, Van Peteghem offers a novel account of the reception of Ovid in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italy.

Landscape, Tradition and Power in Medieval Iceland

Dalir and the Eyjafjörður region c.870-c.1265

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Chris Callow

Chris Callow’s Landscape, Tradition and Power critically examines the evidence for socio-political developments in medieval Iceland during the so-called Commonwealth period. The book compares regions in the west and north-east of Iceland because these regions had differing human and physical geographies, and contrasting levels of surviving written evidence. Callow sets out the likely economies and institutional frameworks in which political action took place. He then examines different forms of evidence – the Contemporary sagas, Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements), and Sagas of Icelanders – considering how each describes different periods of the Commonwealth present political power. Among its conclusions the book emphasises stasis over change and the need to appreciate the nuances and purposes of Iceland’s historicising sagas.

Migration Histories of the Medieval Afroeurasian Transition Zone

Aspects of mobility between Africa, Asia and Europe, 300-1500 C.E.

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Edited by Johannes Preiser-Kapeller, Lucian Reinfandt and Yannis Stouraitis

The transition zone between Africa, Asia and Europe was the most important intersection of human mobility in the medieval period. The present volume for the first time systematically covers migration histories of the regions between the Mediterranean and Central Asia and between Eastern Europe and the Indian Ocean in the centuries from Late Antiquity up to the early modern era. Within this framework, specialists from Byzantine, Islamic, Medieval and African history provide detailed analyses of specific regions and groups of migrants, both elites and non-elites as well as voluntary and involuntary. Thereby, also current debates of migration studies are enriched with a new dimension of deep historical time.
Contributors are: Alexander Beihammer, Lutz Berger, Florin Curta, Charalampos Gasparis, George Hatke, Dirk Hoerder, Johannes Koder, Johannes Preiser-Kapeller, Lucian Reinfandt, Youval Rotman, Yannis Stouraitis, Panayiotis Theodoropoulos, and Myriam Wissa.

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Edited by Jörg Tellkamp

This Companion aims to give an up-to-date overview of the historical context and the conceptual framework of Spanish imperial expansion during the early modern period, mostly during the 16th century. It intends to offer a nuanced and balanced account of the complexities of this historically controversial period analyzing first its historical underpinnings, then shedding light on the normative language behind imperial theorizing and finally discussing issues that arose with the experience of the conquest of American polities, such as colonialism, slavery or utopia. The aim of this volume is to uncover the structural and normative elements of the theological, legal and philosophical arguments about Spanish imperial ambitions in the early modern period.
Contributors are Manuel Herrero Sánchez; [,] José Luis Egío; [,] Christiane Birr; [,] Miguel Anxo Pena González; [,] Tamar Herzog; [,] Merio Scattola; [,] Virpi Mäkinen; [,] Wim Decock; [,] Christian Schäfer; [,] Francisco Castilla Urbano; [,] Daniel Schwartz; [,] Felipe Castañeda; [,] José Luis Ramos Gorostiza; [,] Luis Perdices de Blas; [,] Beatriz Fernández Herrero.

From Pax Mongolica to Pax Ottomanica

War, Religion and Trade in the Northwestern Black Sea Region (14th-16th Centuries)

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Edited by Ovidiu Cristea and Liviu Pilat

The history of the Black Sea may be considered as alternating between an “inner lake,” when a single empire establishes control over the sea and its surrounding areas, and that of an open sea, in which various continental or maritime powers compete for the region’s resources. By taking into account the impact both of major powers and minor political actors, this volume proposes a long-term perspective of regional history. It offers a deep understanding of the political and commercial history of the Black Sea between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and provides insights into the political and economic developments of the region.

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Alberto Ferreiro

This monograph offers a full inventory and analysis of all of the extant correspondence between the bishops of Hispania and Rome from the third to the seventh century. No such study has been executed in any language. The study intends to enlighten the reader on how the bishops of Hispania and the Roman pontiffs interacted with each other. Of interest is the development of the Petrine Primacy and how it was applied in many situations where Rome was asked to intervene in Hispania, dealing with issues including the liturgy, creeds, heresy, sacraments, episcopal authority, ecclesiology, papal authority and more.

The Slavic Religion in the Light of 11th- and 12th-Century German Chronicles (Thietmar of Merseburg, Adam of Bremen, Helmold of Bosau)

Studies on the Christian Interpretation of pre-Christian Cults and Beliefs in the Middle Ages

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Stanisław Rosik

In this volume, Stanisław Rosik focuses on the meaning and significance of Old Slavic religion as presented in three German chronicles (the works of Thietmar of Merseburg, Adam of Bremen, Helmold of Bosau) written during the time of the Christianization of the Western Slavs. The source analyses show the ways the chroniclers understood, explained and represented pre-Christian beliefs and cults, which were interpreted as elements of a foreign, “barbarian”, culture and were evaluated from the perspective of Church doctrine. In this study, individual features of the three authors are discussed– including the issue of the credibility of their information on Old Slavic religion– and broader conclusions on medieval thought are also presented.

"An Unusual Inquisition"

Translated Documents from Heinricus Institoris’s Witch Hunts in Ravensburg and Innsbruck

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Christopher S. Mackay

Heinricus Institoris is the major author of the Malleus Maleficarum, the best known early-modern textbook on witchcraft. This work was heavily influenced by Institoris's activities as inquisitor in Ravensburg in 1484 and Innsbruck in 1485. This volume contains the only complete translations of a large number of documents pertaining to these inquisitions, and is a companion to a new (and the only complete) edition of these texts, which shed much light on the composition of the Malleus Maleficarum in general.

The Body of Evidence

Corpses and Proofs in Early Modern European Medicine

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Edited by Francesco Paolo de Ceglia

When, why and how was it first believed that the corpse could reveal ‘signs’ useful for understanding the causes of death and eventually identifying those responsible for it? The Body of Evidence. Corpses and Proofs in Early Modern European Medicine, edited by Francesco Paolo de Ceglia, shows how in the late Middle Ages the dead body, which had previously rarely been questioned, became a specific object of investigation by doctors, philosophers, theologians and jurists. The volume sheds new light on the elements of continuity, but also on the effort made to liberate the semantization of the corpse from what were, broadly speaking, necromantic practices, which would eventually merge into forensic medicine.

Herakles Inside and Outside the Church

From the first Apologists to the end of the Quattrocento

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Edited by Arlene L. Allan, Eva Anagnostou-Laoutides and Emma Stafford

Herakles Inside and Outside the Church: from the first Apologists to the Quattrocento explores the reception of the ancient Greek hero Herakles (the Roman Hercules) in the predominantly Christian cultures which succeeded classical antiquity in Europe. Each chapter takes a particular literary or visual incarnation, grappling with the question of the hero’s significance within the early Church, in less formal contexts, and beyond Christendom in his unexpected role as Buddha’s companion in Gandharan art.

The volume is one of four to be published in the Metaforms series examining the extraordinarily persistent role of Herakles-Hercules in western culture up to the present day, drawing together scholars from a range of disciplines to offer a unique insight into the hero’s perennial appeal.

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Edited by Aleksander Bursche, John Hines and Anna Zapolska

This collection of studies is the result of a six-year interdisciplinary research project undertaken by an international team of archaeologists, historians, numismatists and paleobotanists. It constitutes a completely new approach to environmental, cultural and settlement changes during the Migration Period in Central Europe.
Part One discusses written sources, theories regarding migration, and environmental change in the first millennium AD. In Part Two, archaeological sources relating to Central Europe in the Migration Period are analysed, while Part Three is devoted to new discoveries between the Oder and the Vistula, including traces of Germanic settlement in northern Poland in the early seventh century. In Part Four, evidence for cultural and settlement changes in neighbouring areas is characterized in a comparative light.

Edited by Samantha Kelly

A Companion to Medieval Ethiopia and Eritrea introduces readers to current research on major topics in the history and cultures of the Ethiopian-Eritrean region from the seventh century to the mid-sixteenth, with insights into foundational late-antique developments where appropriate. Multiconfessional in scope, it includes in its purview both the Christian kingdom and the Islamic and local-religious societies that have attracted increasing attention in recent decades, tracing their internal features, interrelations, and imbrication in broader networks stretching from Egypt and Yemen to Europe and India. Utilizing diverse source types and methodologies, its fifteen essays offer an up-to-date overview of the subject for students and nonspecialists, and are rich in material for researchers.

Contributors are Alessandro Bausi, Claire Bosc-Tiessé, Antonella Brita, Amélie Chekroun, Marie-Laure Derat, Deresse Ayenachew, François-Xavier Fauvelle, Emmanuel Fritsch, Alessandro Gori, Habtemichael Kidane, Margaux Herman, Bertrand Hirsch, Samantha Kelly, Gianfrancesco Lusini, Denis Nosnitsin, and Anaïs Wion.

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Edited by Michael Van Dussen and Pavel Soukup

The Hussites, as the Bohemian reformists have come to be called, became one of the most vocal and influential reform movements of the late Middle Ages, with significance for the reformations of the sixteenth century and later. They represented an interchange between “town and gown” that was largely unprecedented in medieval Europe. Scholarship on the Hussites has a long and distinguished tradition, and current studies must continually contend with a historiography that is implicated in the nationalism, confessionalism, and politics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This volume gives students and scholars a clear sense of the historiography and current trends in Hussite studies, as well as concise statements on major emphases in Hussite theology, ecclesiology, philosophy, and religious practice.

Contributors are: Eliška Baťová, Pavlína Cermanová, Dušan Coufal, Phillip Haberkern, Ota Halama, David Holeton, Stephen Lahey, Jindřich Marek, Pavel Kolář, Olivier Marin, Petra Mutlová, Pavlína Rychterová, Pavel Soukup, Michael Van Dussen, and Blanka Zilynská.

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Magdalena Satora

The records of the proceedings against the Order of the Temple in Paris (1309-1311) are one of the most important sources for the study of the history of the Templars and of their trial. In this book Magdalena Satora presents the first complete edition of the records of the Paris proceedings, with critical apparatus, commentary, extensive indexes and an appendix listing the Templar participants of the proceedings. The edition is based on two existing manuscripts, of which one – the manuscript preserved at the Vatican Archives – has never been used by historians before.

Les procès-verbaux de la procédure menée contre l’Ordre du Temple à Paris (1309-1311) sont une des sources les plus importantes pour examiner l’histoire des templiers et de leur procès. Dans cet ouvrage, Magdalena Satora présente une édition complète des procès-verbaux de la procédure parisienne, avec appareil critique, commentaire, et une annexe contenant une liste de tous les templiers participant aux travaux de la commission pontificale à Paris. L’édition a pour base deux manuscrits existant, dont l’un préservé aux archives du Vatican, n’a jamais été utilisé par les historiens.

Mikulčice and Its Hinterland

An Archaeological Model for Medieval Settlement Patterns on the Middle Course of the Morava River (7th to Mid-13th Centuries)

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Marek Hladík

In Mikulčice and Its Hinterland, Marek Hladík presents an archaeological model of social and economic relations in Great Moravia, which is built on an analysis of the settlement structure near one of the most significant centres of Great Moravia, the Mikulčice-Valy agglomeration. The book offers the first systematic and conceptual view of Mikulčice’s relations with its economic hinterland. The author uses multidisciplinary research to interpret and understand the importance of the natural environment for the landscape settlement strategy, and to understand the relations between the fortified centre and its rural surroundings. Important methodological tools used by the author to answer the examined questions include non-destructive archaeological research, statistical modelling, and spatial analyses in the GIS environment.

Byzantium in the Time of Troubles

The Continuation of the Chronicle of John Skylitzes (1057-1079)

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Eric McGeer and John Nesbitt

The years before and after the battle of Mantzikert (1071) mark a turning point in the history of the Byzantine Empire. The invasions of the Seljuk Turks in the east and the encroachment of the Normans from the west altered the balance of power in the eastern Mediterranean and forced the Byzantines to confront new threats to their survival. These threats came at a time when internal rivalries made an effective military response all but impossible and led to a significant transformation of the Byzantine polity under the Komnenoi.
The Continuation of the Chronicle of John Skylitzes, now translated for the first time, provides a contemporary view of these troubled times. An extension of the principal source for the middle Byzantine period, and a subtle reworking of the History of Michael Attaleiates, the Continuation offers a high court official’s narrative of the events and personages that shaped the course of Byzantine history on the eve of the Crusades.

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Edited by Stavros Lazaris

Science in Byzantium has rarely been systematically explored. A first of its kind, this collection of essays highlights the disciplines, achievements, and contexts of Byzantine science across the eleven centuries of the Byzantine empire. After an introduction on science in Byzantium and the 21st century, and a study of Christianization and the teaching of science in Byzantium, it offers a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the scientific disciplines cultivated in Byzantium, from the exact to the natural sciences, medicine, polemology, and the occult sciences. The volume showcases the diversity and vivacity of the varied scientific endeavours in the Byzantine world across its long history, and aims to bring the field into broader conversations within Byzantine studies, medieval studies, and history of science.

Contributors are Fabio Acerbi, Anne-Laurence Caudano, Gonzalo Andreotti Cruz, Katerina Ierodiakonou, Herve Inglebert, Stavros Lazaris, Divna Manolova, Maria K. Papathanassiou, Inmaculada Pérez Martín, Thomas Salmon, Ioannis Telelis, Anne Tihon, Alain Touwaide, Arnaud Zucker.

Giovanni Aurelio Augurello (1441-1524) and Renaissance Alchemy

A Critical Edition of Chrysopoeia and Other Alchemical Poems, with an Introduction, English Translation and Commentary

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Matteo Soranzo

In Giovanni Aurelio Augurello (1441-1524) and Renaissance Alchemy, Matteo Soranzo offers the first in-depth study of the life and works of Augurello, Italian alchemist, poet and art connoisseur from the time of Giorgione. Analysed, annotated and translated into English for the first time, Augurello’s poetry reveals a unique blend of late medieval alchemical doctrines, Northern Italian antiquarianism and Marsilio Ficino’s Platonism, enriching conventional narratives of Renaissance humanism.

Quid est sacramentum? Volume One

Visual Representation of Sacred Mysteries in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1700’

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Edited by Walter Melion, Elizabeth Carson Pastan and Lee Palmer Wandel

‘Quid est sacramentum?’ Visual Representation of Sacred Mysteries in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1700 investigates how sacred mysteries (in Latin, sacramenta or mysteria) were visualized in a wide range of media, including illustrated religious literature such as catechisms, prayerbooks, meditative treatises, and emblem books, produced in Italy, France, and the Low Countries between ca. 1500 and 1700. The contributors ask why the mysteries of faith and, in particular, sacramental mysteries were construed as amenable to processes of representation and figuration, and why the resultant images were thought capable of engaging mortal eyes, minds, and hearts. Mysteries by their very nature appeal to the spirit, rather than to sense or reason, since they operate beyond the limitations of the human faculties; and yet, the visual and literary arts served as vehicles for the dissemination of these mysteries and for prompting reflection upon them.

Contributors: David Areford, AnnMarie Micikas Bridges, Mette Birkedal Bruun, James Clifton, Anna Dlabačková, Wim François, Robert Kendrick, Aiden Kumler, Noria Litaker, Walter S. Melion, Lars Cyril Nørgaard, Elizabeth Pastan, Donna Sadler, Alexa Sand, Tanya Tiffany, Lee Palmer Wandel, Geert Warner, Bronwen Wilson, and Elliott Wise.

The Militant Middle Ages

Contemporary Politics between New Barbarians and Modern Crusaders

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Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri

In The Militant Middle Ages, historian Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri delves into common perceptions of the Middle Ages and how these views shape contemporary political contexts. Today more than ever, the medieval era is mined from across the political spectrum for symbols, examples, allegories, and models to represent and interpret the present. From “new crusades” to fantasy literature and cosplay, from Catholic Traditionalism to environmentalism, from neo-Vikings to medieval tourism and festivals, Carpegna Falconieri leads us in an impassioned and often disquieting journey through the “Modern Middle Ages.” The first book-length study dedicated to the broad phenomenon of political medievalism, The Militant Middle Ages offers a new lens for scrutinizing contemporary society through its instrumentalization of the medieval past.

First published in Italian as Medioevo militante. La politica di oggi alle prese con barbari e crociati - © 2011 Giulio Einaudi editore s.p.a., Torino.

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Edited by Adrian Guiu

John Scottus Eriugena (d. ca. 877) is regarded as the most important philosopher and theologian in the Latin West from the death of Boethius until the thirteenth century. He incorporated his understanding of Latin sources, Ambrose, Augustine, Boethius and Greek sources, including the Cappadocian Fathers, Pseudo-Dionysius, and Maximus Confessor, into a metaphysics structured on Aristotle’s Categories, from which he developed Christian Neoplatonist theology that continues to stimulate 21st-century theologians.
This collection of essays provides an overview of the latest scholarship on various aspects of Eriugena’s thought and writings, including his Irish background, his use of Greek theologians, his Scripture hermeneutics, his understanding of Aristotelian logic, Christology, and the impact he had on contemporary and later theological traditions.

Contributors: David Albertson, Joel Barstad, John Contreni, Christophe Erismann, John Gavin, Adrian Guiu, Michael Harrington, Catherine Kavanagh, A. Kijewska, Stephen Lahey, Elena Lloyd-Sidle, Bernard McGinn, Ernesto Sergio Mainoldi, Dermot Moran, Giulio D’Onofrio, Willemien Otten, and Alfred Siewers

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Edited by Mirela Ivanova and Hugh Jeffery

Transmitting and Circulating the Late Antique and Byzantine Worlds seeks to be a crucial contribution to the history of medieval connectedness. Using one of the methodological tools associated with the global history movement, this volume aims to use connectedness to revitalise local and regional networks of exchange and movement. Its case studies collectively point caution toward assuming or asserting global-scale transmission of meaning or items unchanged, and show instead how meaning is locally produced and regionally formulated, and how this is no less dynamic than any global-level connectedness. These case studies by early career scholars range from the movement of cotton growing practices to the transmission of information within individual texts. Their wide scope, however, is nonetheless united by their preoccupation with transmission and circulation as categories of analysing or explaining movement and change in history. This volume hopes to be, therefore, a useful contribution to the growing field of a history of connectivity and connectedness.

Contributors are Jovana Anđelković, Petér Bara, Mathew Barber, Julia Burdajewicz, Adele Curness, Carl Dixon, Alex MacFarlane, Anna Kelley, Matteo G. Randazzo, Katinka Sewing and Grace Stafford.

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Edited by Andrew Fear and Jamie Wood

A Companion to Isidore of Seville presents nineteen chapters from leading international scholars on Isidore of Seville (d. 636), the most prominent bishop of the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania in the seventh century and one of the most prolific authors of early medieval western Europe.
Introductory studies establish the political, religious and familial contexts in which Isidore operated, his key works are then analysed in detail, as are some of the main themes that run throughout his corpus. Isidore's influence extended across the entire Middle Ages and into the early modern period in fields such as church governance and pastoral care, theology, grammar, science, history-writing, and linguistics – all topics that are explored in the volume.

Contributors: Graham Barrett, Winston Black, José Carracedo Fraga, Santiago Castellanos, Pedro Castillo Maldonado, Jacques Elfassi, Andrew Fear, Amy Fuller, Raúl González Salinero, Jeremy Lawrance, Céline Martin, Thomas O'Loughlin, Martin J. Ryan, Sinéad O'Sullivan, Mark Lewis Tizzoni, Purificación Ubric Rabaneda, Faith Wallis, Immo Warntjes, and Jamie Wood.

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Edited by Cédric Giraud

This Companion to Twelfth-Century Schools provides a comprehensive update and new synthesis of the last three decades of research. The fruit of a contemporary renewal of cultural history among international scholars of medieval studies, this collection draws on the discovery of new texts, the progress made in critical attribution, the growing attention given to the conditions surrounding the oral and written dissemination of works, the use of the notion of a “community of learning”, the reinterpretation of the relations between the cloister and the urban school, and links between institutional history and social history.

Contributors are: Alexander Andrée, Irene Caiazzo, Cédric Giraud, Frédéric Goubier, Danielle Jacquart, Thierry Kouamé, Constant J. Mews, Ken Pennington, Dominique Poirel, Irène Rosier-Catach, Sita Steckel, Jacques Verger, and Olga Weijers.

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Edited by Samantha Kahn Herrick

Hagiography and the History of Latin Christendom, 500-1500 shows the historical value of texts celebrating saints—both the most abundant medieval source material and among the most difficult to use. Hagiographical sources present many challenges: they are usually anonymous, often hard to date, full of topoi, and unstable. Moreover, they are generally not what we would consider factually accurate. The volume’s twenty-one contributions draw on a range of disciplines and employ a variety of innovative methods to address these challenges and reach new discoveries about the medieval world that extend well beyond the study of sanctity. They show the rich potential of hagiography to enhance our knowledge of that world, and some of the ways to unlock it.

Contributors are Ellen Arnold, Helen Birkett, Edina Bozoky, Emma Campbell, Adrian Cornell du Houx, David Defries, Albrecht Diem, Cynthia Hahn, Samantha Kahn Herrick, J.K. Kitchen, Jamie Kreiner, Klaus Krönert, Mathew Kuefler, Katherine J. Lewis, Giovanni Paolo Maggioni, Charles Mériaux, Paul Oldfield, Sara Ritchey, Catherine Saucier, Laura Ackerman Smoller, and Ineke van ‘t Spijker.

Medieval Fortifications in Cilicia

The Armenian Contribution to Military Architecture in the Middle Ages

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Dweezil Vandekerckhove

In Medieval Fortifications in Cilicia Dweezil Vandekerckhove offers an account of the origins, development and spatial distribution of fortified sites in the Armenian Kingdom (1198-1375). Despite the abundance of archaeological remains, the Armenian heritage had previously not been closely studied. However, through the examination of known and newly identified castles, this work has now increased the number of sites and features associated with the Armenian Kingdom.
By the construction of numerous powerful castles, the Armenians succeeded in establishing an independent kingdom, which lasted until the Mamluk conquest in 1375. Dweezil Vandekerckhove convincingly proves that the medieval castles in Cilicia are of outstanding architectural interest, with a significant place in the history of military architecture.

Medieval Perceptual Puzzles

Theories of Sense Perception in the 13th and 14th Centuries

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Edited by Elena Băltuță

In our daily lives, we are surrounded by all sorts of things – such as trees, cars, persons, or madeleines – and perception allows us access to them. But what does ‘to perceive’ actually mean? What is it that we perceive? How do we perceive? Do we perceive the same way animals do? Does reason play a role in perception? Such questions occur naturally today. But was it the same in the past, centuries ago? The collected volume tackles this issue by turning to the Latin philosophy of the 13th and 14th centuries. Did medieval thinkers raise the same, or similar, questions as we do with respect to perception? What answers did they provide? What arguments did they make for raising the questions they did, and for the answers they gave to them? The philosophers taken into consideration are, among others, Albert the Great, Roger Bacon, William of Auvergne, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, John Pecham, Richard Rufus, Peter Olivi, Robert Kilwardby, John Buridan, and Jean of Jandun.

Contributors are Elena Băltuță, Daniel De Haan, Martin Klein, Andrew LaZella, Lukáš Lička, Mattia Mantovani, André Martin, Dominik Perler, Paolo Rubini, José Filipe Silva, Juhana Toivanen, and Rega Wood.

Peter von Danzig

The Story of a Great Caravel, 1462-1475

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Beata Możejko

This study traces the chequered history of Peter von Danzig, a French caravel which was inadvertently taken over by Gdańsk (Danzig). Beata Możejko charts the fluctuating and often dramatic fortunes of the caravel, from her arrival in Gdańsk as a merchantman in 1462 to her demise near La Rochelle in 1475. The author examines the caravel’s role as a warship during the Anglo-Hanseatic conflict, and her most famous operation, when she was used by Gdańsk privateer Paul Beneke to capture a Burgundian galley with a rich cargo that included Hans Memling’s Last Judgement triptych.
Using literary and archival sources, Możejko provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the information available about the caravel and her colourful career.

Printing Virgil

The Transformation of the Classics in the Renaissance

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Craig Kallendorf

In this work Craig Kallendorf argues that the printing press played a crucial, and previously unrecognized, role in the reception of the Roman poet Virgil in the Renaissance. Using a new methodology developed at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Printing Virgil shows that the press established which commentaries were disseminated, provided signals for how the Virgilian translations were to be interpreted, shaped the discussion about the authenticity of the minor poems attributed to Virgil, and inserted this material into larger censorship concerns. The editions that were printed during this period transformed Virgil into a poet who could fit into Renaissance culture, but they also determined which aspects of his work could become visible at that time.

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Gerd Althoff

Gerd Althoff´s new book collects fifteen of his more recent contributions, most of them previously published in German, which elucidate the functioning of prestate societies. Examples from the Frankish and later German realm (800-1200) are used to clarify how rules and political rituals governed behavior in the power games between kings, churchmen and nobles. Such rules (Spielregeln) and rituals guided public and private behavior despite the fact that they existed only as unwritten customs. The long-overlooked significance of this way of establishing order has sparked a vivid and controversial international discussion in the last decades which continues today.

Waiting for the End of the World

European Dimensions, 950–1200

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Tsvetelin Stepanov

The French president Charles de Gaulle spoke of a Europe “from the Atlantic to the Urals”. Europe was spatially formed with these topographic parameters from the late 10th century onwards, with the massive Christianization of its inhabitants. At that time, however, all three monotheistic religions already had a steady presence there. Could such a macro-space be thought-and-narrated from a macro-perspective, in view of its medieval past? This has already been done through common ʻdenominatorsʻ such as the Migration Period, wars, trade, spread of Christianity. Could it also be seen through a common religious-philosophical and spiritual phenomenon – the Anticipation of the End of the world among Christians, Muslims, and Jews? This book gives a positive answer to the last question.

Warriors, Martyrs, and Dervishes

Moving Frontiers, Shifting Identities in the Land of Rome (13th-15th Centuries)

Series:

Buket Kitapçı Bayrı

Warriors, Martyrs, and Dervishes: Moving Frontiers, Shifting Identities in the Land of Rome (13th-15th Centuries) focuses on the perceptions of geopolitical and cultural change, which was triggered by the arrival of Turkish Muslim groups into the territories of the Byzantine Empire at the end of the eleventh century, through intersecting stories transmitted in Turkish Muslim warrior epics and dervish vitas, and late Byzantine martyria. It examines the Byzantines’ encounters with the newcomers in a shared story-world, here called “land of Rome,” as well as its perception, changing geopolitical and cultural frontiers, and in relation to these changes, the shifts in identity of the people inhabiting this space. The study highlights the complex relationship between the character of specific places and the cultural identities of the people who inhabited them.

Maimonides, Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms Volume 2

A New Parallel Arabic-English Edition and Translation, with Critical Editions of the Medieval Hebrew Translations

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Edited by Gerrit Bos

Hippocrates’ Aphorisms enjoyed great popularity in the ancient and medieval world and, according to Maimonides, it was Hippocrates’ most useful work as it contained aphorisms, which every physician should know by heart. They were translated into Hebrew several times, but it was Maimonides’ Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms that made the work influential in Jewish circles. For the composition of his commentary, Maimonides consulted the Aphorisms through the commentary by Galen, translated by Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq. This edition of Maimonides’ Arabic commentary and its Hebrew translations, the first with an English translation based on the Arabic text, is part of a project undertaken by Gerrit Bos to critically edit Maimonides’ medical works.

Series:

Boaz Shoshan

In Damascus Life 1480-1500: A Report of a Local Notary Boaz Shoshan offers a microhistory of the largest Syrian city at the end of the Mamluk period and on the eve of the Ottoman conquest. Mainly based on a partly preserved diary, the earliest available of its kind and written by Ibn Ṭawq, a local notary, it portrays the life of a lower middle class who originated from the countryside and who, through marriage, was able to become a legal clerk and associate with scholars and bureaucrats. His diary does not only provide us with unique information on his family, social circle and the general situation in Damascus, but it also sheds light on subjects of which little is known, such as the functioning of the legal system, marriage and divorce, bourgeois property and the mores of the common people.

Maimonides, Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms Volume 1

A New Parallel Arabic-English Edition and Translation, with Critical Editions of the Medieval Hebrew Translations

Series:

Edited by Gerrit Bos

Hippocrates’ Aphorisms enjoyed great popularity in the ancient and medieval world and, according to Maimonides, it was Hippocrates’ most useful work as it contained aphorisms, which every physician should know by heart. They were translated into Hebrew several times, but it was Maimonides’ Commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms that made the work influential in Jewish circles. For the composition of his commentary, Maimonides consulted the Aphorisms through the commentary by Galen, translated by Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq. This edition of Maimonides’ Arabic commentary and its Hebrew translations, the first with an English translation based on the Arabic text, is part of a project undertaken by Gerrit Bos to critically edit Maimonides’ medical works.

Forced Conversion in Christianity, Judaism and Islam

Coercion and Faith in Premodern Iberia and Beyond

Series:

Edited by Mercedes García-Arenal and Yonatan Glazer-Eytan

Focusing on the Iberian Peninsula but examining related European and Mediterranean contexts as well, Forced Conversion in Christianity, Judaism and Islam traces how Christians, Jews, and Muslims grappled with the contradictory phenomenon of faith brought about by constraint and compulsion. Forced conversion brought into sharp relief the tensions among the accepted notion of faith as a voluntary act, the desire to maintain “pure” communities, and the universal truth claims of radical monotheism. Offering a comparative view of an important yet insufficiently studied phenomenon in the history of religions, this collection of essays explores the ways in which religion and violence reshaped these three religions and the ways we understand them today.

Edited by Giles Gasper, Marcia L. Colish, Jay Diehl, Bernd Goebel, Ian Logan, Lauren Mancia and Eileen Sweeney

Anselm Studies and Texts focuses on the life and thought of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), his later reception and legacy, and contemporary inspiration. Studies of the wider contexts, medieval and modern, for Anselm’s writings and experiences are also encouraged. As one of the most significant thinkers of the Middle Ages, Anselm attracts and commands scholarly attention; his life and thought provides continuing challenge and stimulation within modern philosophical, theological, spiritual and historical discourse.

Anselm Studies and Texts is a wide-ranging, multi-disciplinary series for a vibrant and growing field. Submissions are welcomed from any field of study: including, but not limited to philosophy, history, theology, art-history, literary theory and feminist studies. Studies on Anselm’s thought in a global perspective are also encouraged. The series operates with a variety of formats, from monographs and essay collections to critical editions and translations into English.

The series is run under the aegis of the International Association for Anselm Studies, which has organised regular meetings since 1959, alongside other organisations and individuals. All contributions from early career projects to those from established scholars are equally invited.

Various Authors & Editors

Brill's Companions to Late Antiquity and Medieval Studies Online is an expanding e-book collection of specially commissioned research companions covering the Byzantine and medieval periods. Peer reviewed and written by experts, these handbooks offer balanced accounts at an advanced level, along with an overview of the state of scholarship and a synthesis of debate, pointing the way for future research. Designed for students and scholars, the books explain what sources there are, what methodologies and approaches are appropriate in dealing with them, what issues arise and how they have been treated, and what room there is for disagreement. All volumes are in English.

“The Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition book series has made major contributions to the study of the history of Christianity for well over a decade now, presenting cutting-edge scholarship on a host of significant figures and movements over many centuries. This new e-book collection of Companions to Late Antiquity and Medieval Studies makes many of these valuable studies available to a wider audience and in a convenient format. It is a significant tool for scholars and students.”
Bernard McGinn, University of Chicago

“It is very helpful to have this scholarly resource on Late Antique and Medieval Studies available on line. The range of the Companions’ topics, from individuals such as Gregory I or Joachim of Fiore, institutions such as the Hanseatic League, or textual categories and themes such as preaching and audience is impressive. Each volume offers an immensely useful series of articles which contrive to be both authoritative surveys and independent interpretations.”
Rosamond McKitterick, University of Cambridge
A peer reviewed series of “state-of-the-field” handbooks to provide up-to-date surveys of current research into all aspects of medieval and early modern literary culture in Europe and European colonies, including writers, schools, and genres, instruments, manuscripts and early printing, and the literary cultures of given periods, language groups, regions and cities. Written by the foremost specialists in the respective fields, they aim to provide full balanced accounts, as well as synthesis of debate and the state of current scholarship in 8-20 substantial chapters. Volumes are in English (contributions from continental scholars are translated).

Armenia between Byzantium and the Orient

Celebrating the Memory of Karen Yuzbashian (1927–2009)

Series:

Edited by Bernard Outtier, Cornelia B. Horn, Basil Lourie and Alexey Ostrovsky

This volume commemorating the late Armenian scholar Karen Yuzbashyan comprises studies of mediaeval Armenian culture, including the reception of biblical and parabiblical texts, theological literature, liturgy, hagiography, manuscript studies, Church history and secular history, and Christian art and material culture. Special attention is paid to early Christian and late Jewish texts and traditions preserved in documents written in Armenian. Several contributions focus on the interactions of Armenia with other cultures both within and outside the Byzantine Commonwealth: Greek, Georgian, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Iranian. Select contributions may serve as initial reference works for their respective topics (the catalogue of Armenian khachkars in the diaspora and the list of Armenian Catholicoi in Tzovk’).

Combining Microhistorical and Field Theory Approaches

Lay Popular Religious Practice in England during the Long Fifteenth Century

Elisabeth Salter

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to explore the frictions and potentials endemic in combining microhistorical and field theory approaches, using popular religion in England in the long fifteenth century as an example. In two case studies, concerning basic catechetical texts and the last wills and testaments created by a wide spectrum of the population, the article analyzes how micro- and macro-historical investigation can be tied together. Crucially, micro examples do not simply illustrate but rather add to our knowledge of the general picture. Where micro examples offer a corrective to a general picture there is potential for friction. However, the article also proposes that it is valuable to use Bourdieusian concepts of the cultural field to inventorize the micro evidence in the process of understanding historical situations and transitions more broadly.

From Micro- to Macro-processes of Religious Change

The Holy Name of Jesus and Christocentric Devotion in the Long Fifteenth Century

Rob Lutton

Abstract

The article discusses the Europe-wide late medieval phenomenon of the cult of the Holy Name, using it as a case study to discuss the relationship of micro-and macro-historical transformations by scrutinizing the enormous success of a religious innovation which managed to spread to many different local contexts and social groups. After pointing out contradictions in earlier explanations of this success, the article gives a detailed reading of several different realizations of this form of devotion, discussing authors like Richard Rolle, but also religious compilations and documentary evidence. This evidence suggests that the meaning and significance of devotion to the Holy Name remained open, malleable and unstable. It therefore appears necessary to engage with the whole range of its representations, and their transmission at different social levels, in order to understand its larger significance in the religious transformations of the long fifteenth century.

Historicizing the Religious Field

Adapting Theories of the Religious Field for the Study of Medieval and Early Modern Europe

Sita Steckel

Abstract

As historians of religion are currently diagnosing a need to find new shared frameworks and new narratives enabling interdisciplinary and trans-epochal exchange, the article suggests a closer historical engagement with theories of the “religious field”, originally formulated by Pierre Bourdieu on the basis of Max Weber’s work, as this theory has the potential to serve as a meta-language for interdisciplinary communication. The article sets out the most important elements of the theory of the religious field, and evaluates them critically by way of a historicization of important concepts, drawing on recent discussions in sociology and Religious Studies. After discussing the concept of the religious field itself, the article discusses several internal dynamics of the field (as suggested by Bourdieu and by more recent research) as well as several typical dynamics between fields. It concludes with suggestions for historical adaptations, including an updated approach to religious plurality and to the different types of religious actors envisaged by Weber and Bourdieu.

The International Union of Social Studies of Malines and the Catholic Cultural Turn

Drafting a Moral Code at the End of the Constantinian Era

Dries Bosschaert

Abstract

The present article argues that the unexpected end of the Union de Malines’ Code de morale culturelle, an international collaboration of prominent twentieth-century Catholic moral theologians, should be attributed to three shifts in Catholic Social Teaching, only the first two of which the Union de Malines managed to undergo: from scholastic hegemony to theological diversity, from social doctrine to personalism, and from a juridical style of writing to a humanistic one. Particularly this last shift, introduced by the Second Vatican Council, proved to be a too big a leap for the Union, understood as a ‘little social tradition,’ to take. The cultural turn, which the Union de Malines had in fact anticipated, proved by the end of the council to belong to the future.

Metaphorical Images of the Sacred Workshop

The confrérie du Puy Notre-Dame in Amiens as a ‘Hybrid Forum’

Margriet Hoogvliet

Abstract

The textual witnesses of religious poetry produced by the late medieval confraternity of the Puy Notre-Dame in Amiens, in northern France, give an example of a type of religious text which allows us to reconstruct the interplay between the religious field and the social field of commerce and artisanal production. After discussing the practices of producing and staging religious poetry in confraternities in late medieval and early modern France as “hybrid forums”, the article discusses several examples of texts from unpublished manuscripts. It argues that the vivid imagery of the poems dedicated to the Virgin Mary allowed a mutual exchange of resources. While the members of the ordained religious gathered support and a popularized religious language, the participating laypeople could imbue their everyday work with a form of sacrality.

Pecock’s Mismigrations across the Religious Field

The Dynamics and Boundaries of the Failure of a Reforming Bishop and His Texts in Mid-fifteenth-century England

Ian Johnson

Abstract

In mid-fifteenth-century England, the anti-Lollard Bishop of Chichester Reginald Pecock managed to get himself convicted for heresy in the very act of trying to teach orthodox doctrine to the laity. His remarkable array of interlocking treatises recodified the entirety of Christian doctrine and catechetics in a sprawling multitextual summa that endeavoured to forge its own new communities of interpretation. Pecock’s textual mismigrations reveal much about the perils of social change and stasis that they attempt to address through the intent to reform. Although the laity of this time was successful in procuring more challenging devotional and theological materials, Pecock’s bid to bestow on them a newly enhanced theological and philosophical role was a step too far. So what can be extrapolated from his failure? What do his frustrated texts tell us about the dynamics, permeability, and (non-)negotiability of religious boundaries in mid-fifteenth-century England?

The Religious Field during the Long Fifteenth Century

Framing Religious Change beyond Traditional Paradigms

Sabrina Corbellini and Sita Steckel

Abstract

Introducing a thematic section, this article presents an overview and some of the theoretical considerations resulting from COST Action IS1301, an international research network devoted to the study of lay religious culture during the long fifteenth century. A particular aim of this network was to discuss new European narratives framing the important transformations of lay religious culture during the period c. 1350–1550—a complex historical process that is still often obscured by the competing older narratives of Reformation, humanism, and Renaissance which shape the historiographical heritage. To get beyond the “methodological nationalism” and “methodological modernism” inherent in older paradigms, the article suggests viewing the transformation of lay religious culture as a long-term process of cultural evolution. It closes with an overview of the most important aspects of this evolutionary process during the long fifteenth century.

Miguel de Asúa

Abstract

During the interwar period of the twentieth century, the Roman Catholic Church in Argentina experienced a transition from a ‘liberal’ model to a pattern of ‘integral Catholicism’ in which its values and norms were thought as the ultimate foundation of the political, social, and cultural world. This paper examines the views of representative Catholic figures on the relationship between science and religion and contemporary scientific theories such as relativity, evolution, and the nature of life, relating them to the corresponding historical scenario. The absence of correlation between the scientific and ideological positions of the actors confirms the prevalent idea of complexity at the time of analysing the relationships between science, religion, and politics.

A Two- and a Threefold Cord

Martin Statius on Mixed Marriages and Interconfessional Relationships

Johannes Müller

Abstract

Religious coexistence and even mixed marital unions were an undeniable reality in many parts of early modern Europe. Despite occasional harsh criticisms by the clergy, church authorities often had no choice than to silently accept religious diversity as an embarrassing fact of life. This article addresses the rare case of the Danzig Lutheran preacher Martin Statius (1589–1655), who tried to articulate well-balanced guidelines for the question of how to deal with religious diversity in public and private spaces. In order to create a theological framework for the discussion of this problem, Statius distinguished between three forms of human love: “natural, civic and spiritual.” Categorizing love and friendship in this manner enabled Statius to bridge the deep gap between theological ideals and the unruly reality of everyday life and offers an illuminating insight into confessional discourses and their relation to the social reality in multiconfessional cities.

Series:

Edited by Bernard Outtier, Cornelia B. Horn, Basil Lourié and Alexey Ostrovsky

Series:

Edited by Bernard Outtier, Cornelia B. Horn, Basil Lourié and Alexey Ostrovsky