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Appendix

Translation of ‘Characterisation of Belinsky (Information and illumination)’ by M.P. Pogodin

David Foreman and Irene Zohrab

Irene Zohrab

M.P. Pogodin’s essay on ‘Characterisation of Belinsky’ was published in The Citizen (Grazhdanin) under F.M. Dostoevsky’s editorship in response to his first issue of A Writer’s Diary (Dnevnik pisatelia) launched on January 1, 1873. Dostoevsky represents Belinsky, his former mentor, as an impassioned atheist and socialist, who tried to convert him to his materialist belief. By implication Belinsky becomes the scapegoat for Dostoevsky’s earlier involvement with the socialist-orientated Petrashevsky Circle that resulted in his arrest and sentence for reading Belinsky’s banned letter to Gogol. Pogodin disputes Dostoevsky’s representation of Belinsky by demonstrating the critic’s commitment to Christian faith, whose ‘live’ voice affected his audience due to ‘particular circumstances’ (censorship) and whose changeability was natural. Dostoevsky’s partisan allusions to Belinsky (including verbal to Vs. Solov’ev), while not providing any context to Belinsky’s pronouncements, nor engagement with socio-philosophical ideas, such as individual anarchism (Max Stirner), undermine not only Belinsky, but subvert a wide range of Western philosophical humanist principles espoused at various times by him, from ‘love of humanity’ and ‘personal freedom’, to individualism.

Géza S. Horváth

The paper analyzes the various parallels of plot and text in Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punisment (1866) and Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter (1850). Similarity of motifs in these novels has already been noticed in the critical literature but more detailed research is still lacking. In this paper, it is claimed that Hawthorne’s novel provided Dostoevsky not only with the material for certain narrative situations, motifs and characters in Crime and Punishment but also influenced the heterogeneity and complexity of the genre in Dostoevsky’s novel. To illuminate this relationship of the two novels, the article examines the characteristics of the genre of romance, the eschatological plot of revelation and the apocalyptic imagery proper to the romance. The study is focused on the common metaphorical basis of the two texts, such as the biblical and mythical semantics of the motifs of New Jerusalem, pearl, treasure etc., which circumscribes the transformation process in the correspondence of tresaure and word, letter and text.

Denis Zhernokleyev

It is common to see Myshkin, the principal character of Dostoevsky’s The Idiot, as a failed lover and a compassionate saintly figure, who gets entangled in a love triangle but cannot embody it. This paper challenges such a view and argues that Myshkin fully incarnates the violent dynamic of desire that governs the novel. With the help of René Girard’s notion of mimetic desire, the paper explores Myshkin’s relationship with Rogozhin as erotic rivalry. Instead of seeing the two characters as autonomous entities, it is suggested that they should be viewed as doubles, as two poles of the same consciousness. On this view, Myshkin’s compassion and Rogozhin’s lust become two different manifestations of the same desire, united by a conflict of interest, which drives the love triangle towards a violent resolution.

Jordi Morillas

In this article we analyse the Marxist interpretation of F. M. Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment. Although Raskolnikov’s worldview may share some features with a socialist point of view, the hero of Dostoevsky’s first novel of ideas represents a complete ideological antithesis to Socialism. Thanks to a careful analysis of Raskolnikov’s utterances and with the help of Merezhkovsky’s reading of the novel, we conclude that if there is a Dostoevsky novel which resists a Socialist understanding, then this novel is Crime and Punishment.

Edited by Sijmen Tol and René Genis

Within international linguistics, the study of Slavic languages enjoys considerable interest. The extensive coverage of Slavic languages in the Linguistic Bibliography is evidence of this. The Bibliography of Slavic Linguistics, 2000-2014 brings together the details of over 67,000 unique publications, carefully selected, classified, cross-referenced and indexed by professional bibliographers: it gives a complete overview of the field of studies since the beginning of this century. All contributing bibliographers are specialized Slavists themselves, guaranteeing the quality of the descriptions and annotations. The selection includes over thirty publication languages including publications in Finnish, Estonian, Greek, Albanian, Dutch, English, German, Japanese, Hebrew as well as other languages. Marc L. Greenberg’s Introduction gives an overview of the state of scholarship in Slavic linguistics and the directions in which the field is headed. The 3 volumes are thematically and geographically ordered in the sections General, Slavic, South Slavic, West Slavic and East Slavic. All references are classified according to a sophisticated classification scheme (over 100 subject classes), refined with an extensive language and subject keyword index.
Key features:
• Over 67,000 records;
• Covering all Slavic languages including minor and even extinct ones e.g. Bosnian, Pomeranian, Rusyn, High and Low Sorbian as well as Church Slavonic;
• Titles are given in their original languages, with translations provided whenever relevant;
• Titles in Cyrillic script are uniformly transcribed in Latin script according to current scientific standards.

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Edited by Dobrota Pucherova and Robert Gafrik

This collective monograph analyzes post-1989 Central and Eastern Europe through the paradigm of postcoloniality. Based on the assumption that both Western and Soviet imperialism emerged from European modernity, the book is a contribution to the development of a global postcolonial discourse based on a more extensive and nuanced geohistorical comparativism. It suggests that the inclusion of East-Central Europe in European identity might help resolve postcolonialism’s difficulties in coming to terms with both postcolonial and neo-colonial dimensions of contemporary Europe. Analyzing post-communist identity reconstructions under the impact of transformative political, economic and cultural experiences such as changes in perception of time and space (landscapes, cityscapes), migration and displacement, collective memory and trauma, objectifying gaze, cultural self-colonization, and language as a form of power, the book facilitates a mutually productive dialogue between postcolonialism and post-communism. Together the studies map the rich terrain of contemporary East-Central European creative writing and visual art, the latter highlighted through accompanying illustrations.

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Janneke Weijermars

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-1830) was a creation of the Congress of Vienna, where the map of Europe was redrawn following Napoleon’s defeat. Dutch language and literature were considered the essential tools to smoothly fuse the North and South – today, the Netherlands and Belgium respectively. King Willem I tried a variety of measures to stimulate and control literary life in the South, in an effort to encourage unity throughout his kingdom.

Janneke Weijermars describes the driving force of this policy and especially its impact in the South. For some authors, Northern Dutch literature represented the standard to which they aspired. For others, unification triggered a desire to assert their own cultural identity. The quarrels, mutual misunderstandings and subsequent polemics were closely intertwined with political issues of the day. Stepbrothers views the history of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands through a literary lens.

The Dostoevsky Journal

A Comparative Literature Review

Editor-in-Chief Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover

The Dostoevsky Journal: A Comparative Literature Review is an interdisciplinary journal on research into the life and works of F. M. Dostoevsky and on the resonance of the Russian writer in other texts of world literature and philosophy.
Contributions are particularly welcome from a research perspective in postmodernism, poststructuralism and phenomenology, or which explore, in a historical context, Dostoevsky's poetics and its impact on the Western cultural paradigm.
Submitted articles will be subject to double-blind peer review.

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Transcultural Studies

A Journal in Interdisciplinary Research

Editor-in-Chief Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover

The editorial board of Transcultural Studies: A Journal in Interdisciplinary Research welcomes contributions into literatures and cultures in the context of new methodologies in cultural theory, aesthetics, philosophy or political thought. The principle of ‘transculture’ which the journal promotes, refers to scholarly inquiry which ideally transcends ‘national borders’ and purely regional concerns in order to speak in a generalized language of critique shared by a universal community of thinkers and academics.
All articles should contribute to the scholarly debate through original research and a theoretical grounding. Contributions from a comparative perspective will also be considered. The editorial board will plan and advertise specific thematic issues and oversee the refereeing process. Guest editors are welcome to propose topics for an issue or part issue.
Transcultural Studies was originally conceived as a platform for transcultural – post-structural – thought in Russia and Eastern Europe. Post-structuralism was introduced to the Soviet Russian academic scene in the 1980s by the late Georgian philosopher, Merab Mamardashvili. Since the journal’s inception in 2006, the scope of the journal has gradually been enlarged.
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NOW AVAILABLE - Online submission: Articles for publication in Transcultural Studies: A Journal in Interdisciplinary Research can be submitted online through Editorial Manager, please click here.

Die Vorgeschichte des slavischen Aoristsystems

mit der kommentierten Belegsammlung der Aoristformen und Formen des präteritalen passiven Partizipiums im Altkirchenslavischen

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Katja Ackermann

Die Vorgeschichte des slavischen Aoristsystems proposes a new look on the paradigmatic organization of the finite verb in Proto-Slavic. It rests on the study of the diachronic and synchronic conditioning of paradigmatic preferences of Proto-Slavic primary verbs and is shown to account for the complementary distribution of partially syncretistic aorist stem formations into six classes (bases of the systematic description adopted here). Major development trends reveal clear parallels with other Indo-European branches. Along with the discussion of paradigmatic constellations, diachronic background, etymology and grammar, the work comprises a nearly complete attestation of aorists and past participles of primary verbs including prefixal compounds in canonic OCS and those outside the canon, and is designed as an extensive reference book both for Indo-Europeanists and Slavists.

Die Vorgeschichte des slavischen Aoristsystems bietet eine neue systematische Beschreibung des älteren gemeinslavischen Verbalsystems aus synchroner und diachroner Perspektive. Im Zentrum steht die nahezu vollständige Erfassung und Bewertung der Aoristformen des Altkirchenslavischen. Sie erscheinen hier in neuer paradigmatischer Klassifikation (in sechs Klassen), mit ausführlicher Dokumentation ihrer Beleglage und ihrer synchronischen Oppositionen (: Präsens- und Infinitivstämmen, Partizipien). Die systematische und historische Konditionierung der paradigmatischen Präferenzen primärer Verbalstammbildungen wird neu beleuchtet.
Ihre sprachgeschichtliche Verankerung wird im Vergleich mit inner- und außerslavischen Entsprechungen nach dem aktuellen Stand – unter Einschluss der Prosodie – dargestellt. Das Buch eignet sich als Referenzorgan zum slavischen Verbum für Slavisten, Indoeuropäisten und allgemeine Sprachwissenschaftler.

Wojciech Kaftański

Through an analysis of Kierkegaard’s and Dostoevsky’s approaches to the theme of the death of Christ – one of the major leitmotifs in the debate of their contemporaries conveyed through theological and philosophical considerations, but also expressed in novels and in art – I show how the thinkers comprehended and articulated in their works the religious challenges awaiting the modern man.

Michael Mosely

The paper explores the substantial correlation of thought between Dostoevsky and Heidegger that exceeds Dostoevsky’s thematic concerns and stems from the heart of his poetics. Dostoevsky’s innovative presentation of the unfinalisability of consciousness constituted for Heidegger a powerful example of remaining within ‘life-experience’ and their denial of Kant’s a priori arguments marks them out as breaking from the philosophical traditions that preceded them.

Irene Zohrab

Readers of diverse persuasions have viewed Fedor Dostoevsky (1821- 1881) and Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as precursors of existentialism. The intention of this paper is to reconsider this perceived affinity between the two writers in the context of State censorship operating during their lifetimes in their respective countries, one writing and publishing in Imperial Russia that upheld the official Greco-Russian Orthodox Church, and the other in the Kingdom of Denmark with its State Lutheran Church.

James Phillips

One of the traits that renders Dostoevsky’s characters unwieldy for monological interpretations is their philosophising. They speak too much and in too abstract a manner to be serviceable components for the steady unfolding of a dramatic plot. They are also too caught up in the very process of philosophising to efface themselves as impersonal vehicles for the transmission of a polished set of authorial reflections. The nature of Dostoevsky’s fiction is pursued in its relation to philosophy.

Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover

This article questions the received view of Dostoevsky’s “pochva” and “Russianness” as reactionary tendencies of Dostoevsky’s ideology. Instead, it reexamines these concepts as metaphors which form part of a phenomenology of subjectivity going back to Hegel’s phenomenology of identity as difference. The starting point for this re-examination is a brief critique of Andzej de Lazari’s book V krugu Fyodora Dostoevskogo: Pochvenichestvo. A supporting analysis of The Possessed as an elaboration of the claims about Dostoevsky’s pochvenichestvo made in this paper, follows as Part II.

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Walter K. Hanak

In The Nature and the Image of Princely Power in Kievan Rus', 980-1054, Walter K. Hanak offers a critical analysis of the annalistic, literary, and other works that provide rich if conflicting and contradictory information on the nature of princely power and their image or literary representations. The primary sources demonstrate an interaction between the reality and the notions concerning princely power and how this power generates an image of itself. The author also analyses the textual incongruities that appear to be a reflection of a number of currents -- Byzantine, Varangian, Khazar, and Eastern Slavic. The secondary sources provide a variety of interpretations, which Hanak seeks to uphold and dispute. His stress, however, is to view this evidence in the light of a newly Christianized state and the launching of a maturative process in its early history.

Edward Ascroft

This paper explores the dialectic of a subject constructed through these ‘gazes’. The gaze in this psychoanalytic re-reading of Dostoevsky’s story Bobok is reinterpreted through the function of what we will term the ‘aural gaze,’ which is elaborated as the invocatory function of the psychic apparatus or voice. By means of these psychic functions, which come to expression in the plot and structure of Dostoevsky’s novella, a world is constructed in which the subject not only ‘looks’ or is ‘looked-at’ but is listened to and made to speak.

Antony Johae

The traumatic event in the author’s life – a mock execution – has found its way into his works, both fiction and non-fiction, in an almost obsessively repetitious manner. Dostoevsky finds this original trauma analogous to many kinds of “threshold” events in which the moment before the final crossing over – be it murder, confession or a proposal of marriage – is experienced similarly as one of heightened awareness and acute intensity. The paper explores such “threshold” events in Dostoevsky’s opus.

Géza S. Horváth

Bakhtin subordinates the experience of the body to the experience of the action, to the participation in the event of being. The world's thickening into body around the man is named as a new reality, an “aesthetic reality” by Bakhtin: “the artist and art as a whole create a completely new vision of the world, a new image of the world, a new reality of the world’s mortal flesh [реальность смертной плоти мира], unknown to any of the other clturally creative activities. [. . .] Aesthetic activity collects the world scattered in meaning and condenses it into a finished and self-contained image [образ]. This constitutes the analogy of the body and the artistic form for the creative view. The aesthetic activity gathers and thickens into a complete, sufficient- for-itself image the world dispersed from the perspective of the sense. The problem of the outer and inner body is treated in this paper in the light of Bakhtin’s philosophy of the act and being.

Géza S. Horváth

Bakhtin subordinates the experience of the body to the experience of the action, to the participation in the event of being. The world's thickening into body around the man is named as a new reality, an “aesthetic reality” by Bakhtin: “the artist and art as a whole create a completely new vision of the world, a new image of the world, a new reality of the world’s mortal flesh [реальность смертной плоти мира], unknown to any of the other clturally creative activities. [. . .] Aesthetic activity collects the world scattered in meaning and condenses it into a finished and self-contained image [образ]. This constitutes the analogy of the body and the artistic form for the creative view. The aesthetic activity gathers and thickens into a complete, sufficient- for-itself image the world dispersed from the perspective of the sense. The problem of the outer and inner body is treated in this paper in the light of Bakhtin’s philosophy of the act and being.

Stefano Aloe

The starting point for this analysis is a statement by Umberto Eco in his essay "The American Myth in Three Anti-American Generations", where, with characteristic irony, he says: "If I reflect on my spiritual development, in the list of sources I should include Imitation of Christ, No no Nanette (the song), Dostoevsky and Donald Duck".

In this playful list of creations from both high and popular culture, from Thomas Kempis to Walt Disney, the place of Dostoevsky is pivotal: a link connecting two cultural dimensions that are seemingly opposite. Dostoevsky reaches incredible depths of moral and philosophical analysis as high literature, while retaining those features that make the popular novel a literary genre of broad reach.

Елена Сердюкова

В статье анализируется становление экзистенциализма в России в кон- тексте творчества Достоевского и Бердяева. Внимание акцентируется на формирование экзистенциального мироощущения Бердяева, в центре учения которого находится понимание личности как духа, как существо- вания. Для Бердяева Достоевский предстает как «великий антрополог», которого интересует человек, отпущенный на свободу. Бердяев заявляет об экзистенциальном характере всей русской философии и видит в До- стоевском предтечу русского экзистенциализма.

[The paper shows the evolution of Existentialism in Russia in the context of Dostoevsky’s and Berdyaev’s work. The focus is on Berdyaev’s Existentialist sensibility, which centres on the concept of the individual as spirit, as existence. For Berdyaev, Dostoevsky is the “great anthropologist,” who is interested in Man released into freedom. Berdyaev points to the existentialist character of the whole of Russian philosophy and identifies Dostoevsky as the precursor of Russian Existentialism.]

А.П. Власкин

«Вечный муж» Достоевского – достаточно странное произведение, осо- бенно если учесть его место в ряду романов писателя. Может ли равнять- ся с ними «Вечный муж»? Равняться по художественным достоинствам или по любым другим параметрам? Ответ на этот вопрос дается в докладе на основе анализа «избитка».

Достоевский образы некоторых своих героев воображал себе гораздо более богатыми по смысловым возможностям, чем то, как они вырази- лись в конкретном произведении. Раскольников, Соня, Свидригайлов – в них слишком многое остается как будто «за кадром», а точнее – за сюжетом. Иными словами, в подобных образах (преимущественно в концептуально значимых) потенциально содержится нечто такое, что не укладывалось в прокрустово ложе единичной судьбы и в логику кон- кретного сюжета. Нашему восприятию это художественное явление ока- зывается доступно через наблюдаемые реминисценции и в более упро- щенном виде – через типологию.Явление это можно называть художест- венной избыточностью воображения писателя.

[Dostoevsky’s The Eternal Husband is a curious work especially in comparison with the rest of Dostoevsky’s opus. How can The Eternal Husband be ranked in that opus? Does one apply artistic merit or other parameters? The answer to this question is given in the article on the basis of an analysis of “excess.”

Dostoevsky conceived some of his literary characters as much more substantial in their sense radius than they actually turned out to have in their expression in the concrete work. Raskolnikov, Sonia, Svidrigailov – they are all hidden behind the screen, as it were, or more precisely, behind the sujet. In other words, in such conceptually important characters there is something which potentially transcends the procrastination of individual destiny and the logic of a concrete sujet. We perceive these artistic phenomena by means of reminiscences and in a simplified form by means of a typology. This phenomenon can be called the excess of artistic imagination of the writer.]

Fairy Tales and True Stories

The History of Russian Literature for Children and Young People (1574 - 2010)

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Ben Hellman

Russian literature for children and young people has a history that goes back over 400 years, starting in the late sixteenth century with the earliest alphabet primers and passing through many different phases over the centuries that followed. It has its own success stories and tragedies, talented writers and mediocrities, bestsellers and long-forgotten prize winners. After their seizure of power in 1917, the Bolsheviks set about creating a new culture for a new man and a starting point was children's literature. 70 years of Soviet control and censorship were succeeded in the 1990s by a re-birth of Russian children's literature. This book charts the whole of this story, setting Russian authors and their books in the context of translated literature, critical debates and official cultural policy.