Browse results

Author: Erin Shay
This is the first broad, detailed grammar of the Giziga language, which belongs to the Chadic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. The language is spoken in parts of the Far North Region of the Republic of Cameroon and can be divided into two dialects, Giziga and Northern Giziga, with about 80,000 native speakers in total. This volume describes the Giziga dialect, occasionally referring to the Northern variety, and aims to provide new information about this and other Afro-Asiatic languages for further research in linguistics, history, anthropology, sociology and related fields. The book will also be a tool helping Giziga speakers preserve their language, history and culture for future generations.
Structure and Socio-Pragmatics of a Nilotic Language of Uganda
Author: Maren Rüsch
A Conversational Analysis of Acholi elucidates various interaction strategies for the Nilotic language Acholi. Based on detailed examples, Maren Rüsch links the structural organization of Acholi conversations to cultural features such as politeness, language socialization and narrations. Despite common claims of universality regarding the structuring of human languages by previous authors, the study shows that some Acholi strategies differ from other languages. The verbal and non-verbal practices displayed give an in-depth insight into speakers’ cognitive participation during interaction.
On the basis of in-situ research in Uganda, including the collection of rich audio- and video-material, this volume provides an innovative approach to language documentation and description and constitutes a thorough conversation analytic study of an African language.
In A Grammar of Lopit, Jonathan Moodie and Rosey Billington provide the first detailed description of Lopit, an Eastern Nilotic language traditionally spoken in the Lopit Mountains in South Sudan. Drawing on extensive primary data, the authors describe the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the Lopit language. Their analyses offer new insights into phenomena characteristic of Nilo-Saharan languages, such as ‘Advanced Tongue Root’ vowel distinctions, tripartitite number marking, and marked-nominative case systems, and they uncover patterns which are previously unattested within the Eastern Nilotic family, such as a three-way contrast in aspect, number marking with the ‘greater singular’, and two kinds of inclusory constructions. This book offers a significant contribution to the descriptive and typological literature on African languages.
Author: Sergio Baldi
Following the publication in 2008 of Dictionnaire des emprunts arabes dans les langues de l'Afrique de l'Ouest et en Swahili, Dictionary of Arabic Loanwords in the Languages of Central and East Africa completes and offers the results of over 20 years of research on Arabic loanwords. The volume reveals the impact Arabic has had on African languages far beyond the area of its direct influence. As in the previous volume, the author analyses the loans in the greatest possible number of languages spoken in the area, based on the publications he found in the most important libraries of the main universities and academic institutions specialised in the field. By suggesting the most frequently used Arabic loanwords, the dictionary will be an invaluable guide to African-language lexicon compilers, amongst others.
In: Dictionary of Arabic Loanwords in the Languages of Central and East Africa
In: Dictionary of Arabic Loanwords in the Languages of Central and East Africa
Editor: Bonny Sands
Click Consonants is an indispensable volume for those who want to understand the linguistics of clicks. Contributions include cutting edge research on the phonetic and phonological characteristics of clicks, as well as on sound changes involving clicks, and clicks in perception, in L2 acquisition, and in apraxia of speech.

Contributors are Wm. G. Bennett, Catherine T. Best, Hilde Gunnink, Dan Dediu, E.D. Elderkin, Anne-Maria Fehn, Sean Fulop, Florian Lionnet, Timothy K. Mathes, Kirk Miller, Scott Moisik, Michael Proctor, Bonny Sands, Signal Analysis and Interpretation Laboratory (SAIL) members (Adam Lammert, Asterios Toutios, Shrikanth Narayanan, Yinghua Zhu), Mollie Steyn, Anita van der Merwe, Richard Wright.
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
Authors: Scott Moisik and Dan Dediu

Abstract

This chapter provides an examination of results from a large-scale phonetic learning study featuring two types of clicks ((post)alveolar and dental). Although the primary goal of the study is to investigate the role of anatomical variation in biasing speech production, our focus here is on the details of participant production strategies. In general, those participants who could not readily produce clicks either showed awareness of the components of click articulation but lacked sufficient coordination of these to successfully produce a click, or they employed one of a variety of substitution strategies, most commonly producing an ejective or (un-)aspirated voiceless stop instead. Individuals who were successful at forming clicks tended to employ a lowered-velum strategy.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Bonny Sands

Abstract

Click consonants have proven to be a challenge to researchers over the years. This chapter describes the various ways of transcribing them and various instrumental techniques for studying them. This chapter provides a survey of approaches that have been used to study various aspects of clicks, including their phonetic description, acquisition, and diachronic development. Readers will be introduced to little-known contrasts, such as ejective vs. glottalized clicks, and uvular vs. velar clicks. New evidence is provided for three click types that are not yet recognized by the IPA, the fricated palatal laminal /⨎/, the retroflex /ǃǃ/, and the forward-released lateral /ǀǀǀ/. Trends for future avenues of research are also discussed.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Hilde Gunnink

Abstract

The Bantu language Fwe, spoken in Zambia and Namibia, has a relatively small inventory of click phonemes, which displays extensive variation. Voicing and nasality are contrastive features, but click type can be freely interchanged. In the central variety of Fwe, there is additional free variation between clicks and non-click velar consonants. This variation is the result of a continuum between the northern variety of Fwe, which has lost clicks, and the southern variety of Fwe, where clicks are maintained.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Anne-Maria Fehn

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the patterns of click loss and replacement in the Khoe-Kwadi family, and their use in subclassification. Previously unpublished data on languages of the Kalahari Khoe subgroup is presented, along with a discussion of previous work. Case studies on palatal and alveolar click loss show sociolinguistic triggers and a quick progress of the shift. This observation, along with the presence of “partial retention” in some languages, suggests that click loss may be recent and ongoing, rather than of marked genealogical depth. Cases of click loss in Sesfontein Damara and Kwadi further discourage the use of the sound shift to demarcate a genealogical unit “Eastern Kalahari Khoe”.

The loss of click consonants and partial replacement by non-click phonemes in languages of the Khoe-Kwadi family is important for genealogical subclassification.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Wm. G. Bennett

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview and discussion of some of the current and long-standing questions surrounding clicks, including their phonological representation and structure, phonological patterns influenced by clicks, and the distribution of clicks. Particular attention is paid to the cross-linguistic typology of clicks, with an eye towards considering the typological predictions of various proposed analyses, and towards the question of whether phonetically complex clicks should be analyzed as single segments or as consonant clusters.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Anne-Maria Fehn

Abstract

Clicks in the Ju subgroup of Kx’a are subject to processes of replacement and loss. This paper discusses historical instances of replacement of one click by another, and presents previously unpublished data on click loss patterns in a variety of ǃXun spoken in the Cunene Province of Angola. Click replacement is relevant for genealogical subclassification within Ju, but these historical patterns bear no detectable relationship to the click loss seen in modern-day lects. Loss of the alveolar and palatal influx series as found in some Angolan ǃXun varieties displays patterns similar to Kalahari Khoe and may be seen as further evidence for click loss as a typological phenomenon affecting the “Khoisan” speaking area of southern Africa.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Kirk Miller

Abstract

Reports of clicks are often mistaken; many turn out to be ejectives. Even for languages that have clicks, early reports sometimes conflated them with ejectives. A few examples from the literature are given, as well as summaries of the phonotactics of two conlangs that actually do have clicks.

In: Click Consonants

Abstract

This chapter examines the properties of click consonant-tone interaction in the Kalahari Khoe East language Tsua. Lexical data show that the Fundamental Frequency (F0) of root-initial High tones may be significantly lowered when following voiced obstruents, aspirated obstruents or the glottal fricative /h/, a typologically rare pattern of tonal depression. While this chapter focuses on click consonants, both clicks and non-clicks participate in the interaction. Nevertheless, 19.3% of root-initial High tones that are expected to be lowered in the post-depressor context are not. It is argued that the tonal depression exceptions involving voiced clicks correspond to historically nasalized clicks, consonants which are not depressors in Tsua synchronically or diachronically. The relevance of click replacement is discussed along with several implications.

In: Click Consonants
Author: E.D. Elderkin

Abstract

Previous work has postulated for pKhoe two click series which showed nasalization, one nasalized and the other probably a prenasalized voiced plosive. The first part of this paper demonstrates that these two series are in complementary distribution and that therefore only one nasalized click series need be reconstructed. The second part of this paper discusses developments of this one series within the Khoe languages and especially in Khwe, in which language there are today two distinctive series, both nasalized clicks and prenasalized voiced clicks; particular attention is given to those items in modern Khwe in which the phonological structure is different from that expected to be found as a regular development from pKhoe, and whose presence had been material in leading previous researchers to project backwards into pKhoe the existence of two click series showing nasalization.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Kirk Miller

Abstract

Informal reports suggest that Hadza children acquire clicks relatively early, consistent with reports for Xhosa and Gǀui. Markedness, as defined by age of childhood acquisition, therefore cannot fully explain the relative rarity of clicks in the world's languages. Some click-substitutions by toddlers are given, along with words with clicks that are used predominantly by children.

In: Click Consonants
Author: Florian Lionnet

Abstract

This chapter gives a preliminary phonetic and pragmatic description of four clicks used as verbal gestures in Laal, a language isolate of southern Chad whose regular phonemic inventory does not include click consonants. The four clicks are: dental, lateral, back-released velar, and a bilabial-alveolar/lateral click known as “tchip” in the francophone African diaspora, “suck-teeth” in African American communities. The first three have both affective and logical (yes/no, backchannel) uses, while the last one is only affective. These clicks, or variants thereof, seem to be attested in a vast region extending at least from the Atlantic coast to Chad and Cameroon. A preliminary comparison with similar clicks in Wolof is given, showing both strong similarities and systematic differences.

In: Click Consonants