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The New Zealand Yearbook of International Law is an annual, internationally refereed publication intended to stand as a reference point for legal materials and critical commentary on issues of international law. The Yearbook also serves as a valuable tool in the determination of trends, state practice and policies in the development of international law in New Zealand, the Pacific region, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica and to generate scholarship in those fields. In this regard the Yearbook contains an annual ‘Year-in-Review’ of developments in international law of particular interest to New Zealand as well as a dedicated section on the South Pacific.

This Yearbook covers the period 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2018.

The European Union Returns Directive and its Compatibility with International Human Rights Law

Analysis of Return Decision, Entry Ban, Detention, and Removal

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Izabella Majcher

The book undertakes a thorough human rights assessment of the EU Returns Directive. The overarching human rights framework, which circumscribes states prerogatives in the context of expulsion, builds upon obligations derived from the principle of non-refoulement; the right to life, respect for family and private life, effective remedy, basic social rights; the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment; and protection against arbitrary detention and collective expulsion. Based on this assessment, Majcher explores several protection gaps in the EU return policy which may result in violations of migrants’ rights and highlights how the provisions of the Directive should be implemented in line with member states’ human rights obligations. Informed by this assessment, the book discusses amendments to the Directive, proposed by the European Commission in September 2018.

“By examining the European Union (EU) Returns Directive in the light of international and European human rights law, Izabella Majcher thoroughly explores and analyses the requirements the EU member states’ authorities must guarantee migrants in an irregular situation when they adopt and implement return decisions, entry bans, pre-removal detention, and removal.” Marie-Laure Basilien-Gainche, Professor of public international law, University Jean Moulin Lyon 3, Honorary member of the Institut universitaire de France

Pauline Maillet

In Nowhere Countries: Exclusion of Non-Citizens from Rights through Extra-Territoriality at Home, Pauline Maillet offers a new theoretical framework to understand the mechanisms by which non-citizens are excluded from the rights attached to sovereign territory when arriving at states’ borders.
Initiated in Charles de Gaulle airport, the analysis encompasses similar cases in countries other than France. This interdisciplinary study traces how some liberal democracies create spaces construed as extra-territorial on their own soil to circumvent obligations owed to sea or airborne asylum seekers under the Refugee Convention and its Protocol. How do states make their territory vanish to prevent asylum seekers’ arrival? Using a combination of legal analysis and ethnography, this book identifies the legal techniques, enforcement practices and mental landscapes that have sustained nowhere countries.

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Guofu Liu

Understanding Chinese refugee law is difficult for those outside China or unfamiliar with it due to the complex factors involved. Chinese Refugee Law offers a comprehensive, up-to-date, and readily accessible reference to Chinese refugee law. It focuses first on existing laws and practices relating to refugees in China, then offering a scholar's proposal for a law to handle with refugee affairs and implement the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The book provides the detail, insight and background information needed to understand this complex area of law. It examines both existing Chinese statutes and relevant international documents, drawing on and comparing Chinese and English language sources. It is thus an invaluable resource for both Chinese and non-Chinese readers alike.

Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

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Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena

This volume is devoted to the dark side of human mobility, that is migrant smuggling, and, linked with it, human trafficking. Both subjects will be mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, due to their having a generally transnational character, the analysis will necessarily require that international and supranational actions/measures also be taken into account. Moreover, the legal perspective will be supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one, through which the authors try to provide the work with a realistic dimension aimed at grasping the practical aspects of both migrant smuggling and human trafficking emerging from the different ways in which such crimes are de facto committed.

Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

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Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena

Abstract

This double issue is focused on migrant smuggling and human trafficking. Both subjects are mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, since these crimes have a generally transnational character, the analysis also takes international (UN) and supranational (EU) measures into account. Moreover, in both parts, the legal perspective is supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one (based on both media reports and judicial case-studies), so as to grasp the practical aspects emerging from the different ways in which migrant smuggling and human trafficking are de facto committed: in particular, the links between these two and other crimes are underscored, as well as the involvement of criminal organizations in their perpetration. Finally, both parts are driven by a human rights-oriented approach, which gives relevance to dignity of persons as a fundamental meta-value of our legal systems.

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Edited by Christian Riffel and Róisín Burke

The New Zealand Yearbook of International Law is an annual, internationally refereed publication intended to stand as a reference point for legal materials and critical commentary on issues of international law. The Yearbook also serves as a valuable tool in the determination of trends, state practice and policies in the development of international law in New Zealand, the Pacific region, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica and seeks to generate scholarship in those fields. In this regard the Yearbook contains an annual ‘Year-in-Review’ of developments in international law of particular interest to New Zealand as well as a dedicated section on the South Pacific.

This Yearbook covers the period 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017.

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Edited by Sergio Carrera, Arie Pieter Leonhard den Hertog, Marion Panizzon and Dora Kostakopoulou

This collective volume draws on the themes of intersectionality and overlapping policy universes to examine and evaluate the shifting functions, frames and multiple actors and instruments of an ongoing and revitalized cooperation in EU external migration and asylum policies with third states. The contributions are based on problem-driven research and seek to develop bottom-up, policy-oriented solutions, while taking into account global, EU-based and local perspectives, and the shifting universes of EU migration, border and asylum policies. In 15 chapters, we explore the multifaceted dimensions of the EU external migration policy and its evolution in the post-crisis, geopolitical environment of the Global Compacts.

The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

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Jessica Schultz

Under what circumstances can a state refuse refugee status to a person whose risk of persecution exists in only part of her country of origin? This book is the first monograph to examine the treaty basis and criteria for the ‘internal protection alternative’ (IPA), an exception to refugee status increasingly invoked by state parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Through a critical analysis of the relationship between refugee law and related fields, Schultz finds that the legal scope for IPA practice is narrower than is commonly claimed. Since persons subject to an IPA analysis have a well-founded fear of persecution within their countries of origin, any limit on their right to refugee status must involve a careful balancing of the impact of continued displacement against the state's interest in preserving its restricted protection resources. She argues that the doctrine of implied limits in human rights law can provide analytic structure to the IPA concept and reduce the risk of overly broad application.

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Edited by Vladislava Stoyanova and Eleni Karageorgiou

Understanding the realities of protection in a Europe that had failed to manage the crisis in asylum that unfolded in 2015 and 2016 requires a comprehension of how law shapes and distorts refugee protection practices in frontline states. In this collection Vladislava Stoyanova and Eleni Karageorgiou provide an essential cartography of the state of asylum during the crisis. The volume captures four dynamics: the absorption of EU norms in Central and South Eastern Europe; the reaction in this region to the massive movement of asylum seekers in 2015 and 2016; the initiation of normative developments in the area of asylum during and beyond the crisis by the countries in this region; and the question of solidarity.

Exile within Borders

A Global Look at Commitment to the International Regime to Protect Internally Displaced Persons

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Gabriel Cardona-Fox

Twenty years after the introduction of the UN Guiding Principles for the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons, very little is known about their effectiveness in altering state behavior towards their displaced populations.
In this book Gabriel Cardona-Fox takes a systematic and global first look at patterns of commitment and compliance with the IDP regime. Through the innovative use of statistical analysis on all documented cases of displacement and an in-depth case study of Colombia’s evolving response towards internal displacement, this book identifies the domestic and international forces that drive some states to institute and comply with these guidelines.
Exile Within Borders fills an important gap in the literature and moves the debate over the regime’s effectiveness beyond anecdotal evidence.

Protecting Stateless Persons

The Implementation of the Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons across EU States

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Katia Bianchini

In Protecting Stateless Persons: The Implementation of the Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons across EU States, Katia Bianchini offers an in-depth comparative study of legislation, case-law and decision-making concerning the treatment of stateless persons in ten EU States. Focusing on whether and why statelessness determination procedures are needed, what their constituent elements should be, how the definition of "stateless person" is interpreted and applied, and what rights are attached to the granting of status, Katia Bianchini critically examines current national legal frameworks, and points a way forward for more effective legislation and practice in the area of statelessness. Against this backdrop, she adds insights into the wider debate on how human rights treaties should be implemented.

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Edited by Christian Riffel and Róisín Burke

The New Zealand Yearbook of International Law is an annual, internationally refereed publication intended to stand as a reference point for legal materials and critical commentary on issues of international law. The Yearbook also serves as a valuable tool in the determination of trends, state practice and policies in the development of international law in New Zealand, the Pacific region, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica and to generate scholarship in those fields. In this regard the Yearbook contains an annual ‘Year-in-Review’ of developments in international law of particular interest to New Zealand as well as a dedicated section on the South Pacific.
This Yearbook covers the period 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016.

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Meltem Ineli-Ciger

Temporary protection is a flexible tool of international protection, which offers sanctuary to those fleeing humanitarian crises, and currently affects the lives and legal status of millions of forced migrants. However, the content, boundaries and legal foundation of temporary protection, remain largely undefined or unsettled. There are only a few instruments that provide guidance to states on how to respond to mass influx situations and how to implement temporary protection regimes. In Temporary Protection in Law and Practice, Meltem Ineli-Ciger takes a step towards clarifying those undefined aspects of temporary protection, by examining temporary protection’s legal foundation in international law and its relationship with the Refugee Convention. The book also reviews temporary protection policies in Europe, Southeast Asia, Turkey and the United States, with a view to identifying elements that enhance and compromise the legality and viability of temporary protection regimes. Building on this analysis and legal limitations to the freedom of states to conceptualize different aspects of temporary protection, this book provides guidance to states on how to introduce and implement a viable temporary protection regime, which operates within the boundaries of international law and international human rights law.

Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee

An Approach to a Harmonizing Interpretation in International Law

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Yao Li

In Exclusion from Protection as a Refugee, Yao Li analyses Article 1F of the 1951 Refugee Convention. She argues that the exclusion clause is a quasi-punitive provision and must therefore be interpreted with due regard to (International) Criminal Law. Having developed an interpretation approach to consider external legal notions, Li provides a solution for all the relevant issues in the context of Article 1F, based on a “harmonizing interpretation”. The study therefore not only comprehensively examines the exclusion clause at the intersection of International Refugee Law and International Criminal Law, but also contributes to anti-fragmentation efforts in International Law.

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Hélène Ragheboom

In The International Legal Status and Protection of Environmentally-Displaced Persons: A European Perspective, Hélène Ragheboom addresses the topical issue of displacement caused by environmental factors and analyses in particular whether affected persons, who are unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin due to the severe degradation of their living environment, could or, in the negative, should receive some form of international protection within the European Union. The author provides a detailed analysis of relevant instruments of refugee law and international human rights law, and explores possible future approaches to addressing the phenomenon of environmental displacement, ranging from constructive interpretations of existing norms to the allegedly preferable creation of a multidisciplinary sui generis framework.

Migration on the Move

Essays on the Dynamics of Migration

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Edited by Carolus Grütters, Sandra Mantu and Paul Minderhoud

Migration on the Move examines the dynamics of migration and asylum law over the past two decades and highlights profound changes that have taken place in these fields as a result of growing EU competences to deal with migration and asylum questions. The book maps the transformation of the migration field by focusing on three interrelated issues: the effects of Europeanization and the shifting power relations that it implies; placing Europe’s laws and policies in a global migration context, and critically examining to whom ‘project’ Europe belongs. The contributors offer a multidisciplinary analysis of key aspects of the migration and refugee crisis and their implications for policies, principles of law, and the treatment of people in Europe today.

Edited by Stefan Salomon, Lisa Heschl, Gerd Oberleitner and Wolfgang Benedek

In Blurring Boundaries: Human Security and Forced Migration scholars from law and social sciences offer a fresh view on the major issues of forced migration through the lens of human security. Although much scholarship engages with forced migration and human security independently, they have hardly been weaved together in a comprehensive manner. The contributions cover the issues of refugee law, maritime migration, human smuggling and trafficking and environmental migration.

Blurring Boundaries critically engages boundaries produced in the law with the main ideas of human security, thus providing a much-needed novel vocabulary for a critical discourse in forced migration studies.

'Boat Refugees' and Migrants at Sea: A Comprehensive Approach

Integrating Maritime Security with Human Rights

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Edited by Violeta Moreno-Lax and Efthymios Papastavridis

This book aims to address ‘boat migration’ with a holistic approach. The different chapters consider the multiple facets of the phenomenon and the complex challenges they pose, bringing together knowledge from several disciplines and regions of the world within a single collection. Together, they provide an integrated picture of transnational movements of people by sea with a view to making a decisive contribution to our understanding of current trends and future perspectives and their treatment from legal-doctrinal, legal-theoretical, and non-legal angles. The final goal is to unpack the tension that exists between security concerns and individual rights in this context and identify tools and strategies to adequately manage its various components, garnering an inter-regional / multi-disciplinary dialogue, including input from international law, law of the sea, maritime security, migration and refugee studies, and human rights, to address the position of ‘migrants at sea’ thoroughly.

The Role of the State in Migration Control

The Legitimacy Gap and Moves towards a Regional Model

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Aoife McMahon

This research questions the seemingly ossified premise that states have an absolute discretion to control international migration. Applying Max Weber’s theories of legitimacy, it determines that while states have certain traditionally legitimate functions, migration control, as distinct from the determination of citizenship, is not one such function. Measures of migration control must thus be justified on a rational-legal basis, that is, on a minimal evidential basis.

Acknowledging the many obstacles states face in carrying out this legitimising exercise, it is suggested that a supranational approach at the regional level is the most sustainable long-term model, with an ultimate aim of achieving inter-regional cooperation on migration management on the basis of equality between regions.

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Violeta Moreno-Lax and Efthymios Papastavridis

The Civic Citizens of Europe

The Legal Potential for Immigrant Integration in the EU, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom

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Moritz Jesse

In The Civic Citizens of Europe: The Legal Potential for Immigrant Integration in the EU, Belgium, Germany, and the United Kingdom, Moritz Jesse analyses the legal framework within which inclusion of immigrants into the receiving societies can take place. The inclusion of immigrants cannot be enforced by law. However, legislation must provide the room within which integration can take place legally. By studying residence titles, procedures, rights to family migration, permanent residence, and integration measures in a comparative and critical way, Jesse wants to discover whether the legal potential for integration in the EU and the three Member States is sufficient for the inclusion of immigrants.

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Cristiano D’Orsi, Sergio Carciotto and Corey R. Johnson

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Violeta Moreno-Lax and Efthymios Papastavridis

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Violeta Moreno-Lax and Efthymios Papastavridis

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Eman Hamdan

In this study, Eman Hamdan examines the protection against refoulement under the European Convention on Human Rights and the UN Convention against Torture, with the aim to determine which of those Conventions affords better protection for international protection seekers.
Hamdan explores the scope and content of the principle of non-refoulement under both Conventions and the application of the principle to the immigration control measures and the extraordinary rendition operations.
The author provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the case-law of both the European Court of Human Rights and the UN Committee against Torture on the procedural and substantive aspects of the principle of non-refoulement, in order to help practitioners to determine which of these human rights treaty bodies is more favorable for their specific non-refoulement case.

This book was chosen to participate in the Professor Walther Hug Prize 2014-2015, which is a prize for the best legal researches in Switzerland for each academic year.

Reforming the Common European Asylum System

The New European Refugee Law

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Edited by Vincent Chetail, Philippe De Bruycker and Francesco Maiani

This book, edited by Vincent Chetail, Philippe De Bruycker and Francesco Maiani, is aimed at analysing the recent changes of the Common European Asylum System, the progress achieved and the remaining flaws. The overall objective and key added value of this volume are to provide a comprehensive and critical account of the recast instruments governing asylum law and policy in the European Union.

This book is the outcome of the 7th Congress of the Academic Network for Legal Studies on Immigration and Asylum in Europe held in Brussels in 2014. Contributors are: Hemme Battjes, Céline Bauloz, Ulrike Brandl, Vincent Chetail, Cathryn Costello, Philippe De Bruycker, Madeline Garlick, Elspeth Guild, Emily Hancox, Lyra Jakuleviciene, Francesco Maiani, Barbara Mikołajczyk, Géraldine Ruiz, Evangelia (Lilian) Tsourdi, Patricia Van De Peer and Jens Vedsted-Hansen.

Human Rights and the Refugee Definition

Comparative Legal Practice and Theory

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Edited by Bruce Burson and David James Cantor

Does human rights law help us to define who qualifies as a refugee? If so, then how? These deceptively simple questions sit at the heart of an intense contemporary debate over whether, or how, interpretation of the refugee definition in the Refugee Convention should take account of human rights law. In Human Rights and the Refugee Definition, Burson and Cantor bring a fine-grained comparative perspective to this debate. For the first time, they collect together in one edited volume over a dozen new studies by leading scholars and practitioners that explore in detail how these legal dynamics play out in a range of national and international jurisdictions and in relation to particular thematic challenges in refugee law.

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Heike Niebergall-Lackner

In this study, Heike Niebergall-Lackner discusses the classical military offence of desertion from the standpoint of international law.
Taking account of the three factual situations that might arise following a desertion in international armed conflicts - capture by the home country, capture or crossing over to the enemy party, and seeking refuge in a country not involved in the conflict – the examination offers a comprehensive overview of the treatment and the protection afforded to deserters under international human rights law, international humanitarian law and refugee law.

The examination is conducted against the background of the duties of soldiers under modern international law and shows that, depending on the legality of the conflict, desertion might represent the legitimate decision of the individual to act in accordance with these duties.

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Heike Niebergall-Lackner

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Khaled Hassine and Scott Leckie

In the first Commentary on the United Nations Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons – known colloquially as the Pinheiro Principles – Khaled Hassine and Scott Leckie outline the restitution rights of persons who have faced forced displacement and the loss of their homes, lands and properties.

The Commentary compiles and analyzes in considerable detail the legal contents of the Pinheiro Principles - a consolidated international instrument generated by the United Nations in 2005 to provide a solid normative framework on these questions and which legal duties exist for states and the international community to secure them. The book will be of vital interest for all actors concerned with applying restitution rights in practice.


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Liliana Lyra Jubilut, Camila Sombra Muiños de Andrade and Camila Marques Gilberto

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Bruce Burson and David James Cantor

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Vincent Chetail, Philippe De Bruycker and Francesco Maiani