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A Grammar of Makasar

A Language of South Sulawesi, Indonesia


Anthony Jukes

Edited by Paul James Sidwell

The book is a grammar of the Makasar language, spoken by about 2 million people in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Makasarese is a head–marking language which marks arguments on the predicate with a system of pronominal clitics, following an ergative/absolutive pattern. Full noun phrases are relatively free in order, while pre-predicate focus position which is widely used. The phonology is notable for the large number of geminate and pre–glottalised consonant sequences, while the morphology is characterised by highly productive affixation and pervasive encliticisation of pronominal and aspectual elements. The work draws heavily on literary sources reaching back more than three centuries; this tradition includes two Indic based scripts, a system based on Arabic, and various Romanised conventions.


Edited by Iwona Kraska-Szlenk

Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies: The ‘Head’ edited by Iwona Kraska-Szlenk adds to linguistic studies on embodied cognition and conceptualization while focusing on one body part term from a comparative perspective. The ‘head’ is investigated as a source domain for extending multiple concepts in various target domains accessed via metaphor or metonymy. The contributions in the volume provide comparative and case studies based on analyses of the first-hand data from languages representing all continents and diversified linguistic groups, including endangered languages of Africa, Australia and Americas. The book offers new reflections on the relationship between embodiment, cultural situatedness and universal tendencies of semantic change. The findings contribute to general research on metaphor, metonymy, and polysemy within a paradigm of cognitive linguistics.

Cambodia’s Muslims and the Malay World

Malay Language, Jawi Script, and Islamic Factionalism from the 19th Century to the Present


Philipp Bruckmayr

In this monograph Philipp Bruckmayr examines the development of Cambodia’s Muslim minority from the mid-19th to the 21st century. During this period Cambodia’s Cham and Chvea Muslims established strong relationships with Malay centers of Islamic learning in Patani, Kelantan and Mecca. During the 1970s to the early 1990s these longstanding relationships came to a sudden halt due to civil war and the systematic Khmer Rouge repression. Since the 1990s ties to the Malay world have been revived and new Islamic currents, including Salafism and Tablighism, have left their mark on contemporary Cambodian Islam. Bruckmayr traces how these dynamics resulted inter alia in a history of local Islamic factionalism, culminating in the eventual state recognition of two separate Islamic congregations in the late 1990s.

A Grammar of Nungon

A Papuan Language of Northeast New Guinea


Hannah Sarvasy

A Grammar of Nungon is the most comprehensive modern reference grammar of a language of northeast Papua New Guinea. Nungon is a previously-undescribed Finisterre-Huon Papuan language spoken by about 1,000 people in the Saruwaged Mountains, Morobe Province. Hannah Sarvasy provides a rich description of the language in its cultural context, based on original immersion fieldwork. The exposition is extraordinarily thorough, covering phonetics, phonology, word classes, morphology, grammatical relations, switch-reference, valency, complex predicates, clause combining, possession, information structure, and the pragmatics of communication. Four complete interlinearized Nungon monologues and dialogues supplement the copious textual examples. A Grammar of Nungon sets a new standard of thoroughness for reference works on languages of this region.

English in Malaysia

Current Use and Status


Edited by Toshiko Yamaguchi and David Deterding

English in Malaysia: Current Use and Status offers an account of the English language used in present-day West and East Malaysia and its status anchored in different linguistic, social and educational domains. After an Introduction giving a bird’s eye view of the status of English in Malaysia, the eight main chapters offer case studies revolving around four themes:
i. linguistic features, with special focus on pronunciation and language contact;
ii. language attitudes;
iii. English in on-line discourse; and
iv. English and language policies.

The chapters cover original data and topics, seeking to draw an accurate portrait of Malaysian English, a non-native variety of postcolonial English that is currently developing its pronunciation, grammar, lexis and distinct identity.


Edited by Toshiko Yamaguchi and David Deterding


Edited by Toshiko Yamaguchi and David Deterding

Dairi Stories and Pakpak Storytelling

A Storytelling Tradition from the North Sumatran Rainforest


Clara Brakel-Papenhuijzen

This study of traditional literature in Pakpak-Dairi, an endangered North Sumatran language, is based on written and oral versions of stories. Discussing the views of well-known scholars of Sumatran languages, the book includes the texts of seven stories which were collected in North Sumatra by the well-known linguist Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk (1824-1894) and are kept in Leiden University Library.
The book also contains a story performed in the village of Sukarame by Sonang Sitakar, who may well have been one of the last Pakpak-Dairi storytellers. Presenting unique information on an endangered literary genre from North Sumatra.

A Dictionary of the Kedang Language



Ursula Samely and Robert H. Barnes

A Dictionary of the Kedang Language presents the first extensive published record of an Austronesian language on the remote Eastern Indonesian island of Lembata. A special interest of the dictionary resides in the fact that Kedang lies on the boundary line between Austronesian and Papuan languages in Eastern Indonesia. The Kedang entries are translated first into Indonesian and then into English. For ease of access, finder lists are provided in Indonesian and in English. The Introduction situates the language linguistically and sketches the phonology and morphology, as well as the 'pairing' (dyadic sets) in ritual and everyday usage of items of vocabulary characteristic of Kedang.


Edited by Alexandra Aikhenvald and Anne Storch

Every language has a way of talking about seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. In about a quarter of the world's languages, grammatical evidentials express means of perception. In some languages verbs of vision subsume cognitive meanings. In others, cognition is associated with a verb of auditory perception, touch, or smell. 'Vision' is not the universally preferred means of perception. In numerous cultures, taboos are associated with forbidden visual experience. Vision may be considered intrusive and aggressive, and linked with power. In contrast, 'hearing' and 'listening' are the main avenues for learning, understanding and 'knowing'. The studies presented in this book set out to explore how these meanings and concepts are expressed in languages of Africa, Oceania, and South America.


Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and Anne Storch


Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and Anne Storch


Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and Anne Storch


Edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and Anne Storch

Deriving Nominals

A Syntactic Account of Malagasy Nominalizations


Dimitrios Ntelitheos

This book provides a detailed study of nominalizing patterns in Malagasy (Austronesian) and discusses the broader theoretical issues that arise from these patterns. It explores new and original fieldwork data drawn from the largely unexplored domain of Malagasy deverbal nominals. Offering new insights to long-standing puzzles in the derivation of argument-structure, referential, and clausal nominals, the book promotes a single structure-building mechanism, which allows nominalizers to attach at different heights in the clausal spine to derive nominals with different morphosyntactic properties. In addition, it provides a novel analysis of participant nominalizations, showing that they are derived through the same mechanism that derives relative clauses, and thus setting the stage for new and exciting research directions.

S. Moeimam and H. Steinhauer

Dit uitgebreide, door een team van deskundigen samengestelde Nederlands-Indonesisch woordenboek is het eerste woordenboek gebaseerd op modern Nederlands, met Bahasa Indonesia, de officiële taal van de Republiek Indonesië, als doeltaal.
Het woordenboek is het resultaat van een gezamenlijk Nederlands-Indonesisch initiatief dat in 1997 werd gestart met financiële ondersteuning van de Commissie voor Lexicografische Vertaalvoorzieningen van de Nederlandse Taalunie, het Indonesische Centrum voor Taalontwikkeling en Taalcultivering (Pusat Bahasa), de Universitas Indonesia, de Universiteit Leiden, de Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) en het International Institute for Asian Studies te Leiden.
Het woordenboek heeft een omvang van 1.152 bladzijden en bevat meer dan 46.000 ingangen met grammaticale informatie, collocaties, voorbeeldzinnen en idiomen. De in Nederland uitgebrachte versie is met name gericht op de behoeften van Nederlandstalige gebruikers, voor wie het Indonesisch een vreemde taal is. Dat wil zeggen dat, wanneer een Nederlands woord of uitdrukking meer dan één Indonesisch equivalent heeft, contextuele of andere aanvullende informatie gepresenteerd wordt, waardoor de gebruiker tot de juiste vertaling kan komen.
rijst (op het veld of ongedorst) padi, (gedorst, onbereid) beras, (bereid) nasi in plaats van rijst beras, nasi, padi
Samen met het Indonesisch-Nederlands woordenboek van A. Teeuw (KITLV Uitgeverij, zesde editie, 2009), is dit Nederlands-Indonesisch woordenboek onmisbaar voor ieder die zich iets meer dan oppervlakkig met de studie van het moderne standaard-Indonesisch wil bezighouden.

A. Teeuw

The first comprehensive Indonesian-Dutch dictionary to appear in decades, this book is the result of a team project initiated by the Department of Indonesian Studies of the University of Leiden in 1981. Now in its sixth edition—containing 34,000 entries and 871 pages—this dictionary remains the most comprehensive Indonesian dictionary in a Western language to date.

H. Steinhauer

Het Leerboek Indonesisch is de meest complete beschrijving van de nationale taal van Indonesië, de taal van alle officiële communicatie, van pers, radio en televisie, literatuur, onderwijs en wetenschap. Het is de taal die iedere Indonesiër en buitenlander in Indonesië moet kennen om vooruit te komen.
Het boek bestaat uit twintig lessen, elk met woordenlijsten, oefeningen en een meeslepende, doorlopende leestekst. Dankzij de bijbehorende cd-rom, de cumulatieve woordenlijsten Indonesisch-Nederlands en Nederlands-Indonesisch en de toegevoegde sleutel tot de oefeningen is het boek geschikt voor zelfstudie, maar het kan uiteraard ook worden gebruikt in klas of collegezaal.
Prof.dr. A. Teeuw, emeritus hoogleraar Indonesisch aan de Universiteit Leiden schreef over dit leerboek: "De beste beschrijving van het morfologische systeem van het Indonesisch".

Edited by Russell Jones

This is a register of twenty thousand loan-words in Indonesian and Malay, deriving from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Tamil, Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, English and Japanese.
Given for each are the Indonesian or Malay headword, the word in the source language, and, for foreign scripts, the page where it is to be found in a bilingual dictionary of the source language. Since each headword is provided with an English translation, this is a potentially convenient reference base for compilers of dictionaries of European languages who will find it useful to draw on this material to improve their etymologies. More importantly, it provides a resource for researchers into the etymologies of other languages of Asia, a somewhat undeveloped field, since many of the loan-words (from Arabic for example) are veritable Wanderwörter which may turn up anywhere.
With this publication, Indonesian is served with an etymological resource which few other Asian languages can claim, and from which many may benefit. The dictionary is accompanied by a DVD with a facsimile of Carstairs Douglas' Amoy dictionary, with Chinese characters written in by hand, and Thomas Barclay's Supplement to this dictionary.


A. Engelenhoven

Leti is spoken on the island with the same name near the Indonesian-East Timorese border. This small Austronesian language became known among linguists for the complex patterns of metathesis permeating its entire grammar.
Besides little discussed topics, like its intricate deictic system and lexical parallelism, this book provides information on intriguing features of the Leti language that remained undescribed, such as singing, naming, storytelling and the semantics of the indexer clitic.
A complete version of the Sailfish myth that underlies the structures of all Southwest Malukan island communities has been added. The entire text is provided with interlinear glosses. All lexical items in the text and in the description have been inserted in a word list together with all lexical parallels.
Being the first exhaustive study of a Southwest Malukan language, this description is a valuable contribution to the typological study of East Indonesia and East Timor and to Austronesian linguistics. The abundance of examples makes it of interest also for linguists with a theoretical orientation in phonology, syntax and semantics. The 'insider's perspective' approach provides essential information for students of ethnolinguistics and oral traditions in the region.

Hein Vruggink and Johan Sarmo

Wat ooit begon als een Surinaams taalproject in Paramaribo in 1980 en later in Nederland werd voortgezet met steun van de stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek van de Tropen (WOTRO), kreeg na twintig jaar zijn beslag in dit woordenboek van het Surinaams-Javaans. Het legt voor de sprekers van deze variant van het Javaans voor het eerst hun taal vast; een taal die een geheel eigen ontwikkeling heeft doorgemaakt. Het woordenboek is verder een onontbeerlijk hulpmiddel voor iedereen die op de een of andere manier met het Surinaams-Javaans in aanraking komt, hetzij in Suriname hetzij in Nederland.
Zowel mondelinge als schriftelijke bronnen, maar ook inlichtingen van informanten vormen de basis voor dit woordenboek. De woordenschat is die van het Surinaams-Javaans zoals dat in de jaren tachtig en begin jaren negentig in Suriname werd gesproken. Het accent ligt op de spreektaal.
English: Over the course of 20 years, what started out as a Surinamese language project in Paramaribo in 1977, and which was later continued in the Netherlands, with the support of the foundation Scientific Research of the Tropics (WOTRO), resulted in this dictionary of Surinamese Javanese. It records, for the first time, the language of the speakers of this variant of Javanese, a language with its own unique development. The dictionary is an indispensable tool for anyone coming into contact with Surinamese Javanese, either in Suriname or in the Netherlands. The basis for this dictionary is formed by mainly oral and few written sources, complemented by relevance added through the use of informants. The vocabulary is that of Surinamese Javanese as spoken in Suriname in the eighties and early nineties, with an emphasis on vernacular language.

M. Termorshuizen-Arts

This dictionary has mainly been compiled for Dutch translators, lawyers and others working with Indonesian law. In the colonial era large parts of Dutch law were 'exported' to Indonesia. Apart from being a dictionary of Dutch judicial terms, the book aims to give the reader a clear understanding of Indonesian law and tries to make it accessible by way of comparative law. Attention is given not only to modern law, but also to historical aspects. Of the most important legal expressions the history is described. In the model sentences Dutch legal notions are explained in Indonesian and subsequently linked with Indonesian law. Of all Indonesian expressions the more important sources of legislation and literature are given.
This dictionary will also be a useful tool for Indonesian lawyers who still stumble across so many Dutch legal expressions in their daily practices.

R. van den Berg

This is the first major dictionary of the Muna language, a regional language spoken in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It presents a wide range of words, expressions and sentences to reflect the unique character of the language and its speech community. This publication includes a wealth of information on the Muna language and culture.
This dictionary is a sequel to A Grammar of the Muna Language (KITLV Press, 1989) by the same author.


L. de Vries and R. de Vries-Wiersma

In this book an outline is given of the morphology of Wambon with an emphasis on placing the data in the wider context of the present typological knowledge about Papuan languages. The descriptions are amply illustrated by examples. These examples, mostly taken from recorded texts, have been provided with word-for-word glosses and English translations. Four Wambon texts complete the description.

Stuart Robson

Whenever Javanese scholars are asked to name the high points of their literature, almost certainly they will include the Wédhatama. This is because it is considered to contain the ‘highest wisdom’ appropriately cast in a mould of fine poetic language.
The challenge of translation has already been met by several others, so that we can speak of ongoing process of interpretation, in which the present English translation represents only the most recent stage and in turn invites the critics to correct and improve it, as our knowledge of Javanese language and literature grows and deepens. On the other hand, though, any statement on this subject, relating to the highest spiritual truths, can be no more than an approximation; in the end words fail, leaving only something like a star or flame pointing the way onward (compare Wédhatama IV .21, and see the drawing on the front cover).
This working paper offers an English translation, accompanied by the standard Javanese text, for the perusal of students, with a short introduction and a number of explanatory notes intended to aid the process of interpretation.

Stuart Robson

The personal view of philology presented in the Working Paper is both a stocktaking and a programme for development. At a time when Indonesian and foreign scholars are asking questions about the Indonesian ‘classical literary heritage’, a fresh impulse is needed to propel the work of philologists forward. Their work is to make texts accessible, and they achieve this through both the techniques of presentation and of explanation and interpretation; philology is thus more than mere ‘textual criticism’, according to Stuart Robson.
Existing views are assessed in a critical but balanced manner and fruitful avenues of exploration are pointed to. It turns out that thinking on philology is moving ahead faster than one might suspect, so that the form of the Working Paper is appropriate to suggest an on-going process, where views neglected today may receive more attention tomorrow.
The publication of texts from manuscript materials in Indonesian languages calls for a consideration of method: no one method is prescribed; one has to take account of genre, it is suggested, as well as textual tradition. Furthermore, part of the aesthetic content of a text is lost if we fail to consider how it sounds, its ‘music’. And finally, there is surely room for more literary translations from Indonesian texts—all part of an endeavour to introduce them to a wider audience and to foster a better understanding of their nature and content.

The Wolio Language

Outline of Grammatical Description and Texts. 2nd Edition

J.C. Anceaux


M. Baier

The Ngaju-Dayak tribes of southern Borneo still adhere to their traditional religion, even though Christian missionary work began there in 1835. Their traditional religion, agama kaharingan, is presently the only autochthonous religion in South East Asia that is officially recognized by the government. Their ritual texts have been written down and are embodied in a priest language ( bahasa sangiang). Martin Baier has compiled terms and examples of this language and presents modern Ngaju and Indonesian equivalents of these, as well as a German translation.

L. Onvlee

Woordenboek van het Kamberaas, een taal die voornamelijk wordt gesproken in het district Kambera, rondom Waingapoe, de hoofdplaats van Oost-Soemba.
Zoveel mogelijk zijn aan het begin van een artikel de etymologische verwante woorden in zes andere Soembase dialecten opgenomen, te weten Mangili (Oost-Soemba), Lewa (Midden-Soemba), Anakalang en Mamboroe in het oostelijk deel van West-Soemba en Wewewa en Kodi, uit het westelijk deel van West-Soemba.
In de inleiding geeft de samensteller nadere informatie over schrift en uitspraak; trefwoord, woordafleiding door affigering; grammaticale vormen; modale elementen; samenstellingen met ningu en wàngu; voegwoorden; leenwoorden; en Nederlands-Kamberaas register.

F.S. Eringa

Woordenboek van het standaard Soendaas, zoals het wordt gesproken in en om Bandung, en zoals deze in geschreven vorm wordt aangetroffen in Volkslectuur-uitgaven en in de diverse media.
De oorsprong van deze publicatie ligt in the woordenboek samengesteld door R.A. Kern, die zijn materiaal putte uit de Soendase uitgaven van Bale Pustaka en uit het woordenboek van Satjadibrata (1948). Na het overlijden van Kern in 1958 werd het manuscript aangevuld en bewerkt door F.S. Eringa, die zijn eigen gegevens in het woordenboek incorporeerde. Deze publicatie is de opvolger van het Soendaneesch-Hollandsch woordenboek van S. Coolsma (1913).
De samensteller heeft woorden opgenomen die tot Soendase dialecten behoren (aangeduid met dial) en woorden die tot het literaire taalgebruik behoren ( lit).

P.J. Zoetmulder

De Taal van het Adiparwa vormt de enige algemene studie van de Oud-Javaanse grammatica. Dit in 1950 voor het eerst verschenen overzicht baseert zich op de tekstuitgave van het Oud-Javaanse prozageschrift Adiparwa, zoals H.H. Juynboll die in 1906 uitgaf. Deze tekst is door haar betrekkelijke eenvoud bij uitstek geschikt om te dienen als uitgangspunt voor verdere studie van het Oud-Javaans.
In het boek worden morfologie en syntaxis grondig geanalyseerd. Deze analyse is ondanks de ontwikkelingen in de studie van de taalkunde en het Oud-Javaans nog steeds waardevol. Naast de waarde als grammatica heeft deze uitgave groot nut als handleiding bij de vertaling van het Adiparwa; honderden zinnen uit dit prozastuk zijn voorzien van een passende Nederlandse vertaling.
Deze heruitgave is mede gericht op studenten die voor het eerst kennis maken met het Oud-Javaans. Met de andere werken die Professor Zoetmulder op zijn wetenschapsterrein publiceerde wil dit boek de belangstelling stimuleren voor en de aanzet geven tot nieuwe studie naar de Oud-Javaanse grammatica.

A. A. Cense

This dictionary is based on the 2nd printing (1885) of the Macassarese-Dutch dictionary of Dr. B.F. Matthes. The collection of material started in 1935, but with regularity only from 1967 onward. All Macassarese words and sentences are rendered in transcription with Latin characters only; the keywords are listed in alphabetical order. As many examples as possible are given of the word use in the sentence (sometimes covering the field of syntax), as e.g. proverbs, phrases and expressions. Dialects, often very different from the Macassarese, are only seldom included. Sometimes the information has an encyclopaedic character. The dictionary includes a Dutch-Macassarese index.

Joh. Warneck

A revised edition of Joh. Warneck's Toba-Bataksch–Deutsches Wörterbuch (Landsdrukkerij, Batavia, 1906). The additions and corrections in this edition are by the late J. Winkler, who, like the author, worked in Sumatra for the Rheinischen Missionsgesellschaft. It also includes a 42 page register Deutsch–Batak, compiled by K.A. Adelaar, aimed to facilitate the use of the dictionary for linguistic purposes.


Bernd Nothofer

The work is concerned with the reconstruction of the phonemes of Proto-Malayo-Javanic, the last proto-language which is directly continued by the Sundanese, Javanese, Malay, and Madurese. Part one contains a lexicostatistical calculation of the degrees of relationship among the four languages and a brief description of the phonology and morphophonemics of each language. Part two is devoted to the reconstruction of Proto-Malayo-Javanic phonemes. It shows inter alia that evidence from Malayo-Javanic languages requires the reconstruction of a number of Proto-Malayo-Javanic phonemes which hitherto have not been reconstructed for proto-languages of higher order or the proto-language of highest order, i.e. Proto-Austronesian. The appendix contains the basic vocabulary lists for the four languages, a map showing previously assumed language boundaries separating Sundanese, Jakarta Malay, Javanese and Madurese, and a revised map showing language boundaries as revealed in the course of the research, as well as Sundanese dialect maps. An index of the Proto-Malayo-Javanic reconstructions follows.

H.N. van der Tuuk

Kamus Manggarai

II: Indonesia-Manggarai

J.A.J. Verheijen

Kamus Manggarai

I: Manggarai-Indonesia

J.A.J. Verheijen

K.G. Steller and W.E. Aebersold

Beknopte Indonesische grammatica

Van klassiek naar modern Maleis

de Boer

Atjèhsch handwoordenboek