In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
In: Body and Cosmos
Studies in Early Indian Medical and Astral Sciences in Honor of Kenneth G. Zysk
Body and Cosmos is a collection of articles published on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Professor Emeritus Kenneth G. Zysk. The articles revolve thematically around the early Indian medical and astral sciences, which have been at the center of Professor Zysk’s long and esteemed career within the discipline of Indology.
The volume is divided into three parts. The first part is devoted to the medical sciences, the second part to the astral sciences, and the third part to cross-cultural interactions between India and the West, which runs like an undercurrent throughout the work of Professor Zysk.
The articles are written by internationally renowned Indological scholars and will be of value to students and researchers alike.

Abstract

Compression combined with steam (CS) treatment is postulated to be an environmentally friendly and efficient modification method to improve the dimensional stability, durability, and mechanical strength of wood. The influences of CS treatment with different radial compression ratios (RCRs) (25% and 50%) and different steam temperatures (140, 160 and 180°C) on chemical components, porosity, and hygroscopicity of earlywood and latewood in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) were investigated respectively on a cellular level by imaging Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM), nitrogen adsorption and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The results indicated that the degradation of carbonyl groups of the glucuronic acid component of xylan in earlywood and latewood was mainly responsible for the low hygroscopicity of CS-treated wood. Also, a significant decrease in the amount of C=O and C=C linked to the lignin aromatic skeleton involved in either crosslinking reactions or the degradation reactions could be another contributor to the reduction in wood hygroscopicity. CS-treated wood with a steam temperature of 180°C possessed a lower hygroscopicity that correlated well with the depolymerization of crystalline and amorphous cellulose. A more deformed structure of CS-treated wood led to the formation of greater amounts of mesopores in the cell walls, which could lead to increased degradation of the chemical components of wood cell walls. Furthermore, a higher equilibrium moisture content (EMC) level was found for CS-treated wood with a 50% compression ratio compared to a 25% compression ratio.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

The radial variation of rays within the stems of Dahurian larch and Japanese larch growing in Korea was studied to obtain valuable information to identify the two species and determine wood quality. Uniseriate ray height, fusiform ray height, ray number, ray spacing, and epithelial cell number were investigated by optical microscopy. The heights of uniseriate and fusiform rays and epithelial cell numbers in Dahurian larch were lower than those in Japanese larch. Dahurian larch wood had greater ray number and ray spacing than Japanese larch wood. In both species, the heights of uniseriate and fusiform rays and epithelial cell number increased with increasing growth ring number but then stabilized from a certain growth ring number. However, ray number and ray spacing decreased with age but were stable toward the bark. There were significant differences in all ray properties between the two species. Furthermore, in both species, the number and spacing of rays showed a significant negative correlation with uniseriate ray height. The relationships between uniseriate and fusiform ray height, and between ray spacing and ray number were significantly positive. In conclusion, the results from this study provide basic information that can be used to identify these species, and the quality indices from ray properties will improve the effective utilization of the two woody species.

In: IAWA Journal
Authors: M. Philippe and V. Wilde

Abstract

Seventy years after its publication Kräusel’s review of fossil conifer woods is still among the most quoted references in this field. Several of his earlier contributions are foundational works, but they have largely been overlooked, which has led to some misinterpretations. We reviewed the taxonomy and nomenclature of the eight genera Kräusel described for fossil conifer wood. Two of them should not be used. The genus Protophyllocladoxylon is neotypified. Several synonymies are proposed and the way Kräusel used generic names is briefly discussed.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

Having a high stature subjects palms to the same constraints as trees, but the lack of cambial growth urges them to adopt a different strategy. We aimed to characterize the spatial organization of xylem tissues and their potential functions in two palm stems: a 30 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) royal palm (Roystonea regia) and a 12 cm DBH Alexandra king palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae). Macroscopic and microscopic anatomical characteristics were assessed at five vertical locations and 5–6 radial locations at each height. Over 9600 vessels across the two stems were drawn manually and measured based on histological sections. Vertically, a hydraulic bottleneck was identified at the first meter, and both stems showed conduit tapering from 4 m to the top. Radially, most water transport and mechanical support were achieved within 2–5 cm below the bark. The larger stem diameter of royal palm may have improved its water transport, storage, and potential for mechanical support compared to king palm. There was a strong trade-off between ground parenchyma and the fiber fraction. However, the correlation between theoretical hydraulic conductivity (K t) and the ground parenchyma fraction, and between K t and the fiber fraction, shifted from positive or non-significant below the bark, to strongly negative close to the center. These changes reflect the functional sectoriality of the palm stems, which may reduce the constraint of trade-offs between water transport, storage, and mechanical support. To conclude, functional sectoriality may have helped both palm species to withstand the hydraulic and mechanical constraints due to high stature.

In: IAWA Journal