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30 Years of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in Action towards Sustainability
This book investigates and uncover paradoxes and ambivalences that are actualised when seeking to make the right choices in the best interests of the child. The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child established a milestone for the 20th century. Many of these ideas still stand, but time calls for new reflections, empirical descriptions and knowledge as provided in this book.

Special attention is directed to the conceptualisation of children and childhood cultures, the missing voices of infants and fragile children, as well as transformations during times of globalisation and change. All chapters contribute to understand and discuss aspects of societal demands and cultural conditions for modern-day children age 0–18, accompanied by pointers to their future.

Contributors are: Eli Kristin Aadland, Wenche Bjorbækmo, Elin Eriksen Ødegaard, Eldbjørg Fossgard, Ida Marie Lyså Hege Wergedahl, Susanne Højlund Petersen, Asle Holthe, Liisa Karlsson, Karen Klitgaard Povlsen, Jonatan Leer, Czarecah Oropilla, Anja Maria Pesch, Gro Rugseth, Jorunn Spord Borgen, Stinne Gunder Strøm Krogager, Liv Torunn Grindheim, Kristin Vindhol Evensen, Pauline von Bonsdorff and Susanne C. Ylönen.
Can one speak dispassionately today about Pierre Bourdieu? The extraordinary success of his work and its agonistic dimension makes things quite difficult. Jean-Louis Fabiani’s book is an attempt to apply Bourdieu’s analytical tools to his own work as he invited us in his reflexive sociology. Testing their limitations and their potential ambiguity allows the author to shed new light on the social genesis of his main concepts (field, habitus and capital) and on the complex relationship between science and politics. While the sociologist’s systemic ambition is never taken for granted, it remains possible to reveal its hidden grandeur.
France experienced an unprecedented wave of terrorist attacks in 2015. Following these tragic events, social science researchers felt the need to undertake new work to better understand the dynamics of this new radicalism. This book is the result of one of these attempts. A large quantitative and qualitative survey was conducted among French Lycée students in order to gather substantive information and propose an interpretation of the penetration of radical ideas, be they religious or political, among them.

How widespread are these radical ideas? What are the main characteristics of youngsters who share them? Are there links between religious radicalism and political radicalism? How do young people feel about the 2015 terrorist attacks? How do young people use media and social media to keep abreast of and understand radical acts and opinions? Those are the main questions explored in this book.

Contributors are: Vincenzo Cicchelli, Alexandra Frénod, Olivier Galland, Laurent Lardeux, Anne Muxel, Jean-François Mignot and Sylvie Octobre.
In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students

Abstract

Conspiracy theories have always held a certain appeal for young people. In our survey, a substantial number of students believed that the attacks of 11 September 2001 were sponsored by the cia. Among the explanatory factors of the conspiracy mentality, socio-economic determinants as well as identity-related components play an important role. Moreover, this attraction for conspiracy theories is articulated with a strong mistrust of the media. This mistrust is fueled by two major and interconnected changes linked to the emergence and domination of social media: the establishment of a temporal regime of immediacy and the formation of cognitive oligopolies. 9% of students are attracted to both conspiracy theories and a generalised defiance involving active participation in the dissemination of Daesh videos: they display what we propose to call “informational radicalism”.

In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
Author: Laurent Lardeux

Abstract

Relative deprivation theory refers to the state of tension between the hopes of satisfaction of expectations and the insufficiency of economic, social, cultural, and academic resources to fulfill them. The failure to fulfill expectations, coupled with situations of social comparison with other people, can predispose individuals to revolt and, in this case, lead some young people to adhere to certain forms of radicalism. This chapter questions the various possible links between deprivation and acceptance of radical ideas or practices by first addressing the formation of this resentment emerging from the structural differences between, on the one hand, the very strong expectations about education of students, and on the other hand objective situations of inequality encountered in the various institutions surveyed. The second part describes how these structural differences are subjectively experienced by students and are translated in terms of their feelings of injustice and discrimination. The variations encountered in the degree of deprivation felt and the influence of certain effects of context make it possible to give an account in the last part of the chapter about the different dynamics of tension between the feeling of deprivation and the adherence of students to radical ideas and practices on the one hand, and conflicting relationships with the police embodying the illegitimate violence of which some young people claim to be the victims.

In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
Author: Anne Muxel

Abstract

Views that reflect political radicalism are found among a significant proportion of French Seconde students. However, as distinguished in this chapter, such radicalism has different implications depending on whether it is radicalism through protest which is widespread among school students or radicalism through violence which supposes the acceptance and justification of violence. The latter attitude characterises a minority only. Radical attitudes do not seem to result from socio-economic factors linked to the social background of students alone. Socialisation at school and political socialisation within the family have a greater impact as do complex contextual variations linked both to gender and to subjective parameters such as a perception by the student that s/he has experienced discrimination. Nevertheless, radicalism through protest and radicalism through violence reflects a somewhat divided cultural environment. The former remains within the framework of institutional politics and a set of values marked by cultural liberalism, while the latter seems to be more frequently linked to anti-liberal and authoritarian attitudes.

In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
Author: Olivier Galland

Abstract

The raw results of the survey show that Muslim school students are much more likely than others to adopt absolutist religious ideas. They are also more likely to justify religious violence. Such attitudes are not shaped by the socio-economic characteristics of the families they belong to, their academic performance, or their optimism/pessimism about future access to employment. To some extent, they are shaped by feelings of individual or collective discrimination, although these factors only slightly diminish the influence of religious denomination. More specifically, absolutist ideas make a clear contribution to the justification of religious violence, as do predispositions to justify violence and deviance in ordinary social life. The combination of absolutism and tolerance of violence/deviance is more prevalent among boys, while girls are more likely to adopt absolutist ideas without the violent dimension.

In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students

Abstract

In some French schools, students challenged the minute’s silence in tribute to the victims of the attack on Charlie Hebdo, thus revealing divisions whose extent and motivations remain poorly studied. With the necessary caution, our survey shows that students who do not fully condemn the perpetrators of the 2015 Paris attacks and/or who did not feel concerned by the minute’s silence are not distinctive in terms of their family or socio-economic situation, nor in terms of their feelings of being discriminated against on ethno-religious grounds. On the other hand, they are more often tolerant of deviance and violence in social life, are more frequently of foreign origin and are more numerous among young people of the Muslim faith. From what these students have to say, it appears that many of them are challenging the freedom to show disrespect for Islam and some of its dogmas. A lesser feeling of belonging to the national community also reduces their empathy towards the victims.

In: Radical Thought among the Young: A Survey of French Lycée Students
Author: Louisa Perreau

As the saying goes ‘good girls go to heaven, bad girls go everywhere!’, whose origin is uncertain, sometimes attributed to American actress and screenwriter Mae West, sometimes to editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine, Helen Gurvey Brown, it was taken up as a slogan by feminists who denounce the sexual norm imposed on women by religions. At a time when the influence of religious fundamentalism on State policies seems to be gaining ground (retreat on abortion laws in the United States, in Poland; Sharia courts in Great Britain, etc.), the object of this research note will be to question the articulations between British Muslim women, State multiculturalism and legislation.

In Britain, since the 1980s, a network of sharia councils has developed to resolve disputes between Muslims, including resolving family problems. Sharia councils thus reveal the place of Muslim women in the United Kingdom on the issue of divorce. Extremely patriarchal, rarely feminist, often undemocratic, the sharia councils appear as places of power. The latter are often compared to Islamic courts, so-called ‘counseling’ religious services or ‘Islamic family services’ to which Muslims wishing to respect divine law and their religious precepts go – especially women. What does this mean for British Muslim women who use these services? How is the British government responding?

In: Youth and Globalization

This paper concerns the intersections between veiling, school and sport, focussing on both legislative elements and formal regulations, as well as the more micro-level practices of physical education teachers in school environments in Finland. Veiling is an extraordinarily politicised topic today, while also being an everyday dress practice engaged in by millions of women worldwide. Sport can be likewise politicised, and certainly is so in the case of veiling. Sometimes seen as resistance to patriarchal structures and cultural traditions, sometimes defended and justified using religious arguments, Muslim women’s physical activities may be understood as a conflictual social field, especially when the women either choose to veil or prefer gender segregated venues for sport. Bringing together realms such as politics, legislation, education, garment design and religion, the debates surrounding female Muslim bodies are at the centre of ideas to do with citizenship and integration in Muslim-minority contexts. In Finland, both the national law and local regulations allow for a great deal of independence for teachers working with veiling students, at the same time as guaranteeing high protection of an individual’s right to freedom of religion. Consequently, negotiation strategies between teachers and veiling students are central for the accommodation of religious dress practices. This is particularly so when teaching physical education, which has specific requirements for students’ outfits from the point of view of safety and practicality. I discuss the complexities created by the fields of law, education, religion, politics and design when they come together in the case of hijabs, sport and physical education.

In: Youth and Globalization
In: Youth and Globalization

In this article, Christine Détrez and Clémence Perronnet discuss the contributions of the sociology of culture to the study of childhood. They trace back the emergence of this approach in France and the theoretical and methodological challenges faced by a field of study that mobilizes concepts from both a bourdieusian theoretical framework and international cultural studies – with a particular focus on the concept of agency. The conversation also touches on the opportunities for future research, particularly on the learning of feeling rules and new digital practices and the early construction of inequalities in science during childhood.

In: Youth and Globalization

This paper addresses a number of fundamental epistemological obstacles faced by researchers interested in studying young people’s cosmopolitanism, more specifically, the normative temptation and “first experience” obstacles. It goes on to tackle the inherent temporality of cosmopolitan behaviour, seeing how it is a fundamentally dynamic phenomenon that entails itineraries, trajectories and pathways through young people’s life cycles. As such, the text proposes six typical trajectories. In terms of temporalities: “the confirmed cosmopolitan,” “late starters,” “cosmopolitan and uncosmopolitan at the same time,” and “disengagement from cosmopolitanism”; in terms of moving through social space: “focusing on social space close to home,” “the ordinary tourist.”

In: Youth and Globalization
In: Youth and Globalization

The increasing democratisation of education and the destructuring of the labour market in times of institutional, political and economic uncertainty in Latin America have fuelled the debate on the youth school-to-work transition in the region.

This paper aims to contribute to the discussion by presenting the insights drawn from research on the topic, carried out throughout the last thirty years by the same academic team. Such research was based on a longitudinal analyses of students who graduated from compulsory studies during 1999–2011 in Argentina. The main findings provide insights into two core concepts: on the one hand, they evidence that the period of transition between the completion of secondary school and the labour market entry has become longer; on the other hand, they show that education-work activities in the early years after completing secondary studies are characterised by their instability-feature present in young people’s stories from different socioeconomic backgrounds.

In: Youth and Globalization

Christendom is fragmented in many denominations with different religious beliefs and histories that make them distinct and different from one another. In Nigeria the mainline denominations are Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and Assemblies of God churches with the many multi-faceted Pentecostal churches gradually making serious in road into the religious arena. This is a qualitative research. Oral interviews were conducted by the researcher and research assistants to generate data. The data so collected was then analyzed through the phenomenological method to arrive at results. The population of the study is Christian Nigerian Youths who belong to double denominations. Furthermore, using the snowball sampling technique, youths who belong to double denominations were located (34 males and 34 females from each establishment representing the various states). 340 respondents were interviewed in all. Pentecostal churches are not so distinct in their faith beliefs as the other main churches. Because of their rich spirited liturgical celebrations, scripturally and prosperity appealing messages, penchant for healing, miracles and casting out of demons and lose hierarchical structures, young people are easily drawn to them. Young Christians while not denouncing their membership of mainline Christian churches have joined the different Pentecostal groups that dot every nook and crony of the society. The paper addresses this phenomenon and its impact on Christianity by using library findings and oral interviews.

In: Journal of Youth and Theology
In: Journal of Youth and Theology
Author: Amy Casteel

Migration promises an opportunity for a different future for those moving while it challenges the status quo for transit and host countries. Changing from one culture to another is no small task. Neither is the process of moving from adolescent to adult. Many rely on religious beliefs and practices as they cope. Still, these practices are modified, adapted, changed. What happens in the lived religion of adolescents after migration to Greece? In discussion with practical and liberation theologians, sociology, and social and cultural psychology, the voices of adolescent migrants themselves contribute to a deeper understanding of current models of adolescent spiritual development.

In: Journal of Youth and Theology

Interactions with adults may play a crucial role in youths’ religious identity development. However, who these adults are and how they are influential is under explored. Twelve Catholic and twelve former Catholic college students were interviewed about their experiences growing up Catholic focusing on influential adults. Interviews were analyzed using modified grounded theory. Adult type categories were identified. Implications and future studies are discussed.