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In: Ecumenical Community
In: Ecumenical Community
In: Ecumenical Community
In: Ecumenical Community
In: Ecumenical Community
In: Ecumenical Community
A Semantic Study of the Roots n-z-l and w-ḥ-y
Author: Simon P. Loynes
In Revelation in the Qur’an Simon P. Loynes presents a semantic study of the Arabic roots n-z-l and w-ḥ-y in order to elucidate the modalities of revelation in the Qur’an. Through an exhaustive analysis of their occurrences in the Qur’an, and with reference to pre-Islamic poetry, Loynes argues that the two roots represent distinct occurrences, with the former concerned with spatial events and the latter with communicative. This has significant consequences for understanding the Qur’an’s unique concept of revelation and how this is both in concord and at variance with earlier religious traditions.
Language and Politics of the Ummah in the Qurʾan
Author: Hamza M. Zafer
In Ecumenical Community, Hamza M. Zafer explores the language and politics of community-formation in the Qurʾan. Zafer proposes that ecumenism, or the inclusivity of social difference, was a key alliance-building strategy in the western Arabian proto-Muslim communitarian movement (1st/7th century). The Proto-Muslims imagined that their pietistic community—the ummah—transcended but did not efface prior social differences based in class, clan, and custom. In highlighting the inclusive orientation of the Qurʾan's ummah-building program, Zafer provides new insights into the development of early Islam and the period preceding the Arab conquests.

Abstract

COVID-19 has been declared as a global pandemic by World Health Organisation (WHO). Certain Muslims associated the emergence of Al-Ṯurāyya with the fading of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This article aimed to discuss the text and context of the Hadith Al-Ṯurāyya (الثُريَّـــــــــــا) and its link to the termination of COVID-19. Classical and contemporary scholars’ opinions were analysed in this study. The methodology used involved inductive and deductive supplemented with critical analysis determining the most appropriate opinion on this matter. Further empirical study of the visibility of Al-Ṯurāyya in the Islamic history were analysed using Stellarium Astronomy Software 0.20.0. The findings of the study revealed that the hadith refers to the disappearance of disease pertaining to fruits and crops and not to related to the end of any pandemic. Additionally, the rise of Al-Ṯurāyya showed no connection with pandemic termination in the Islamic history. In conclusion, the claim that COVID-19 will disappear with the emergence of Al-Ṯurāyya can be rejected.

In: Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur'an and Hadith Studies

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the educational theory of peace in the Holy Qurʾan by conducting a holistic, systematic analysis of the word “peace” and introducing its different meanings in the Holy Qurʾan. To achieve this aim, the researchers utilized a scientific approach that consisted of the following procedures: conducting a meta-analysis of the word “peace” in the Holy Qurʾan by using statistics from Quran Explorer, resulting in 136 words for peace mentioned in 48 chapters; classifying the meanings of “peace”, resulting in 13 different meanings; and creating a meta-synthesis of the word “peace” according to three different subgroups that share common concepts. Finally, the theory of Islamic interactive peace was formulated. The paper concludes that of all mentions of peace in the Qurʾan, external peace constitutes 68%, internal peace 21% and meta peace 11%. This result emphasizes the importance of peace between nations and states to gain stability in the world.

In: Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur'an and Hadith Studies

Abstract

The Holy Qurʾan has many terms that exhibit a great similarity in meaning and may not be easily rendered into another language. The present study attempts to explore the accuracy of the lexical choices used to render the Arabic near-synonyms ʿfawa, ṣafaḥa, and ġafara into English in three Translations of the Holy Qurʾan; namely, Pickthall (1999), Ali (2001), and Al-Hilali and Khan (2018). The researchers carried out a componential analysis for the Arabic words under study and their English equivalents based on their explanation in different Arabic and English dictionaries and exegeses. The study also investigates whether the translators maintain consistency in translating these words when they occur within the same verse and elsewhere. The findings show that the translators tended to use different English equivalents to the three Arabic words especially when they occur within the same verse, and sometimes failed to reflect the slight differences between them in their translations that they use them interchangeably. With regard to consistency, the study found that the three translators used various English equivalents to refer to the same Arabic word, but Al-Hilali & Khan and Ali were more consistent than Pickthall.

In: Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur'an and Hadith Studies

Abstract

Abū Ḥātim Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Rāzī was a leading figure in the science of ḥadīth transmission and considered among the early generation in ḥadīth transmitter criticism (what are known as al-ǧarḥ wa al-taʿdīl, impugning and approving). However, later ḥadīth scholars classified Abū Ḥātim as a mutašaddid (severe) ḥadīth critic, based on his abundant evaluations and criticisms of the ḥadīth transmitters. The evaluation of his criticism is sometimes ambiguous and sometimes supplemented by clear statements and proofs. This ambiguity usually occurs as a result of the sophisticated terminologies, different uses of multiple meanings of a word, inconsistencies and the unusual presence of contradictions. This matter may lead to confusion and misunderstanding among contemporary scholars and students of ḥadīth transmitter criticism. Among the terms he used were ‘laysa bi al-qawī’ and ‘laysa bi qawī’, which literally means ‘not strong’ and deny the credibility of a transmitter, or totally rejects his or her ḥadīth. However, based on our exploratory analysis of how Abū Ḥātim employed those terms, they cannot be accepted in a literal sense. Therefore, this article aims to thoroughly scrutinize the severity of Abū Ḥātim when he evaluates a transmitter in comparison to other master ḥadīth critics. To summarize, Abū Ḥātim’s terminology is very important for understanding his methodology, which certainly has an impact on ḥadīth transmitter criticism as well as the ultimate goals of al-ǧarḥ wa al-taʿdīl, i.e., the authenticity of prophetic ḥadīth.

In: Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur'an and Hadith Studies

Abstract

This paper examines one of Allah’s names (Al-Raḥmān, the Merciful), and the unique manner in which it appears within some verses, in contexts that do not reflect its meaning – derived from ‘Mercy’. In light of multiple perspectives by scholars on this, it was imperative to read into the name’s mention in the Quran, study what has been introduced by scholars, and differentiate Al-Raḥmān from Al-Raḥīm (also derived from Mercy). Additionally, it was important to examine the various contexts to better comprehend the name’s definition and address the primary question of why it appears in contexts that do not reflect its original meaning. This paper also sheds light on Surah Al-Raḥmān, as it bears the name, in search for some of its secrets. The study concluded that the placement of the name did not contradict its linguistic status. Appearing in varying contexts is intended as a message, to remind of Allah’s mercy and grace, and that Islam is built on the principle of mercy, which is a message to all humanity, Muslims and particularly preachers, to embody the mercy that Allah sent His Messenger (PBUH).

In: Al-Bayan: Journal of Qur'an and Hadith Studies
Ibn Mujāhid and the Founding of the Seven Readings
Author: Shady Nasser
In The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān, Nasser studies the transmission and reception of the Qurʾānic text and its variant readings through the work of Ibn Mujāhid (d. 324/936), the founder of the system of the Seven Eponymous Readings of the Qurʾān. The overarching project aims to track and study the scrupulous revisions the Qurʾān underwent, in its recited, oral form, through the 1,400-year journey towards a final, static, and systematized text.
For the very first time, the book offers a complete and detailed documentation of all the variant readings of the Qurʾān as recorded by Ibn Mujāhid. A comprehensive audio recording accompanies the book, with more than 3,500 audio files of Qurʾānic recitations of variant readings.
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In: The Second Canonization of the Qurʾān (324/936)
In The Semantics of Qurʾanic Language: al-Āḫira, Ghassan el Masri offers a semantic study of the concept al-āḫira ‘the End’ in the Qurʾān. The study is prefaced with a detailed account of the late antique concept of etymologia (Semantic Etymology). In his work, he demonstrates the necessity of this concept for appreciating the Qurʾān’s rhetorical strategies for claiming discursive authority in the Abrahamic theological tradition. The author applies the etymological tool to his investigation of the theological significance of al-āḫira, and concludes that the concept is polysemous, and tolerates a large variety of interpretations. The work is unique in that it draws extensively on Biblical material and presents a plethora of pre-Islamic poetry verses in the analysis of the concept.
In: The Semantics of Qurʾanic Language: al-Āḫira