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Volume Editors: Rose Ann Torres and Dionisio Nyaga
We live in a society that promotes the universal process of producing knowledge and truth making as fundamental social process. Such promotion of universality seems to subjugate others forms of knowing rendering them invisible, unintelligible, and ineligible and subsequently outside the community of knowing. This has material and symbolic consequences in terms of how research informs policy and subsequent victimization of those who live, and experience subjugation meted by Western truth making universalism. In the words of Foucault, this book is an insurrection of subterranean and clandestine knowledges in ways that provide not just an alternative process of knowledge production but affirms local knowledge as necessary in production of a just society. The book looks at research as a social justice and transformational process that should speak of people’s ways of live without necessarily streamlining them into numbers. The book is a critically reflexive project in terms of returning processes of knowledge production to the local space rather than imagining them as entirely centred in the structure. To imagine this book as reflexive exercise is to break boundaries of knowledges in ways that come to imagine how local performs global in very complicated and complex ways. This book is a resurrection of local knowledges steeped in creative and imaginative reflexive methodologies that come to reorient how we come to know what we know, the values and realities that mark what we know and the how of knowledge production. It centres subjugated voices and knowledges as fundamental in production of knowledge.

Contributors include: Katie Bannon, Elizabeth Charles, Khulood Agha Khan, Dionisio Nyaga, Fritz Pino, and Rose Ann Torres.
The Evolution of the Israeli Third Sector reviews the development of the nonprofit sector in Israel and analyzes it within existing nonprofit theories. It takes a historical perspective in looking at its evolution, in light of political, social, ideological, and economic changes in the world and in the country. It discusses the development of policy and government involvement on the one hand and the unique features of Israeli philanthropy, both Jewish and Arab, on the other. It analyzes Israel’s civil society and social movements as well as social entrepreneurship and their expression in the Third Sector. The book also covers the development of research and education on the Third Sector; it includes a review of research centers, databases, journals, and specific programs that were developed by Israeli universities.
Volume Editors: Eliezer Ben-Rafael and Orna Shemer
This volume focuses on today’s kibbutz and the metamorphosis which it has undergone. Starting with theoretical considerations and clarifications, it discusses the far-reaching changes recently experienced by this setting. It investigates how those changes re-shaped it from a setting widely viewed as synonymous to utopia, but which has gone in recent years through a genuine transformation. This work questions the stability of that “renewing kibbutz”. It consists of a collective effort of a group of specialized researchers who met for a one-year seminar prolonged by research and writing work. These scholars benefitted from resource field-people who shared with them their knowledge in major aspects of the kibbutz’ transformation. This volume throws a new light on developmental communalism and the transformation of gemeinschaft-like communities to more gesellschaft-like associations.

Contributors are: Havatselet Ariel, Eliezer Ben-Rafael, Miriam Ben-Rafael, Sigal Ben-Rafael Galanti, Yechezkel Dar, Orit Degani Dinisman, Yuval Dror, Sylvie Fogiel-Bijaoui, Alon Gal, Rinat Galily, Shlomo Gans, Sybil Heilbrunn, Michal Hisherik, Meirav Niv, Michal Palgi, Alon Pauker, Abigail Paz-Yeshayahu, Yona Prital, Moshe Schwartz, Orna Shemer, Michael Sofer, Menahem Topel, and Ury Weber.

Abstract

English-language social and behavioral science research into US self-help/mutual aid groups and nonprofit organizations (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous, Parents Without Partners, or bereavement groups) is reviewed. The review begins in the 1960s and proceeds into the new millennium, when institutionalized self-help/mutual aid was co-opted and renamed “support groups” by professionals. SHGs are intentionally created, single-issue, voluntary member-run mutual benefit groups that value the authority of lived experience, are cost-free, and where peers give and receive help from each other. Research attention expanded to European and Asian research in the 1990s, but has now switched to mental health peer support.

In: Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups and Peer Support

Abstract

This chapter is about kibbutz culture. It rests on two assumptions: first, to a great extent, the formation of the kibbutz was influenced by the society surrounding it and by the problems with which it had to cope. Second, the uniqueness of its culture derived from the fact that it was part of a cooperative way of life, a holistic social creation that was expressed in different layers of communal life. The changes that took place in the kibbutz over time and especially those that occurred at the turn of the twenty-first century raise the question: Does the kibbutz still exist as a ‘culture community’ despite the far-reaching changes it experienced?

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

The kibbutz ideology of old has become outdated for most kibbutzim and kibbutz residents. Can a new ideology unite them in the twenty-first century, after the far-reaching changes that most of them have undergone? To answer this question, this chapter relies on a literature survey and interviews with kibbutz officials. Surmising that a new kibbutz ideology might combine cooperativeness and community-ness, we analyse those concepts, showing how far they express kibbutz practice. The ideology’s element of community-ness – e.g. gemeinschaft-commune – might help attract new residents to kibbutzim, while its cooperative element – gesellschaft-association – could strengthen their identity, as well as their standing vis-à-vis state and para-state bodies. Also, the nature of such an ideology reduces the risk of its awakening conflicts damaging to the kibbutzim’s social fabric.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Authors: Yechezkel Dar and Shlomo Getz

Abstract

Organizational behaviour in the renewed kibbutz is examined considering the tension between preserving the codes of a collective community and the privatization of economic life and personal economic status. Privatization reduces the scope of management on the members’ lives but enhances the organisation’s economic aspect as compared to its social one, and reinforces a management hierarchy while distancing it from the members’ influence. Privatization also challenges community solidarity as it raises economic conflicts of interest between different social groups. The organizational behaviour of the renewed kibbutz is still fluid. The solutions found for administrative dilemmas are scrutinized by their contribution to the survival of genuine communality, significant mutual responsibility, and secured participatory democracy.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Author: Alon Gan

Abstract

This chapter discusses the processes of change which the kibbutz movement underwent, and continues to undergo, along the time continuum, by examining the organizing languages of the kibbutz agenda. It shows that an ‘ideological language’ was the dominant organizing language until the mid-1960s. From that stage onwards, we see a transition towards a ‘psychological language’. The economic crisis that erupted in the mid-1980s generated a ‘managerial language’ which became the organizing language of public discourse in the kibbutz, while since the early twenty-first century, a ‘legal language’ became the agenda’s language.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Authors: Yuval Dror and Yona Prital

Abstract

This chapter examines present-day ‘kibbutz education’ in the post-gemeinshaft kibbutz. We ask four questions: what is ‘kibbutz education’ today, in light of the changes in the kibbutz? Can it still be defined as ‘kibbutz education’, based on the generic principles that distinguished it – and which practices express them today? What attraction kibbutz education exercises on families? And what is this education’s influence on the environment and within society as a whole? The principles of kibbutz education that we examine are: (1) child’s personal and social education in group; (2) the community’s responsibility for education; (3) The uniformity of factors which are partners in education; (4) the uniformity of teaching; (5) active learning; (6) autonomy of children’s and adolescents’ framework; (7) the autonomy of the teaching staff and educators; and (8) the continuity of communal education from infancy to adolescence.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

As a dimension of the transformation of the original kibbutz model of intentional community, this chapter deals with key aspects of the changes in the perceptions of work and employment, the development of entrepreneurship in local households, and the impact of these changes on the socio-economic features of the kibbutz space. The fluctuations in the national economy, combined with the decline in the intensity of ideological identification with kibbutz values among the third and fourth generation, led to existential, economic, demographic, and social pressures that contributed to changes in kibbutz employment practices and types of businesses. These changes reflect the need for survival strategies in the kibbutz’s socio-economic system, both at the community level and at the level of individual families. The discussion of this chapter focuses on recent studies and surveys, and describes the changes that have taken place in various areas of work and entrepreneurship as a result of the transition from a severely socialist setting to a society much closer to neo-liberalism. It considers the differential implications of these changes on kibbutz members’ working world. The changes confront the kibbutz with existential questions concerning its very essence.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

This volume analyses the metamorphosis most kibbutzim have undergone from the ‘classic’ stage of the kibbutz movement to the present stage what is now described as the ‘renewed kibbutz’. From this point on, it delves into the major aspects of the new kibbutz social order in view of getting elements of answers to the theoretical issues relating to the exiting of want-to-be utopianism toward perceived-to-be ‘normality’. Before overviewing the different chapters and entering their specific discussions, this chapter presents theoretical insights and approaches that throw light on how intentional communities, e.g. kibbutzim, have given shape to new realities, norms and structures. The question that arises, being, of course, whether kibbutz’ developments have come up to a total erasure of the original collective experience or, on the contrary, have brought about forms that remain, in one way or another, faithful to the drives of the ‘old days’. A methodological note concludes these pages and introduces the overview of the book in Chapter 2.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Author: Yuval Dror

Abstract

Culture and Judaism in the kibbutz are intertwined – in local, regional, and national circles. Kibbutz Judaism existed from the very beginning of the kibbutz, but was only defined in detail at the start of the twenty-first century, and is still grounded on kibbutz traditions from the past. In secular kibbutzim it is ‘mediated’ by variables of education, culture, and community; this is particularly the case for new residents, including kibbutz-born, in search of community life and good education for their children. The target populations of cultural activities are diverse and the prevailing spirit is secular/pluralistic Judaism and ‘Jewish renewal’. This Judaism is diffused in major centres of activity of the secular Kibbutz Movement as well as of the Religious Kibbutz Movement. The main impact of kibbutz Judaism since the 1970s is directed outwards, through frameworks founded by kibbutz members.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

The sluggishness displayed by most kibbutzim in their efforts to install a detailed linguistic landscape, despite the conditions prevailing today in those communities, raises the question: what underlies the difficulty in endorsing that pattern? This, particularly seeing the widespread support for it, is grounded on convincing pragmatic arguments. Entrance and direction signs to various centres of activity have long been an accepted part of the kibbutz space, but a model of comprehensive linguistic landscape is slow to emerge, and so far has reached only a few kibbutzim. Even more paradoxical – since the issue is ‘in the air’ and familiar to kibbutzniks. While rejection of this project can be explained in various ways, they fail to convince. The authors contend that a more far-reaching answer to the enigma can be drawn from Tönnies’ theory, which distinguishes gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Accordingly, one should seek an explanation of this enigma in kibbutzniks’ perceptions of their community which run counter recent structural developments.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

In the eyes of many economists, the story of the kibbutz is a mystery. In contrast to conventional economic theory, in the kibbutz there was no connection between members’ contribution and the material value they received. A utopian ideology which, however, did not avoid tensions and difficulties. This reality will be transformed in most kibbutzim in the aftermath of the 1980s crisis. Kibbutzim, which had been pushed into unexpectedly critical situations economically and demographically were led to radical reforms and sharp deviations from original principles. Many voices were now re-evaluating all kibbutz arrangements. The outcome was to consist of far-reaching changes of the economy, work organization, and economic relations that were implemented in the vast majority of kibbutzim. Within a few years, those measures were proven effective for achieving goals of productivity and efficiency but all of these came at the expense of loyalty to past social ambitions, prompting the question whether this transformation has saved, in one way or another, the continuity of essential aspects.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

In its past, the kibbutz combined an ethos of social revolution with a steering Socialist-Zionist mission. However, during its existential crisis of the 1980s, the kibbutz gradually became a non-political, ‘fluid sector’, ready to seek out and join forces with any political and bureaucratic body that was ready to help it in realizing its particular sectoral interests. Now after it recovered economically and demographically, the kibbutz aims to leverage its achievements in order to both ameliorate its capabilities as a sector and seek updated social-democratic missionary goals that would revive its vanguardism and replace its past commitments to Israel’s pioneering tasks. On the basis of organizational concepts, we maintain that despite the impacts of the crisis which caused a shift of objectives, the kibbutz movement’ leaders are striving again nowadays to find new objectives. They express thereby an affinity to the kibbutz’s original ambitions, though they essentially focus on different concrete goals.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

In this chapter we examined the status of kibbutz women in the neoliberal era in the second decade of the twenty-first century. We draw on the approach of Nancy Fraser, whose ground-breaking research indicated three key parameters for analysing the gender order: societal recognition of what is understood as ‘womanhood’ and ‘feminine’, gender-based redistribution of resources and the representation parameter (Dahl, Stoltz and Willig 2004; Fraser 1995, 2000). We found that in the spheres of recognition and redistribution, gender borders have grown somewhat less rigid, but without significantly altering the social order. In the field of representation, we noted a process that may change the map of representation in the future and could therefore affect recognition and division. We also discussed factors that are likely to cause change in the field of representation.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Authors: Merav Niv and Rinat Galily

Abstract

Demographic and economic constraints obliged many kibbutzim to initiate the settling of non-members in substantial numbers. As a result of internal and external tensions, and members’ changing attitudes to the kibbutz, populations now contain a growing number of groups with varied interests, instilling new forms of pluralism in kibbutzim. This process has intensified debates and discourses over kibbutz identity and its future. The multiple statuses in today’s kibbutz and the heterogeneity of perspectives will undoubtedly characterize the future development and trajectories of kibbutz communities and forward new configurations for the notion of intentional community.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz

Abstract

Processes of change in the kibbutzim have influenced the renewal of the settlements’ way of life and arrangements, as well as the personal experiences of each kibbutz member. Our study sought to identify individuals’ experiences throughout the process of change, and their expression in the community space. We focus on one kibbutz which has recovered from a profound socioeconomic and demographic crisis, whose members experienced individually a range of emotions and responded in different ways. The chapter reviews the members’ experiences along the process of change, observing their emotions, perceptions, and actions. In the course of that process, the members functioned in many spheres enabling them to rebuild a partnership which now allows greater room for expressions of subjectivity. In the new reality, it seems that the many changes have empowered new choices by the community’s members. Yet the question of their freedom of choice in kibbutz-life remains.

In: The Metamorphosis of the Kibbutz
Author: Yingying Ji

Abstract

The analysis in this paper reveals that on the individual level, the institutional framework continues to exert a profound impact on social organizations’ forms and civic engagement in China. The CGSS2012-based analysis leads to the following findings. For a start, political party members and danwei employees demonstrate a higher degree of social organizational involvement and civic engagement. In the meanwhile, the party members’ role in promoting civic engagement is achieved to some extent through mediating effect of social organizations. Next, various types of social organizations have significantly increased civic engagement on a practical level. Finally, income plays a large role to increase the individuals’ organizational involvement, albeit with no obvious influence on civic engagement in practice. These findings are significant in the following ways. First, from an empirical perspective, the current institutional design for social organizations to participate in social governance has delivered the expected results. Second, it confirmed the existence of activists with distinct features in social life as well as the integration of multiple governing networks in social space at grassroots level. Third, in theory, this paper noted that apart from institutional environment of technical governance by bureaucratic government, institutional framework constitutes an important institutional foundation for the development of social organizations, giving rise to the need of further discussions about the interaction mechanism between political parties and society.

In: The China Nonprofit Review
Author: Mengmiao Chen

Abstract

How to discriminate the two Chinese terms for “public benefit” (gong-yi) and “charity” (ci-shan) has been an oft-discussed topic on which academic circles are yet to reach consensus. This paper sorts out systematically the existing literature comparing and analyzing gong-yi (“public benefit”) and ci-shan (“charity”), reviews it in light of their origins, their roots in cultural and intellectual history, their meanings and their associations, and summarizes views the academic circles generally hold, hoping to provide reference for further academic discussions.

In: The China Nonprofit Review
Authors: Cheng Pei and Kristen Parris

Abstract

Studies of social organizations in the People’s Republic of China during the reform period emphasized their limited power and dependent nature, particularly when compared to the US, where associational life is generally understood as relatively independent from the state. More recently China scholars have found greater variation and complexity among social organizations in China and while others increasingly recognize hybridity in American and European organizations. There are, however, few studies comparing the NPO sector and its relationship with the state across regime types. Using resource dependence theory as a lens through which to examine the behaviors and development of two environmental protection organizations, one from China and one from the US, we identify similarities among social organizations operating in very different political and social contexts. Highly specialized organizations, with access to alternative resources can maintain an unexpected level of autonomy, even when the larger institutional context limits and controls associational life.