Liogenys Guérin-Méneville, 1831, the largest genus of Neotropical Diplotaxini, is now comprised of 91 species. Fifteen new Brazilian species are described: L. acuta sp.n.; L. amazonica sp.n.; L. angustitarsis sp.n.; L. clinocarinata sp.n.; L. crassopunctata sp.n.; L. hirsuta sp.n.; L. latoemarginata sp.n.; L. leviscutata sp.n.; L. ornativentris sp.n.; L. rodriguesi sp.n.; L. pruinosa sp.n.; L. quadrata sp.n.; L. susanalbertorum sp.n.; L. variabilis sp.n.; and L. vazdemelloi sp.n.. Females are described for the first time for L. acutidens Moser, L. moseri Frey and L. sinuaticeps Moser. For L. macropelma Bates and L. minuta Moser, lectotypes and diagnoses are provided. Two new junior subjective synonyms are made for L. moseri and for L. parva Blanchard: L. obesina Frey and L. femella Cherman, respectively. The geographic distribution of Liogenys is first time recorded in Acre and Rondonia by the occurrence of new species, while other new records are expanded for eight species.
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Mariana A. Cherman, Daniel S. Basílio, Kleber M. Mise and Lúcia M. Almeida
Bernhard J. van Vondel
Representatives of all genera and subgenera of Haliplidae are examined regarding the shape of the air storage under the metacoxal plates. Three different main types can be distinguished with strong variation in the species of Haliplus. In general the results support the present concept of genera and subgenera, but a few exceptions are found. The subgenus Phalilus is raised to genus level. The genera Algophilus Zimmermann and Apteraliplus Chandler are reduced to subgenera of Haliplus Latreille. The synonymised genus Haliaplus Ádám is re-installed as a subgenus of Haliplus. Three new subgenera are introduced: Australiplus, Borealiplus and Nipponiplus. A cladistic analysis is carried out using 27 characters including those of the metacoxal air-storage space. A cladogram to subgenus level is presented.
Peter H. Roos
Species of the butterfly subfamily Danainae visit orchids, resulting in pollinaria being attached to their heads. In several habitats in east Sulawesi a remarkable percentage of Danainae specimens was observed with orchid pollinaria preferentially attached to their eyes. Among the 13 observed native Danainae species, seven carried pollinaria. Pollinaria attachment appears to be selective for Danainae as hundreds of specimens from other butterfly families were negative. Selectivity also concerns the orchid species, as attached pollinaria could be assigned to a Habenaria orchid and in one case only to an Anoectochilus. Efficient pollinaria attachment requires compatible morphological characters of butterfly and orchid. In this respect, the observed high pollinaria load of single butterflies is also important. Comparable investigations in southeast Sulawesi did not reveal danaid–orchid interactions. Further studies are required to prove orchid pollination by Danainae and to clarify the mechanism by which these butterflies are attracted to the orchids.
Tomohide Yasunaga and Ram Keshari Duwal
The Old World plant bug genus Hypseloecus Reuter of the tribe Pilophorini is reviewed on the basis of detailed observation of the morphological characters, with an updated checklist of Asian congeners. “Pleural glands” are herein suggested as a novel diagnostic character and currently considered as an additional autapomorphy for the genus. Two Asian new species, Hypseloecus nakagawai sp. n. (from Honshu, Japan) and H. aaroni sp. n. (Bagmati Zone, Nepal), are diagnosed and described. The host association and habitat of H. nakagawai are also documented. An Old World pilophorine genus, Lasiolabops Poppius, assumed to be a potential sister taxon of Hypseloecus, is diagnosed and discussed; further, two new species, L. cirratus sp. n. (from Japanese Ryukyus) and L. remicornis sp. n. (from Central Thailand), are described, based on their distinctive vestiture pattern.
Olivia M. Gearner, T. Keith Philips and Robert H. Neidlinger
A revision of the genus Eutaphroptinus is presented. Eutaphroptinus pseudonatalensis is proposed as a junior synonym of Eutaphroptinus natalensis. Illustrations showing some of the morphological variation are included, and new records of this now monotypic genus are also provided.
Jiří Hadrava, Valentin Nidergas, Klára Daňková, Martina Pecharová, André Nel and Jakub Prokop
A new species of fossil hoverfly (Syrphidae: Eristalinae), i.e., Blera miocenica sp. nov. is described from the Early Miocene (Burdigalian) of Bílina mine in the Most Basin, Czech Republic. The species description is based on a well preserved compressed fossil and it represents the first known fossil record of the genus Blera Billberg, 1820 so far. B. miocenica sp. nov. diagnosis is based on the wing venation and other body characters like the coloration pattern of abdomen. The resemblance of the new fossil to extant species of Blera is briefly discussed. The previously suggested palaeoenvironmental conditions at the type locality are in agreement with the knowledge on autecology of recent representatives of the genus Blera (i.e., larval feeding strategy, adult habitat preferences and flower visitation). Thus, we conclude that fossil hoverflies could be a helpful tool for the indication of past habitats.
Igor Souza-Gonçalves, Cristiano Lopes-Andrade, Vivian Eliana Sandoval-Gómez and John Francis Lawrence
The genus Paratrichapus Scott, 1926 currently comprises four species, one described from the Seychelles Islands in the Indian Ocean, one from Indonesia and two from New Zealand. Here, the first Australian species of Paratrichapus are described, as follows: P. australis sp. n., P. burwelli sp. n., P. christmasensis sp. n., P. metallonotum sp. n. and P. peckorum sp. n. Data on their geographic distribution and host fungi are provided, as well as an identification key.
Rolf G. Beutel, Evgeny V. Yan and Jarmila Kukalová-Peck
The Carboniferous insect taxon †Stephanastus polinae was assigned to a monotypic new order †Skleroptera, which was postulated as the sister group of the clade Strepsiptera + Coleoptera (= Coleopterida). The placement of †Stephanastus in Holometabola and the proposed relationship with Coleopterida are very likely unjustified. Suggested shared derived features of Skleroptera + Coleopterida are vague, insufficiently documented (characters of proximal leg segments) or likely based on misinterpretation (wing veins). Based on the wing venation we suggest a position in the extinct hemimetabolous order †Protelytroptera.
Veronica Pereyra, Adriano Cavalleri, Claudia Szumik and Christiane Weirauch
The New World family Heterothripidae (~90 spp., four genera) comprises flower-feeding and ectoparasitic thrips. The monophyly of the group has remained untested and species-level relationships were unknown. Morphological (123 characters) and molecular (28S rDNA D2 and D3-D5, H3, and partial COI) data were compiled to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of this group. The ingroup was represented by 65 species of the four recognized Heterothripidae genera (Aulacothrips Hood, Heterothrips Hood, Lenkothrips De Santis & Sureda, and Scutothrips Stannard). The monophyly of Heterothripidae was recovered in the total evidence and molecular data only analyses with the ectoparasitic Aulacothrips placed as the sister group of the remaining Heterothripidae. The large genus Heterothrips (>80% of the species-level diversity), which was thoroughly sampled in our analyses (56 species), was recovered as paraphyletic with respect to Scutothrips and Lenkothrips. We conclude that additional morphological and molecular data would be desirable before revising the classification of Heterothripidae
Santiago Bordera, Marina Mazón and Ilari E. Sääksjärvi
The Neotropical cryptine genus Lissaspis Townes is reviewed, comprising 26 species, of which, 17 are described as new, more than doubling the known species: L. aurea sp. n. from Peru, L. brevis sp. n. from Costa Rica and Ecuador, L. brunnea sp. n. from Costa Rica, L. erwini sp. n. from Ecuador, L. excavata sp. n. and L. longigena sp. n. from Venezuela, L. mesostriata sp. n. from Ecuador, L. oaxacana sp. n. from Mexico, L. reijoi sp. n. and L. rugosa sp. n. from Ecuador, L. soniae sp. n. from Costa Rica, L. townesorum sp. n. from Peru, L. variabilis sp. n. from Costa Rica, L. vermelhensis sp. n. from Brazil, L. victori sp. n. from Costa Rica, and L. waorani sp. n. and L. yasuniensis sp. n. from Ecuador. An illustrated identification key and distribution maps of all species are provided.
Mostafa Ghafouri Moghaddam, Ehsan Rakhshani, Mohammad Ali Arabzadeh, Hossein Ali Derafshan and Nickolas G. Kavallieratos
Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) are solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of wood boring insect larvae. Here we present two genera, i.e., Afromegischus van Achterberg, 2002 and Foenatopus Smith, 1861, and five species, i.e., A. gigas (Schletterer, 1889), F. bisignatus Aguiar & Jennings, 2010, F. crispus Aguiar, 2010, F. nimaarkanii Ghafouri Moghaddam & Rakhshani sp. n. and F. prousti Aguiar & Turrisi, 2010 from Iran. Specimens were collected in southeastern Iran (Kerman and Sistan-o Baluchestan) from unknown hosts. Their morphological features and distribution are discussed in relation to the overall knowledge in the target and adjacent regions. Foenatopus nimaarkanii sp. n. is incorporated to the key for the identification of Foenatopus species with double spots on metasomal tergites.
Julia L. Snyder, Alberto Zilli and Jennifer M. Zaspel
The species Calyptra minuticornis is divided into two subspecies: C. minuticornis novaepommeraniae (Strand) and C. minuticornis minuticornis (Guenée) based on minor morphological differences, geographic distribution, and differential feeding behaviors in the adults. In this study, museum specimens were examined, including the holotypes of C. novaepommeraniae and C. minuticornis. A comprehensive distribution map was generated for C. minuticornis. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance provided some statistical evidence for minor differences between the male genitalic morphology. Additionally, the maximum parsimony analysis of the C. minuticornis subspecies complex resulted in a polytomy and did not represent natural groupings. From these results, it can be concluded that C. minuticornis novaepommeraniae and C. minuticornis minuticornis should be synonymized. A redescription of the species and a revised checklist for the genus is also provided. This includes synonymization of Wolframmeyia Behounek, Hacker & Speidel with Calyptra and evidence that Percalpe Berio is an unavailable name.
Ivan Chigray, Maxim Nabozhenko, Gayirbeg Abdurakhmanov and Bekir Keskin
The taxonomic history, composition, morphology, distribution, and bionomics of the genus Dila Fischer von Waldheim, 1844 are discussed. The following new generic synonymy is established: Dila Fischer von Waldheim, 1844 = Caenoblaps König, 1906, syn.n. As a result, four species are transferred from Caenoblaps to the genus Dila: Dila difformis (König, 1906), comb.n., Dila nitida (Schuster, 1920), comb.n., Dila baeckmanni (Schuster, 1928), comb.n., Dila kulzeri (Schuster, 1928), comb.n. A new synonymy is established: Blaps kulzeri Pierre, 1964 = Caenoblaps kulzeriana Pierre, 1964, syn.n. A taxonomic review of the eight known Caucasian, Turkish and Iranian species is given. Lectotypes of Caenoblaps nitida and Caenoblaps difformis are designated. Three new species are described: Dila hakkarica sp.n. and Dila svetlanae sp.n. from the Hakkary Province of Turkey and Dila crenatopunctata sp.n. from West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. The position of the genus Dila within the tribe Blaptini and subtribal classification are discussed.
Marcelli K. Vieira, Fernando Z. Vaz-de-Mello and Fernando A. B. Silva
The subgenus Canthon (Pseudepilissus) Martínez, 1954 is revised. Four valid species are redescribed: Canthon (Pseudepilissus) muticus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) lunatus Schmidt, 1922; C. (P.) planus Lucas, 1857 and C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910. Three species assigned to other groups are transferred in the subgenus: C. (P.) quadratus Blanchard, 1843 [previously Canthon “incertae sedis”]; C. (P.) edentulus Harold, 1868 [previously Canthon “incertae sedis”] and C. (P.) seminulus Harold, 1867 comb. nov. [previously Vulcanocanthon]. The genus Vulcanocanthon Pereira & Martínez, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymized with Canthon (Pseudepilissus). Three subspecies are raised to species level: C. (P.) tibialis Schmidt, 1922 stat. nov. [previously C. (P.) lunatus tibialis]; C. (P.) granuliceps Felsche, 1910 stat. nov. [previously C. edentulus granuliceps] and C. (P.) hendrichsi Halffter & Martínez, 1968 stat. nov. [previously C. (P.) muticus hendrichsi]. C. (P.) honsi Balthasar, 1939 syn. nov. is synonymized with C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910. Four new species are described: Canthon (P.) arriagadai sp. nov., Canthon (P.) bonaerensis sp. nov., Canthon (P.) vidaurrei sp. nov. and Canthon (P.) ziggy sp. nov., bringing the number of species in the subgenus to 14. Lectotypes are designated for six species C. (P.) muticus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) reichei Felsche, 1910; C. (P.) planus Lucas, 1857; C. (P.) seminulus Harold, 1867; C. (P.) granuliceps Felsche, 1910 and C. (P.) quadratus Blanchard, 1843. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters, data on the studied material and geographic distribution are provided for each species.
Reza Hosseini and Gerasimos Cassis
A systematic review of the tribe Hyaliodini from Australia and New Caledonia is given. Four new genera and 13 new species of Hyaliodini described: Bolbomiris gen. n. (B. cola sp. n., B. samuelsoni sp. n.), Epelisentis gen. n. (E. celiae sp. n., E. gressitti sp. n.), Plikomiris gen. n. (P. freycinetiaphilus sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n.) and Torunotum gen. n. (T. badius sp. n., T. hystrix sp. n., T. oviformis sp. n., T. pindaii sp. n. and T. psydrax sp. n.), as well as Femurocoris madeleinensis sp. n., Montagneria yahouensis sp. n. Femurocoris Carvalho and Montagneria Akingbohungbe and their type species are redescribed, as is M. cuneatus (Distant). Stethoconus praefectus (Distant) is reported from Australia for the first time. A dichotomous key, illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron micrographs and habitus photographs are provided. A phylogenetic analysis of a morphological dataset was undertaken resulting in a monophyletic Hyaliodini, and the New Caledonian hyaliodines form a subclade. A discussion of the infra-subfamilial classification of the Deraeocorinae is given.
Carla Fernanda Burguez Floriano, Fredy Molano-Rendón, Irina Morales, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira and Pitágoras da Conceição Bispo
Platygerris White comprises true bugs that inhabit the surface of water in moderate to fast-flowing freshwater habitats. This genus differs from Cylindrostethus Mayr and Potamobates Champion (Gerridae: Cylindrostethinae) by having a short and flattened body; the mandibular and maxillary plates fused; and the omphalium, lateral groove, and lateral evaporatorium of the scent apparatus inconspicuous. In this paper, we redescribe Platygerris, describe two new species from Colombia, and redescribe P. asymmetricus Hungerford, P. caeruleus Champion and P. depressus White. In addition, we present an updated identification key to the species of the genus. For the first time, the cuticular structure is described for the genus based on electron microscopy.
Tatiana Sepúlveda and Diego Souza
The Eoneria-group was proposed to gather species with opaque antennal base from all biogeographical regions. Recently, the Eoneria-group was redefined to comprise only three genera from the Neotropical Region: Antillonerius, Eoloxozus and Eoneria. Herein, we redescribe the species of the Eoneria-group and perform a phylogenetic analysis based on 49 morphological characters. Our results corroborate the monophyly of the Eoneria-group (excluding Antillonerius bistriatus (Williston)), supported by nine synapomorphies. Antillonerius solitarius (Johnson) stat. rev. is revalidated from synonymy with Antillonerius cinereus (Röder) and a key for the species in the Caribbean islands is provided. New combinations are proposed for Eoloxozus sabroskyi Aczél, which is transferred to Eoneria, and Nerius bistriatus Williston, which is transferred to Glyphidops. Additionally, new records of E. aczeli Sepúlveda & de Carvalho are provided for Venezuela and of E. blanchardi, for Venezuela and Paraguay.
Avunjikkattu Parambil Ranjith, Cornelis van Achterberg, Dharma Rajan Priyadarsanan, Il-Kwon Kim, Rajmohana Keloth, Shweta Mukundan and Mannankadiyan Nasser
Miracinae is one of the least studied braconid subfamilies with only two extant genera. Among them, Centistidea Rohwer is a speciose and widely distributed genus. East Palearctic and Oriental species of Centistidea are revised and eight new species are described, seven of which are from south India, C. crenulator sp. n., C. glabrator sp. n., C. lineator sp. n., C. mellapicalis sp. n., C. procarinator sp. n., C. rugator sp. n., C. scutellator sp. n.; and one from South Korea, C. albomarginata sp. n. A key to the extant species is provided. Distribution pattern of Centistidea and character plasticity within species are discussed.
M. Montagna, E. Gonella, V. Mereghetti, G. Magoga, E. Ferrari, M. Pontini, C. Ferracini and A. Alma
Molecular species recognition and identification, based on the mitochondrial cox1 and on the nuclear ITS2, were performed on individuals of Torymus sinensis collected in Italy, on its close relative T. beneficus and on native torymids. The automatic-gap-discovery (ABGD) analyses correctly separate almost all morphospecies. On the basis of cox1, individuals of late-spring T. beneficus clustered with T. sinensis, and those identified as early-spring T. beneficus were recognized as a separate entity. Whereas, T. beneficus ecotypes clustered with T. sinensis on the basis of ITS2. Coalescent tree-based methods confirmed these results. The cox1-based recognition of early-spring T. beneficus as a separate phylospecies led us to conclude that this taxon deserves to be treated as a valid species, whereas individuals identified as late-spring T. beneficus might be considered as part of T. sinensis. Morphological identification and BLAST analyses confirmed that no T. beneficus was imported into Italy to control Dryocosmus kuriphilus.
Robert J. Pivar, John K. Moulton and Bradley J. Sinclair
The western Nearctic fauna of Androprosopa Mik is revised to include twenty-five species, three of which are new to science. Descriptions of the adult males of A. apache Pivar & Moulton sp.n., A. arnaudi Pivar sp.n. and A. rainierensis Pivar & Sinclair sp.n. are presented. Redescriptions of all remaining western Nearctic species are provided, as well as genitalic illustrations and updated distribution maps for each species. A diagnostic key to males of western Nearctic species of Androprosopa is offered. Species groups based on morphology are discussed.
B.C. Bellini, N.M.C. Santos, P.G.C. Souza and W.M. Weiner
Herein we describe two new species of Brazilian springtails, both from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Brachystomella nordestina sp.n. resembles other Neotropical congeners with 8+8 eyes, postantennal organ with four lobes and 19/19/18 chaetae on tibiotarsi I–III, but it is unique in the combination of trilobed apical bulb, 2+2 dorsal chaetae on thorax I, male’s genital plate with 4+4 modified eugenital chaetae and 2+2 hr chaetae on lateral anal valves. Seira (Lepidocyrtinus) dapeste sp.n. is similar to other Neotropical species of Lepidocyrtinus Börner, 1903 in long antennae, mesonotum projected over head and presence of modified blunt macrochaetae on dorsal furca, but differs in the combination of dorsal head chaetotaxy, 14–19 a macrochaetae on thorax II, 7–9 central macrochaetae on thorax III and 4 central macrochaetae on abdomen II. We also present a detailed comparison and an updated key of the Neotropical species of Brachystomella Ågren, 1903.
Junli Yao, Cornelis van Achterberg, Michael J. Sharkey, Eric G. Chapman and Jiahua Chen
Hylcalosia Fischer, 1967, is a small braconid genus with 13 described species from the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. The genus is revised using morphological characters and a phylogenetic analysis of COI sequence data; GenBank accession numbers of fifteen sequences we generated from four species are included. Sixteen specimens from Thailand belonging to this genus were examined; five new species are described and illustrated, i.e., H. bothynis Yao n. sp., H. dichromata Yao n. sp., H. eurykephale Yao n. sp., H. leura Yao n. sp., and H. perkna Yao n. sp. A key to the species of the genus Hylcalosia is presented.
Bryan D. Lessard, David K. Yeates and Norman E. Woodley
A taxonomic treatment for the genera of the soldier fly subfamily Stratiomyinae is provided for the Australian fauna, including the first key to the Australian genera and updated key for the genus Acanthasargus White, 1914. Each genus is diagnosed and illustrated, including: Acanthasargus, Odontomyia Meigen, 1803, the newly recorded genus Prosopochrysa de Meijere, 1907 and new species Prosopochrysa lemannae Lessard & Woodley, sp.n., and the new genus and species Scutellumina parvatra Woodley & Lessard, gen.n. et. sp.n. Four genera and 30 species of Stratiomyinae are now recognised from Australia.
Xiao-Hui Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Yin Pang, Cheng-Yuan Su and Dao-Hong Zhu
Three new species of the tribe Synergini (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), i.e., Lithosaphonecrus arcoverticus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. Lithosaphonecrus decarinatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. and Saphonecrus emarginatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. are described from Hunan, China. The three species have emerged from the same galls collected on Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) in December, June, and April, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Synergini based on mtDNA COI and rRNA 28S D2 genes resolved two independent monophyletic clades exclusively associated with Lithocarpus plant hosts, i.e., the genus Lithosaphonecus and the lithocarpii species complex of Saphonecrus. The three species each have a sister relationship with a congener in Taiwan, an island off the southeastern coast of continental China. This recurrent disjunct distribution and relatively low COI sequence variation between the sister species in each species pair are considered attributable to the formation of the Taiwan Strait in Holocene ca 10,000 years ago. We also discussed the possible speciation mechanism for Lithosaphonecrus due to seasonality and topography in subtropical China. Finally, we addressed the need for conservation consideration in urbanization planning.
Cecilia Waichert, Joseph S. Wilson, James P. Pitts and Carol D. von Dohlen
Ageniella is the second-most diverse spider wasp genus in Ageniellini (Pepsinae). The Ageniella (Ageniella) accepta species-group is found from Canada to Panama and is composed of three Nearctic species: A. accepta (Cresson), A. blaisdelli (Fox), and A. conflicta Banks. Within this group, species-level identification is difficult, because diagnostic characters are questionable, and subjective for both males and females. Furthermore, sexes of each species are not reliably associated. Herein, we investigate sex associations and the validity of described species within the A. accepta species-group based on three molecular markers (cytochrome oxidase I, wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin) by using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and species-delimitation approaches. Additionally, we mapped 12 morphological traits onto the molecular phylogeny to discuss evolution of diagnostic characters. We concluded that the three species of the A. accepta species-group are actually a single, wide-ranging species with strong geographical signal. Moreover, our results suggest introgression at the mitochondrial level.
Erki Õunap, Toomas Tammaru and Andro Truuverk
Recent advances in molecular systematics have led to an emerging understanding of the phylogenetic history of the family Geometridae. These studies have basically confirmed the traditional subdivision of the subfamily Larentiinae into tribes but unsolved problems remain. Here we test the monophyly of the tribe Perizomini, and evaluate the division of this tribe into genera using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of one mitochondrial and eight nuclear gene fragments. We show that the Eurasian members of Perizoma Hübner, 1825, Mesotype Hübner, 1825 and Gagitodes Warren, 1893 together form a monophyetic tribe Perizomini. However, Martania Mironov, 2000 is not closely related to these genera, but is considered to belong to Melanthiini according to the results of the phylogenetic analyses. Morphological evidence supporting this rearrangement is discussed. The Nearctic Larentia basaliata Walker, 1862 was shown to belong in the genus Martania as M. basaliata (Walker, 1862) comb. nov. and being specifically distinct from the morphologically similar Palaearctic M. taeniata. Three other studied ‘Perizoma’ species from the New World were similarly placed far from Perizomini in the phylogenetic tree, and were not related to each other. We conclude that both the tribe Perizomini and the genus Perizoma are polyphyletic which indicates that the group needs a global revision. It remains an open question whether Perizomini have a worldwide distribution as previously assumed, or is this tribe confined to the Palaearctic region.
Maxim Nabozhenko, Ivan Chigray and Andris Bukejs
The new monotypic subgenus Stenolassus subgen. nov. of the genus Stenohelops Reitter, 1922 is described for Stenohelops klebsi (Nabozhenko, Perkovsky et Chernei, 2016) comb. nov. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which was previously described within the genus Nalassus Mulsant, 1856. This species is transferred to Stenohelops Reitter, 1922 based on the structure of the male aedeagus, abdominal ventrite 5, and the protarsi. A key to the subgenera of the genus Stenohelops is provided. The problematic species Isomira (Mucheimira) avula Seidlitz, 1896 is redescribed and its taxonomic placement addressed. A new species, Isomira (Isomira) hoffeinsorum sp. nov. is also described from Baltic amber. This new species possesses a mixture of characters associated with Mucheimira and Isomira, which can be a result of incomplete diversification of the genus Isomira during the Eocene.
Nicole L. Gunter, Geoff B. Monteith, Stephen L. Cameron and Tom A. Weir
The evolution of dung beetles remains contentious with two hypotheses reflecting Cretaceous and Paleogene origins driven by different methods. We explore biogeographic evidence and phylogeographic origins against vicariance and dispersal scenarios that attribute to the four elements of the Australian fauna using a multi-gene approach. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses supported the Australasian clade, composed of almost all Australian, New Caledonian and New Zealand endemic genera (to the exclusion of Boletoscapter). Two Australian lineages with east-west splits and few lineages with restricted, non-overlapping distrbution were identified, and biogeography models provided evidence that vicariance and founder event speciation are important processes in the diversification of Australasian scarabaeines. Our phylogenetic results are largely congruent with a mid-Cretaceous origin of the Australasian clade, the tectonic history of Gondwanaland and climatic history of the Australian continent, and provide compelling evidence that Australian dung beetles are a relictual fauna whose history is linked to mesic zone fragmentation.
Nikolas G. Cipola, José W. de Morais and Bruno C. Bellini
Here a new subgenus of Lepidocyrtus Bourlet from South America is proposed. Fractocyrtus subgen.n. differs from other subgenera by tergal polychaetosis, dental tubercle truncate and dentes with numerous spine-like chaetae. Four new species of Lepidocyrtus are described, two of Setogaster Salmon and two of Fractocyrtus subgen.n. Lepidocyrtus (S.) amazonicus sp.n. and L. (S.) multisensillatus sp.n. are similar to L. nigrosetosus Folsom by basomedian field with chaetae smooth and dental tubercle rounded, but differ in dorsal chaetotaxy. Lepidocyrtus (F.) americanus sp.n. and L. (F.) mateosi sp.n. are similar by presence of numerous dental spines, but differ in chaetotaxy. Due to inconsistencies concerning scales on appendages of Lepidocyrtus subgenera, four synonyms are proposed, and the characteristics diagnostic to subgenera are shape and presence of dental tubercle, dental spines, mucronal spinelet and apical bulb of fourth antennal segment. An identification key to subgenera is also provided.
Robin Kundrata, Michael A. Ivie and Ladislav Bocak
A molecular phylogeny of Ptilodactylidae shows that Podabrocephalus Pic, 1913, the type genus of Podabrocephalidae Pic, 1930 is closely related to Ptilodactyla Illiger, 1807 and other genera of Ptilodactylinae. Consequently, Podabrocephalidae Pic, 1930 syn. n. is proposed as a junior synonym of Ptilodactylidae Laporte, 1836. Earlier authors used the highly modified morphology of the male to justify a high rank for Podabrocephalus. The molecular phylogeny of Ptilodactylidae further indicates that Paralichas White, 1859 (Cladotominae) does not form a monophylum with remaining ptilodactylids. Ptilodactylinae and an undescribed lineage from Indonesia are sister to the broadly delimited Anchytarsinae. Within Ptilodactylinae, Pherocladus Fairmaire, 1881 is sister to a clade formed by Ptilodactyla spp. and Podabrocephalus. We remove Falsotherius Pic, 1913 from Ptilodactylinae to Ptilodactylidae incertae sedis, and return Daemon Laporte, 1836 from Ptilodactylinae to Anchytarsinae. Cross validation of morphology- and DNA-based phylogenies is needed for interpreting phylogenetic inference in morphologically modified lineages.
Mar Ferrer-Suay, Jesús Selfa, Noel Mata-Casanova, Nicolas Pérez Hidalgo and Juli Pujade-Villar
A complete revision of the world species of the genus Phaenoglyphis Förster, 1869 has been conducted. A total of 25 species of Phaenoglyphis are valid after studying their type material. Two new species are described: Phaenoglyphis belizini sp. n. and Phaenoglyphis palmirae sp. n. Two species are synonymized: P. dolichocera (Cameron, 1889) with P. nigripes (Thomson, 1877) and P. pecki Andrews, 1978 with P. villosa (Hartig, 1841). Phaenoglyphis bangalorensis Kurian, 1953 was considered as incertae sedis. Phaenoglyphis duplocarpentieri (Kieffer, 1904) and P. hedickei Hedicke, 1928 are considered lost. Other three species are discarded as valid species because they are missing important parts without which the species cannot be defined: P. cincta (Hartig, 1841), P. frigidus (Belizin, 1968) and P. repentinus Belizin, 1962. A complete redescription and an illustrative plate are presented. A key to species of the genus Phaenoglyphis is given. Phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters has been performed.
Frederico F. Salles and Rafael Boldrini
A new taxon of Hermanellonota or subtribe Hermanellina (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) was found from Northern Brazil, in the limits of Pacaraima in Brazil and Santa Helena de Uairén in Venezuela. While nymphs of this taxon are similar to those of the genus Farrodes, the adults could not be assigned to any of the genera included in the group. In order to clarify the systematic relationship of this taxon and to provide a reliable hypothesis concerning its generic placement, we analyzed it using an available matrix from the literature and performed a new cladistic analysis. As a result we describe Rondophlebia rubra gen. nov. et sp. nov. sister to the Perissophlebiodes complex + Hermanella complex. Our analyses also shed new insights on the systematics of Hermanellonota.
The genus Microdaiphron Pic, 1926 is revised. Ten species are recognized as valid: Microdaiphron polemioides (Kirsch, 1889), M. implicitus (Erichson, 1847) comb. nov., M. pauloensis (Pic, 1926), M. peruvianus Pic, 1938, M. mendesensis (Pic, 1926), M. tapuruquara sp. nov., M. geodesicus sp. nov., M. batasitensis (Pic, 1926), M. guyanensis Constantin, 2016, and M. brevehumeralis Pic, 1938. Other 23 names within Microdaiphron are synonymized with the currently valid species, whilst Microdaiphron bicoloricornis Pic, 1947 is transferred to Malthesis Motschulsky, 1853. The taxonomic status of three primary homonyms is also discussed. Daiphron polemioides var. atripenne Pic, 1927 (=Microdaiphron implicitus comb. nov.) is the senior homonym of Daiphron atripenne Pic, 1934 and Daiphron atripenne var. bipartitum Pic, 1934. The later is synonymized and reinstated as a valid species under the name D. bipartitus Pic, 1934. Descriptions, distribution maps and illustrations of diagnostic features are presented for all valid taxa, including the photographs of primary types in all available names within Microdaiphron.
Lauri Kaila, Kari Nupponen, Pavel Yu. Gorbunov, Marko Mutanen and Maria Heikkilä
Ustyurtiidae Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, a new family of Urodoidea is introduced. The family is based on the genus Ustyurtia Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, gen. n. The genus includes the type species U. zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n. and U. charynica Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n., both from Kazakhstan. These two species, in particular the immature stages, have morphological attributes apomorphic of Urodoidea. The close affinity is also supported by DNA data based on several markers. We consider this new family warranted due to its sister group position to the remaining Urodoidea and a number of significant morphological differences in wing venation, male genitalia and the structure of the cocoon, apomorphic for Ustyurtiidae on the basis of an earlier published phylogeny. All other recognized genera of Urodoidea belong to the family Urodidae. The closest relatives and phylogenetic position of Urodoidea are not firmly established, but Urodoidea and Schreckensteinioidea have morphological similarities which, in the light of genetic analyses appear synapomorphic and possibly uniting these groups, rather than homoplasious as assumed earlier. The affinities of these superfamilies are discussed.
Zhaofu Yang, Misbah Ullah, Jean-François Landry, Scott E. Miller, Margaret E. Rosati and Yalin Zhang
Bacotoma Moore, 1885 is reviewed including the description of a new species from Hainan Island, B. hainanensis sp. nov., based on an analysis that combined morphology and mitochondrial DNA. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Platamonina Shaffer & Munroe, 2007, syn. nov. is synonymized with Bacotoma and ten species are included: B. ampliatalis (Lederer, 1863) comb. nov., B. binotalis (Warren, 1896) comb. nov., B. camillusalis (Walker, 1859), B. cuprealis (Moore, 1877) comb. nov., B. hainanensis sp. nov., B. illatalis (Walker, 1866), B. oggalis (Swinhoe, 1906) comb. nov., B. poecilura (Hering, 1903) comb. nov., B. ptochura (Meyrick, 1894) comb. nov., and B. violata (Fabricius, 1787). Syngamia albiceps Hampson, 1912 syn. nov. is confirmed to be a synonym of Bacotoma binotalis, and Platamonia medinalis Snellen, 1900 syn. nov. is synonymized with Bacotoma illatalis. A key to species examined is also provided based on external morphology and male genitalia.
Alexander G. Kirejtshuk and Andre Nel
The recent critical revision of the order Skleroptera by Beutel et al. (2018a) is considered. We show several defects in their interpretation, contradicted by the original descriptions and diagnosis (Nel et al., 2013; Kirejtshuk & Nel, 2013). The main arguments of the initial interpretation of Stephanastus polinae Kirejtshuk et Nel, 2013 (Stephanastidae) and reasons for the proposal of the order Skleroptera (Kirejtshuk & Nel, 2013) are mentioned, together with reasons to reject the proposal of Beutel et al. (2018a, b). A comparison of Skleroptera with other neopteran orders is made. Lastly the problem of the position of Umenocoleus as a member of Coleopterida versus a roachoid is discussed, the first hypothesis being supported by synapomorphies which is not the case for the second.
Anna A. Namyatova, Peter Contos and Gerasimos Cassis
Bothriomirini is a small tropical mirid tribe that has not been comprehensively revised nor has monophyly of the tribe and included genera been tested. This paper presents a systematic review of Bothrioimrini. Bothriomirella ater gen. nov. sp. nov., Bothriomiris lorenzatoae sp. nov., Dashymenia javanensis sp. nov. , Dashymenia jaydeni sp. nov. are described as new to science. A phylogenetic analysis of Bothriomirini based on morphological data is performed. The diagnoses of the tribe and most of its genera are discussed. Bakeriola crassicornis Poppius, Bothriomiris lugubris Poppius, Bothriomiris ornatus Bergroth, Dashymeniella tibialis Poppius and Leprocapsus scutellaris Poppius are redescribed. Female genitalia of Bothrimirini are discussed for the first time. This study supports the monophyly of the tribe and most genera and documents remarkable heterogeneity of the female genitalia. New locality data and a discussion of the distribution of Bothriomirini in relation to major biomes and climatic zones are provided.
Daiara Manfio, Isaac Reis Jorge, Gael J. Kergoat and Cibele Stramare Ribeiro-Costa
The seed beetle genus Ctenocolum Kingsolver & Whitehead is peculiar because its preferred host Lonchocharpus Kunth (Fabaceae) is not preyed upon by other bruchine species. This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of this genus and of its species groups, while providing the description of three new species and of the male of C. biolleyi Kingsolver & Whitehead. To infer phylogenetic relationships, a character matrix of 40 morphological characters was assembled and analysed using both parsimony and Bayesian inference. Ancestral state estimations of host plant use and biogeography analyses were also performed. A total of 22 species were examined: 16 Ctenocolum species (including the three new ones) and six outgroup bruchine species (from genera Caryedes Hummel, Meibomeus Bridwell, Pygiopachymerus Pic and Pachymerus Thunberg). All resulting trees support the monophyly of the genus Ctenocolum. Three synapomorphies characterize the genus: (i) head with frontal carina enlarged at base, (ii) male pygidium truncated apically, and (iii) lateral lobes of tegmen with dorsal process. The two known species groups are also recovered monophyletic in the parsimony analyses. The following three species are described: Ctenocolum inmaculatus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Venezuela, Guarico), which belongs to the group tuberculatum; Ctenocolum nigronotus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Porto Rico, Mayaguez) and C. pallidus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Republic of Guyana), which belong to the group podagricus. Finally, we present colored illustrations of dorsal patterns and male genitalia for these three new species and C. biolleyi in addition to an updated key for the genus Ctenocolum.
Raxsina Polseela, Rüdiger Wagner, Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte, Björn Rulik and Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn
We revise the Oriental species of Bruchomyiinae based on type and additional material, with first descriptions of the genus Alexanderia Wagner & Kvifte, gen. nov. and A. thailandensis Wagner, Rulik & Polseela, sp.nov. The genus further comprises Nemapalpus orientalis Edwards, 1928 (type species), Nemopalpus vietnamensis Quate, 1962 and Nemapalpus unicolor Edwards, 1928. Alexanderia thailandensis is described using morphology of males and females and DNA barcodes, whereas A. orientalis Edwards, 1928 comb.nov., A. unicolor Edwards 1928 comb.nov., and A. vietnamensis Quate 1962 comb. nov. are redescribed. The male and female internal genitalia in the genus are discussed in the context of sexual selection, and we suggest that the spermathecal ducts of the female and the basiphallic musculature of the male may be shaped by a male/female coevolutionary arms race.
So Shimizu, Andrew M.R. Bennett, Masato Ito and Kaoru Maeto
The Japanese species of the genus Therion Curtis, 1829 (Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae) were revised based on examination of 447 Japanese specimens. Four species are recognized based on morphology and sequence data (mtCOI). Two of them are identified as previously known species: T. circumflexum (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. giganteum (Gravenhorst, 1829). The other two species are described as new: T. carinatum Shimizu & Bennett, sp. nov. and T. nigrigasterum Shimizu, Bennett & Ito, sp. nov. In addition, T. rufomaculatum (Uchida, 1928) stat. rev. is once again synonymized with T. circumflexum. The Japanese species of Therion are easily distinguished from each other by a newly provided key. The lasiocampid moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis (Butler, 1877), is newly recorded as a host of T. giganteum.
Magno S. Ramos and Celso O. Azevedo
Bethylinae are a morphologically well-defined subfamily of Bethylidae, with remarkable characters, such as strongly convex clypeal carina and bifid and angled tarsal claws. However, there is no consensus about the phylogenetic relationships among the genera within the family, regarding mainly Eupsenella and Lytopsenella. To resolve this problem, a phylogeny of the Bethylinae is inferred based on parsimony analyses separately of 43 and 44 morphological characters for males and females, respectively. We performed combined analyses of both sexes with 49 morphological characters, including genitalia. We present a phylogenetic analysis, including a total 118 species of Bethylinae. Male and female characters were included in these analyses. We discuss wing morphology and deformability of forewings for the first time. In summary, the basal polytomy was solved for the first time. Seven of the eight genera were recovered as monophyletic groups. The unique exception is Goniozus, which was retrieved as paraphyletic in all topologies.
Marcely Valois, Layse Harada, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello and Fernando Silva
This paper provides a synopsis of the South American genus Diabroctis Gistel, 1858. Five species are assigned to the genus. The type species D. mimas is widely distributed and shows considerable morphological variation in male secondary sexual characters. A substantial number of morphological and geographic data are used to provide an updated diagnosis of this species, and to describe intraspecific variation. A new Brazilian species is described as Diabroctis pseudomimas sp. nov., which has been recognized among specimens confused with D. mimas (Linnaeus) in entomological collections. Additionally, the subspecies D. mimas venezuelensis is elevated to species level. Lectotypes are designated for Phanaeus mirabilis and Phanaeus mimaeformis. Diagnoses, distribution data, and an identification key are provided for all species included in the genus.
Alexey V. Solovyev and Alessandro Giusti
The genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841 distributed from India and Japan to New Guinea is revised. At present it includes a total of 31 species (34 taxa including subspecies), of which 16 are described as new to science: S. witti, S. pichugini, S. palawana, S. busa, S. jakli, S. uljanae, S. nusatenggarica, S. wetara, S. philippina, S. buraena, S. geminus, S. rudloffi, S. tanimbara, S. brechlini, S. lourensi, and S. notata. Lectotypes are designated for 9 taxa: Bethura minax, Scopelodes lutea, S. pallivittata, S. testacea, S. aurogrisea, S. exigua, S. magnifica, S. dinawa, S. sericea. New synonymy is established for the taxa: Scopelodes testacea = Scopelodes exigua niassica, syn. n. The taxa S. aurogrisea Moore and S. bicolor Wu & Fang are regarded as subspecies within S. venosa Walker. A new combination is proposed here: S. brunneipennis, comb. n. (the species is transferred from the genus Comana Walker).
Paola D’Alessandro, Roberta Frasca, Elizabeth Grobbelaar, Mattia Iannella and Maurizio Biondi
A taxonomic revision of the species attributed to the subgenus Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) Biondi & D’Alessandro is provided. Seven new species are described: Blepharidina (Afroblepharida) afarensis sp. nov. and B. (A.) tajurensis sp. nov. from Djibouti; B. (A.) bantu sp. nov. from Kenya; B. (A.) benadiriensis sp. nov. from Somalia; B. (A.) nubiana sp. nov. from Sudan; B. (A.) pusilla sp. nov. from Ethiopia and Kenya; B. (A.) zephyra sp. nov. from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria. An updated catalogue, including material examined, distributions, chorotypes, and ecological notes, is supplied. The revision comprises a key to the eleven known species, habitus photos, and microscope and scanning electron micrographs of diagnostic characters, including the aedeagus and spermatheca. A phylogenetic analysis based on parsimony was provided. The strict consensus tree was used to put forward a preliminary biogeographical analysis of the taxon in the light of the current distribution of the species.
Tomohide Yasunaga, Sachiko Akagi and Seidai Nagashima
The mirine plant bug fauna of the genus Stenotus Jakovlev in Japan, Korea, East China, and Russian Far East is reviewed. Seven species are recognized in the study area; of these, two new species are herein described, namely S. hasegawai sp.n., restricted to cool-temperate climate zones in Japan and Sakhalin, Russia and S. takaii sp.n. assumed to be endemic to Amami-Oshima Island of the Japanese Ryukyus. The Taiwanese species, S. insularis Poppius, is reported from the Ryukyus for the first time and redescribed; the other taxon, S. viridis (Shiraki), is regarded as a nomen dubium, lacking any type series. An additional new species from Nepal, S. ramduwalae sp.n., is described. A checklist of East Asia and Oriental species and a key to all known East Asian species are provided. Stenotus longiceps Poppius is transferred to Zalmunna Distant. The zoogeography of these East Asian Stenotus species is discussed.
Paulo Vilela Cruz, Frederico Falcão Salles and Neusa Hamada
The taxonomic knowledge of Baetidae has been greatly improved in the last decades in South America. Despite the advances, there are problems that need to be addressed. One of these problems is doubt concerning the systematics of species assigned to the genera Paracloeodes Day, Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and Varipes Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, and the evolution of long setae on femora. In the present paper, the monophyly of these three genera is tested using a cladistic approach. The matrix included 53 species and 151 morphological characters: 127 for nymphs and 24 for adults. The dataset was analyzed under equal and implied weights with nine values of k. Group support was estimated with relative Bremer and frequency differences. The results corroborate (i) the paraphyly of Paracloeodes and Varipes, which become monophyletic without P. caldensis + V. singuil, proposed as a new genus Rhopyscelis gen. n., (ii) the long setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iii) the transversal rows of setae on femora as an independent acquisition between Rhopyscelis gen. n. + Varipes and Rivudiva, (iv) the spine on subgenital plate as an independent acquisition between Paracloeodes, Rivudiva and Gen. A.
Maria E. Maldaner, Fernando Z. Vaz-de-Mello, Daniela M. Takiya and Daniela C. Ferreira
Coprophanaeus (Megaphanaeus) d’Olsoufieff, 1924 has four valid species: C. lancifer (Linné, 1767), C. ensifer (Germar, 1821), C. bonariensis (Gory, 1844) and C. bellicosus (Olivier, 1789). However, authors disagree about the placement of C. bellicosus. Thus, our aims were (I) to test if Megaphanaeus is a monophyletic group and (II) verify to which subgenus C. bellicosus belongs. We sequenced three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker for ten Phanaeini species: COI (672bp), COI-II (1326bp), 16S (527bp) and 28S (994bp). For fifteen species we sequenced two markers, COI (681pb) and 16S (532pb). Both matrices were analyzed under three methods of phylogenetic inference: Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference. Megaphanaeus is here considered monophyletic including C. bellicosus as sister-group to (C. bonariensis (C. lancifer + C. ensifer)). All analyses recovered the non-monophyly of both C. lancifer and C. ensifer, because of a population of C. lancifer grouped with C. ensifer specimens.
A diagnosis is provided of the cicada genus Muda Distant, 1897, with descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps for the five species found in Sundaland. Three of these, Muda obtusa (Walker, 1858), M. virguncula (Walker, 1856) and M. tua Duffels, 2004, are redescribed. Muda beccarii (Distant, 1888) and M. concolor Distant, 1897 are junior synonyms of M. virguncula. Abroma tahanensis (Moulton, 1923) is transferred to Muda and redescribed. Muda kinabaluana is described as new to science, and is very peculiar, missing the timbals. An identification key is provided. Characters and taxonomic position of Muda kuroiwae (Matsumura, 1913) from the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan are discussed. Muda is characterized by two supposed synapomorphies, viz., the mediodorsal carina of the male pygofer and the movable upper pygofer lobes; these characters are also found in species of Katoa. Further comparative study of Muda and Katoa is needed to reveal their relationships.
Rob de Vos
The genus Lambulosia Hampson, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae, Lithosiini) is revised. The genus is restricted to New Guinea. Nine new species were discovered to belong to this originally monotypic genus. Two species groups are recognized, the aurantiaca species group with six species, of which five are new to science: Lambulosia aurantiaca (Rothschild, 1912), L. arabuensis sp. n., L. gemmata sp. n., L. metallescens sp. n., L. flavoradiata sp. n. and L. brunnescens sp. n.; and the nigrolineata species group with four species new to science: L. nigrolineata sp. n., L. nigrotriangula sp. n., L. obscurata sp. n. and L. punctilineata sp. n. All species are described and the adults and genitalia are depicted.
Fábio G.L. Oliveira, Nikolas G. Cipola and Eduardo A.B. Almeida
Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.
Xiao-Long Lin, Elisabeth Stur and Torbjørn Ekrem
For over a decade, DNA barcoding has proven an effective modern tool in taxonomy, evolutionary biology and biodiversity research. Many new species have been discovered and described with DNA barcodes as part of their diagnostic features. Using DNA barcodes, we uncovered a number of potential species within the Tanytarsus curticornis and Tanytarsus heusdensis species complexes (Diptera: Chironomidae) and detected morphological differences a posteriori that support the description of new species. Unusually large intraspecific divergence in COI p-distance (up to 10%) was observed for two species complexes. In total, eight species new to science are described and figured: T. adustus sp. n., T. heberti sp. n., T. madeiraensis sp. n., T. pseudoheusdensis sp. n., T. songi sp. n., T. thomasi sp. n., T. tongmuensis sp. n. and T. wangi sp. n.. Tanytarsus reei and T. tamaoctavus are redescribed, and T. tusimatneous is listed as a new junior synonym of T. tamaduodecimus. The diagnostic characters of the remaining species of the complexes are discussed. Keys to males and pupae are given.
Sara Gamboa and Vicente M. Ortuño
Limodromus emetikos sp. n. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described and illustrated from Baltic amber (Eocene). Based on its morphological features, the new species is considered a sister taxon of the extant Holarctic assimilis species group. Furthermore, the specimen described here could represent a case of stress-triggered regurgitation, which would represent the first fossil record of such a process in beetles.
Leonardo Latella, Valerio Sbordoni and Giuliana Allegrucci
The genus Bathysciola is widely distributed in the northern Mediterranean region, although its range extends east to the Caucasus and Iran. More than 130 species belonging to this genus are actually known in the whole geographic distribution area and 45 species are distributed in continental and insular Italy. The species belonging to the Bathysciola sisernica Cerruti and Patrizi, 1952 species group occur in the Central-Southern Italian Apennines and Pre-Apennines. This group consists of seven species, four of which (B. sisernica, B. delayi Latella and Rampini, 1994, B. rampinii Latella, 2002, B. sbordoni Rampini and Latella, 1993) were already known to science and three are described herein, Bathysciola fabiolae sp. nov., Bathysciola octaviani sp. nov. , and Bathysciola valeriae sp. nov., markedly increasing the knowledge on the distribution of this genus in Central Italy. A morphological analysis was carried out based on diagnostic characters usually used to distinguish different taxa, and including both genitalia and external traits. Based on morphological characters, we reconstructed the phylogeny of this group of species, comparing them with the species belonging to other phyletic lineages, such as B. derosasi Jeannel, 1914, B. georgi Cerruti, Patrizi, 1952, B. vignai Sbordoni and Rampini, 1978, and B. sarteanensis sarteanensis (Bargagli, 1870). Results suggested that morphological traits show a clear taxonomic signal but a poor phylogenetic signal. To better understand the relationships within this group of species, we performed a molecular analysis by sequencing three mitochondrial genes, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, partially sequenced and the entire gene of COI. Molecular markers were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the Bathysciola sisernica species group and to reconstruct the historical processes that shaped their current geographic distribution. Results showed that these species became isolated in very ancient times, showing very high genetic differentiation.
Renato Jose Pires Machado and Leon Gustavo de Miranda Tavares
This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeirai sp. n. and Purenleon rafaeli sp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.
Cristian Román-Palacios, Jakob Damgaard, Lanna Cheng, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira, Terumi Ikawa, Tom A. Weir and Herbert Zettel
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (Hilliella) with Halobates. We confirmed that (1) the limnic lifestyle of Metrocorini was ancestral in Halobatinae, (2) the marine lifestyle evolved only once in the common ancestor of Asclepios + Halobates, (3) the limnic lifestyle of some members of Halobates was independently derived from marine ancestors, and that (4) the open ocean was colonized at least three times in Halobates. A catalogue of Halobatinae organized according to an updated classification is presented, including all known geographic distributions, bibliographical references, and additional notes to all species of the subfamily.
Gimo M. Daniel, Adrian LV. Davis, Catherine L. Sole and Clarke H. Scholtz
The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto Mulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus Latreille, 1807 and Neosisyphus Müller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus Vinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomus sp. n; Sisyphus australis sp. n ; Sisyphus bicuariensis sp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuus sp. n; Sisyphus swazi sp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyi sp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus Gory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis Balthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus Endrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus Boheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulum Gerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscus Péringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensis Péringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.
Mónica M. Solórzano Kraemer and Brian V. Brown
Male specimens of the phorid fly genus Dohrniphora Dahl from Miocene Mexican and Dominican amber are revised and described. This is the first systematic revision of the fossil species, and 11 new species are recognized from two Dohrniphora groups: those with and without large hind tibial setae. The group lacking hind tibial setae is notably more diverse and frequent in amber than those with such setae.
Swarming behavior in Dohrniphora females is noted for the first time. Probably, these females were frequently attracted in large numbers to dead and decaying insects and other animals trapped in resin. Another phorid genus with similar habits, Puliciphora, frequently co-occurs in amber pieces containing Dohrniphora specimens.
Claudia Hemp, Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, Beata Grzywacz and Andreas Hemp
Two new genera of East African Acrometopini are erected: the monotypic Peronurella n. gen. with P. centralis n. sp. from Miombo woodlands in central Tanzania, and Tenerasphaga n. gen. for a morphological uniform group of species formerly included in Horatosphaga, T. chyuluensis n. sp., T. mbulu n. sp. T. nanyuki, T. nuda n. comb, T. meruensis n. comb, T. tenera n. comb and T. bazeletae n. comb. Additional species are described in the genera Altihoratosphaga, Lamecosoma and Peronura. Keys to African genera of Acrometopini and species of the genus Tenerasphaga are provided. We review the male calling songs and the morphology of the acoustical apparatus and discuss how the morphology of the stridulatory files explains the complicated song patterns and elements. All Acrometopini species showed a plesiomorphic karyotype with a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 31 and a X0 sex chromosome system in males.
J.G. Palacios-Vargas, N.G. Cipola and B.C. Bellini
Two new species of the denticulata-group in the genus Ceratophysella Börner, 1932, C. rogerarlei sp.n. and C. nataliae sp.n., both from Brazil are described and illustrated. Ceratophysella rogerarlei sp.n. is similar to C. engadinensis (Gisin, 1949) in overall chaetotaxy, but it is unique by the combination of Ant. IV with trilobed apical bulb and 5 dorsal sensilla, PAO atypical with antero-lateral lobe clearly shorter than the antero-medial lobe, and the reduction of trunk dorsal chaetotaxy and number of macrosetae. Ceratophysella nataliae sp.n. is similar to C. gibbosa (Bagnall, 1940) and C. tupamara Palacios-Vargas & Bocanegra, 2012 but differs in dorsal abdominal chaetotaxy, Ant. IV with trilobed apical bulb (simple in C. gibbosa) and dorsal manubrium with 18+18 setae (8+8 in C. tupamara). A key to South American species of the genus is provided. With the descriptions presented, there are now nine species of Ceratophysella recorded from South America and six from Brazil.
Fernando A. B. Silva, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello and Maxwell V. L. Barclay
Deltochilum (Aganhyboma) mariafernandae sp. nov., from Santa Cruz, Bolivia and Cuzco, Peru is described based on differences in external and male genital morphology. Its diagnostic characters and an identification key to the species of the subgenus are provided.
Rogério Botion Lopes and Fernando Barbosa Noll
Zethus is the largest genus in Eumeninae, with over 250 species. Currently, it is divided in four subgenera: Z. (Zethus), Z. (Zethusculus), Z. (Zethoides) and Z. (Madecazethus). Z. (Zethoides), with 42 species, is subdivided in eight species groups, each considered a phylogenetic unit, that were created without any phylogenetic analysis. Eighteen species of Z. (Zethoides) corresponding to different groups were examined, altogether with terminals from distinct lineages of Zethus, Zethini and Eumenini, to perform a cladistics analysis to verify the proposed divisions. Zethus (Zethoides) and all of its species groups, except for the Z. biglumis group, were monophyletic. Zethus s.s. was paraphyletic in relation to Z. (Madecazethus), Z. (Zethoides) and Ctenochilus. Z. (Zethusculus) was also retrieved paraphyletic. Despite the subgeneric incongruences, the outgroups were too poorly represented to carry a taxonomic modification. Thus, the only alteration was the inclusion of the Z. clypearis group in the Z. biglumis group.
Kerrie A. Davies, Gary S. Taylor, Weimin Ye, Jeffrey R. Makinson and Robin J. Adair
A new species of fly, Fergusonina madidum Taylor sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from Leptospermum madidum A.R. Bean in far north Queensland and a new species of nematode, Fergusobia leptospermum Davies sp.n. (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) from L. laevigatum (Gaertn.) F. Muell. in southern Victoria, Australia are described. These represent the first species of the Fergusonina fly/Fergusobia nematode mutualism to be described from the genus Leptospermum (Myrtaceae). Fergusonina madidum sp.n. forms lateral and terminal multilocular shoot bud galls enclosed in subterminal leaflets. It can be distinguished from all other species of Fergusonina by the lack of dorsal setae on abdominal segment 7 of the female. Unlike most described species of Fergusonina it also lacks the posterior cross vein m-cu in the wing. It shares this character with F. giblindavisi Taylor and F. thomasi Taylor from flower bud galls on Corymbia, but both these species are large and abdominal segment 7 of females is densely setose. Its larva is unknown but from the morphology of puparia the dorsal shield comprises 3 broad transverse bands comprising lateral rows of raised ridge-like sclerotised spicules. Its associated species of nematode is not known. Fergusobia leptospermum sp.n. is associated with cryptic lateral and terminal usually unilocular shoot bud galls. It is characterised by the combination of an open to tight C-shaped parthenogenetic female having a small ‘a’ ratio, with a short but sturdy stylet, flat anterior end; huge dorsal pharyngeal gland, reproductive system with a relatively long uterus, and a sub-conoid tail with a broadly rounded tip; a C-shaped infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip which may or may not be ventrally hooked; and an open C-shaped male with angular spicules and peloderan bursa arising near the anterior end, and a relatively long (c’ = 2.2–3.2) sub-conoid tail with a bluntly to broadly rounded tip. Its status as a distinct species is confirmed by molecular analyses. Its associated species of fly is known only from several larvae and a puparium, and remains undescribed. The dorsal shield of this Fergusonina species comprises 7 broad bands, the first six having heavily sclerotised raised ridges and the seventh with a medial field of weak spicules. The widely separated collection localities, together with the large number of species in Leptospermum suggest that the mutualism is likely to be speciose and occupy a broad geographic range on this host.
Shinichi Nakahara, Thamara Zacca, Blanca Huertas, Andrew F. E. Neild, Jason P. W. Hall, Gerardo Lamas, Lauren A. Holian, Marianne Espeland and Keith R. Willmott
The ‘aegrota species group’ of the Neotropical nymphalid genus Caeruleuptychia Forster, 1964, in addition to three other superficially similar, enigmatic species in the genus, are revised. A lectotype is designated for Euptychia aegrota Butler, 1867, E. aetherialis Butler, 1877 stat. rev., E. helios Weymer, 1911 and E. pilata Butler, 1867, and C. aetherialis is resurrected from its synonymy with C. aegrota. Caeruleuptychia helios caelestissima Brévignon, 2010, syn. nov., and Magneuptychia keltoumae Brévignon & Benmesbah, 2012, syn. nov. are both regarded as junior subjective synonyms of C. helios (Weymer, 1911), as a result of the discovery and first illustration of the female of this taxon. The female of C. aegrota is also described and illustrated for the first time, and three new species, C. trembathi Willmott, Nakahara, Hall & Neild, sp. nov., C. scripta Nakahara, Zacca & Huertas, sp. nov., and C. maryzenderae Lamas & Nakahara, sp. nov. are described and named. We analyze morphological and molecular data separately, in addition to combining morphological data with molecular data, to provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the taxa treated in this revision.
Revised and Updated Edition
Edited by Ivan Löbl and Daniel Löbl
Contributors are: Antonio Tomás Tomas Andújar, Carmelo Fernández Andújar, Michael Balkenohl, Igor Belousov, Yves Bousquet, Boleslav Březina, Achille Casale, Hans Fery, Jan Farkač, Pier Mauro Giachino, Henri Goulet, Martin Häckel, Jiří Hájek, Oldřich Hovorka, Fritz Hieke, Jan Hrdlička, Charles Huber, Bernd Jaeger, Ilya Kabak, Boris M. Kataev, Erich Kirschenhofer, Tomáš Kopecký, Ivan Löbl, Werner Marggi, Andrey Matalin, Wendy Moore, Peter Nagel, Paolo Neri, Sergio Pérez González, Alexandr Putchkov, James A. Robertson, Joachim Schmidt, José Serrano, Luca Toledano, Uldis Valainis, Bernhard J. van Vondel, David W. Wrase, Juan M. Pérez Zaballos, Alexandr S. Zamotajlov.
Christine V. Schmidt and Jürgen Heinze
The myrmicine ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a peculiar male diphenism with winged disperser males and wingless, “ergatoid” fighter males. Here we describe and illustrate the morphology of the male external genitalia of 13 species of this genus. Several characters, especially the parossiculus of the volsella and the medial face of the paramere, vary between different species groups and might be useful to clarify the infrageneric taxonomy of Cardiocondyla. External genitalia between different phenotypes of a species differ primarily in size. All examined males, both winged and ergatoid, have a parameral hook that resembles a structure described in Nesomyrmex males but apparently is absent in other studied myrmicine ants. The presence and absence of this hook might be useful for future studies on the relationships within the myrmicine tribe Crematogastrini.
Diego J. Inclán, James E. O’Hara, John O. Stireman III, Hiroshi Shima, Jaakko Pohjoismäki, Giuseppe Lo Giudice and Pierfilippo Cerretti
The Glaurocarini are a small Old World tribe of tachinids belonging to the subfamily Tachininae. Two genera are currently recognized, Glaurocara Thomson with 16 species and Semisuturia Malloch with eight species. In this study we describe Semisuturia moffattensis Inclán, O’Hara, Stireman & Cerretti sp. n. from Queensland and New South Wales and compare it with congeners as well as other glaurocarines. The new species is readily identifiable among world glaurocarines by having a row of setae on lower 2/3 of facial ridge. We further evaluate the monophyly of the Glaurocarini on the basis of morphological characters of both adult and larval stages. A molecular phylogenetic analysis also supports monophyly of the tribe but does not support a close relationship between Glaurocarini and Ormiini as has been suggested previously. Finally, we provide new morphological evidence from both adults and first instar larvae to support the monophyly of both Semisuturia and Glaurocara.
Antonio Zurita, Rocío Callejón, Manuel de Rojas and Cristina Cutillas
In the present work, a comparative morphological and molecular study of Nosopsyllus barbarus (Jordan & Rothschild 1912) and Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc, d’Antic 1800) isolated from rodents from different geographical regions (Spain, Morocco, Belgium, France and Portugal) has been carried out. The Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1, ITS2) and partial 18S rRNA, and partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) mtDNA sequences were determined to clarify the taxonomic status of these two species and to assess intraspecific variation and inter-specific sequence differences. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis with other species of fleas using Bayesian inference was performed. We have found morphological differences between N. barbarus and N. fasciatus that did not correspond with molecular differences. Furthermore, any of the five molecular markers used in this study was able to discriminate between the two species. Thus, based on the phylogenetic and molecular study of three nuclear markers (18S, ITS1, ITS2) and two mitochondrial markers (cox1 and cytb), as well as the concatenated dataset of both species, we concluded that morphological characters traditionally used to discriminate between the two species do not provide solid arguments for considering these two “morphospecies” as two different species. Therefore, we propose N. barbarus should be considered as a junior synonym of N. fasciatus.
Thiago Xisto and Maria Cleide de Mendonça
Aimed at extending the incipient knowledge of Dicranocentrus in Brazil, in this study we describe and illustrate the morphology and chaetotaxy of four new species from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and São Paulo States and also two new records of D. heloisae for Minas Gerais and São Paulo States. The new species D. magnus sp.n., D. albicephalus sp.n. and D. marimutti sp.n. belong to the gracilis-group and D. pikachu sp.n. to the marias-group. A map with their distribution in Brazil and a table with Neotropical species’ main characteristics are also provided. The species herein reported represent the first record of Dicranocentrus for São Paulo State.
Fredric V. Vencl, Xin Luan, Xinhua Fu and Luana S. Maroja
Fireflies in the genus Photinus are well regarded for their luminescent nocturnal courtship displays. Here we report on a new firefly species, Photinus interdius, which is remarkable for its fully diurnal and luminescent courtship protocol. Males slowly flew near the ground searching for receptive females and emitted 800 ms, bright yellow light flashes at 3–4-s intervals. Male flights occurred as early as 13:10 and ceased before 18:00. We sequenced two mitochondrial loci and one genomic locus and combined these with those from 99 specimens representing 45 Photinus and 25 related firefly species. Bayesian inference resulted in a well-resolved phylogeny that placed this new species as the closest relative of, but basal to the Photinus clade. We propose that the adaptive significance of this extraordinary temporal shift in courtship niche is the outcome of a selective landscape that has optimized the trade-off between reduced predation risk and ease of mate-localization.
Jakub Prokop and Jarmila Kukalová-Peck
New insects are described from the early Asselian of the Bursum Formation in Carrizo Arroyo, NM, USA. Carrizoneura carpenteri gen. et sp. nov. (Syntonopteridae) demonstrates traits in hindwing venation to Lithoneura and Syntonoptera, both known from the Moscovian of Illinois. Carrizoneura represents the latest unambiguous record of Syntonopteridae. Martynovia insignis represents the earliest evidence of Martynoviidae. Carrizodiaphanoptera permiana gen. et sp. nov. extends range of Diaphanopteridae previously restricted to Gzhelian. The re-examination of the type species Diaphanoptera munieri reveals basally coalesced vein MA with stem of R and RP resulting in family diagnosis emendation. Arroyohymen splendens gen. et sp. nov. (Protohymenidae) displays features in venation similar to taxa known from early and late Permian from the USA and Russia. A new palaeodictyopteran wing attributable to Carrizopteryx cf. arroyo (Calvertiellidae) provides data on fore wing venation previously unknown. Thus, all these new discoveries show close relationship between late Pennsylvanian and early Permian entomofaunas.
Robin Kundrata and Ladislav Bocak
The first comprehensive survey of the Cameroonian Drilini fauna is presented. High diversity was identified in the zone of tropical rain forest and five genera are proposed: Flabelloselasia gen. n., Kupeselasia gen. n., Lolosia gen. n., Microselasia gen. n., and Wittmerselasia gen. n. with the subgenus Latoselasia subgen. n. The following species are described: Flabelloselasia oculata sp. n., Kupeselasia minuta sp. n., Lolosia transversalis sp. n., Microselasia barombi sp. n., M. elongata sp. n., M. gracilis sp. n., M. grandis sp. n., M. kupensis sp. n., M. lolodorfensis sp. n., M. macrocephala sp. n., M. obscura sp. n., M. pseudograndis sp. n., Wittmerselasia camerooniana sp. n., W. davidsoni sp. n., W. geiseri sp. n., W. variabilis sp. n., and W. (Latoselasia) similis sp. n. Selasia maculata Wittmer, 1989 is redescribed and transferred to Wittmerselasia gen. n. as W. maculata (Wittmer, 1989), comb. n. Taxonomically important characters are illustrated for all genera and species and an identification key for Drilini from Cameroon is provided.
Ovidiu Alin Popovici, Lars Vilhelmsen, Lubomir Masner, István Mikó and Norman Johnson
The Platygastroidea is a highly diverse group of small to minute parasitoid wasps. Despite the reduced size, the morphology of the maxillolabial complex of scelionids is very diverse and phylogenetically informative. 81 characters are scored for 129 genera (representing 75% of the total number of known extant genera of scelionids), as well as for seven outgroup taxa. All taxa examined are illustrated with images, SEM micrographs and/or line drawings. Phylogenetic trees resulting from analyses conducted in TNT under various settings were not fully resolved, but some relationships were repeatedly retrieved. The Platygastroidea are usually corroborated. Nixoniini, Sparasionini, Plaumannion and Huddlestonium are frequently retrieved as the most basal platygastroid lineages. Psix and Paratelenomus often form a monophyletic group close to Gryonini. The Scelioninae, Teleasinae and Telenominae are not supported as monophyletic. However, some major scelionid clades are frequently retrieved, but these are not recognized in the current classification of Platygastroidea. The evolution of the palpal formula, highly variably in scelionids, and previously used in platygastroid systematics, is explored. The number of maxillary palpomeres in the ground plan of platygatroids is probably five, that of labial palpomeres two or three, given the variation among basal scelionids. Our study provides relevant information for resolving the phylogeny of the Platygastroidea, but additional character sources have to be explored to obtain a robust phylogenetic hypothesis.
I. Löbl and D. Löbl
Pedro Mesquita Fonseca, Elgion Lucio Silva Loreto, Marco Silva Gottschalk and Lizandra Jaqueline Robe
In this paper we describe a new Zygothrica species that is morphologically, ecologically and evolutionarily related to Zygothrica vittimaculosa through molecular and morphological analyses. Moreover, we compare distribution, abiotic and biotic niches between both species and perform ecological simulations in order to assess the potential influence played by ecology versus geography in the divergence of the target species, which was also dated with the use of a nuclear marker. The aedeagus and wing morphometry patterns were underpinned by molecular evidence, as obtained for the mitochondrial COI and COII partitions. In fact, reciprocal monophyly and a barcoding gap were detected, in spite of the strict external resemblance, the strong abiotic and biotic niche overlaps and the frequent sympatry and syntopy observed between both species. Thus, we hypothesize here a mechanism of geographic speciation associated with a pattern of niche conservatism to the pair of Zygothrica species diverged at the Pliocene.
Thamara Zacca, Olaf H.H. Mielke, Tomasz W. Pyrcz, Fernando M.S. Dias, Mirna M. Casagrande and Pierre Boyer
The first cladistic analysis of the genus Pampasatyrus Hayward, 1953 is presented based on morphological evidence. The monophyly of Pampasatyrus is corroborated with previous molecular hypothesis, and supported by two synapomorphies and six homoplastic characters. Haywardella Herrera, 1966 stat. rest. is recovered as sister group of Pampasatyrus, and both are closely related to a clade composed by Argyrophorus Blanchard, 1852, Etcheverrius Herrera, 1965 and Quilaphoethosus Herrera, 1966. Furthermore, three new subspecies are described: Pampasatyrus gyrtone biezankoi Zacca, Pyrcz, Mielke & Casagrande, ssp. n. from southern Brazil, Pampasatyrus reticulata gagarini Zacca, Pyrcz, Mielke & Casagrande, ssp. n. from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Pampasatyrus glaucope eberti Pyrcz & Zacca, ssp. n. from São Paulo, Brazil. Neotypes to Faunula johanna Weymer, 1911 and Neomaenas reticulata Weymer, 1907 are herein designated. Lectotypes to Epinephele gyrtone Berg, 1877, Cosmosatyrus nilesi Weeks, 1902, Epinephele friedenreichi Staudinger, 1888 and Satyrus quies Berg, 1877 are also designated. A catalogue, diagnosis, illustrations, photos and distributional maps are provided for all the taxa, including an identification key.
Jose F. Gómez and Nieves-Aldrey Jose Luis
As part of a wider study on the morphology and systematics of the terminal-instar larvae of Chalcidoidea parasitoids of gall wasps (Hym., Cynipidae) in Europe, a comparative study of the larval morphology of three species of Eulophidae, Aprostocetus eurytomae (Nees), Aulogymnus skianeuros (Ratzeburg) and Dichatomus acerinus Förster; and three species of Eupelmidae, Eupelmus aseculatus (Kalina), E. cerris Förster and E. microzonus Förster is presented. The studied taxa are key components of the communities associated with different galls on herbs, shrubs and oaks in different ecosystems of Mediterranean area. Main characters of interest found on the studied species were larval body shape, head capsule structure, mouthparts, mandibles and chaetotaxy pattern of body and head. Diagnostic characters of the families and species are described and illustrated for the first time with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the biology of each species is discussed and illustrated with photographs, including new rearing records.
Wilfried R. Arnscheid and Michael Weidlich
Wilfried R. Arnscheid and Michael Weidlich
Gil Felipe Gonçalves Miranda and Kevin Moran
The female abdomen of Syrphidae was studied based on a sample from all currently recognized tribes, except Spheginobacchini. All characters found were compared with previous literature on Syrphidae female abdomen and some were proposed as diagnostic for the taxa. The condition of the postabdomen distinguishes Pipizinae from the Syrphinae. Presence of sclerotized areas on the intersegmental membrane appears characteristic of the Rhingiini. Tergite and sternite 6 had unique characteristics only found in Cerioidini, and sternite 8 had a condition only found in Cerioidini and Callicerini. Notiocheilosia (Callicerini) seems more similar to Nausigaster (Eumerini). Characters present in both the Eristalini and Sericomyiini are presented. The condition of the epiproct, and of its apodemes, proved diagnostic for Microdontini, Volucellini and some Syrphini plus the Paragini. Bacchini sensu lato and Toxomerini were also distinct. The Milesiini still need to be sampled more broadly to ascertain about its relationships with other tribes and within.
Maurizio Biondi, Roberta Frasca, Elizabeth Grobbelaar and Paola D’Alessandro
The supraspecific taxonomy of the species traditionally attributed to the flea beetle genus Blepharida Chevrolat, 1836 is discussed. A cladistic analysis, based on 30 morphological characters of traditional Blepharida species, has revealed that two genera occur in Sub-Saharan Africa: Calotheca Heyden, 1887 and Blepharidina Bechyné, 1968. The latter genus is known from Africa, and probably also Madagascar, and has two subgenera: Blepharidina s.str. and Afroblepharida subgen. nov. Twenty-seven traditional Blepharida species are here attributed to the genus Calotheca Heyden, while eighteen species are assigned to the genus Blepharidina Bechyné. Four Blepharidina species, antinorii (Chapuis, 1879), gedyei (Bryant, 1948), scripta (Weise, 1904) and somaliensis (Bryant, 1948), belong to the new subgenus Afroblepharida. The following new synonymies are established: Eutheca conradsi Weise, 1906 = Eutheca erlangeri Weise, 1907 syn. nov. = Blepharidella irregularis Bryant, 1945 syn. nov.; Blepharida marginalis Weise, 1902 = Blepharida monticola Weise, 1926 syn. nov. = Blepharida ugandae Bryant, 1944 syn. nov.; Blepharida inornata Jacoby, 1895 = Blepharida semisulcata Achard, 1922 syn. nov.; Blepharidella lewini Weise in Lewin, 1912 = Blepharidella picticollis Bryant, 1945 syn. nov.; Podontia nigrotessellata Baly, 1865 = Blepharidella rubrosignata Bryant, 1945 syn. nov. = Blepharidella variabilis Bryant, 1945 syn. nov.; Blepharida ornata Baly, 1881 = Blepharida freyi Bechyné, 1954 syn. nov.; Podontia reticulata Baly, 1865 = Blepharida guttula Bryant, 1944 syn. nov.; Blepharida antinorii Chapuis, 1879 = Blepharida sudanica Bryant, 1944 syn. nov.; Blepharida scripta Weise, 1904 = Blepharida geminata Bryant, 1944 syn. nov. In addition: Blepharida plagipennis Achard, 1922, its locality certainly mislabeled, is transferred to the New World genus Notozona Chevrolat, 1837; Calotheca thunbergi is proposed as the new name for Blepharida stolida (Thunberg, 1808). Finally, an updated catalogue of the known species of Calotheca and Blepharidina is also supplied, including new synonymies, material examined, new faunistic records, distributions and chorotypes.
Gerasimos Cassis, Philippe Koenig, Celia Symonds and Ryan Shofner
A systematic revision of the lace bug genus Nethersia Horváth 1925 is given including a redescription of the genus. Previously described species N. absimilis Drake 1944, N. haplotes Drake and Ruhoff 1962, N. maculosa Horváth 1925 and N. setosa (Hacker 1927) are redescribed. The New Caledonian species Tingis chazeaui Guilbert (1997) is transferred to Nethersia. Eighteen new species are described: N. acaciaphila sp.n., N. appha sp.n., N. bipannanota sp.n., N. boorabbinensis sp.n., N. costata sp.n., N. finlayae sp.n., N. kimberleyensis sp.n., N. magna sp.n., N. mareeba sp.n., N. mcquillani sp.n., N. nigra sp.n., N. pilbara sp.n., N. silveirae sp.n., N. stipula sp.n., N. tatarnici sp.n., N. tanami sp.n., N. tomentosa sp.n. and N. westralensis sp.n. Nethersia pugna Drake 1944 is removed from synonymy with N. maculosa Horváth and treated as a valid species. An identification key species is given which relies on colour patterning, vestiture and texture of the dorsum. Nethersia nigritarsis (Horváth, 1925) is transferred from Nethersia to Tingis and designated as incertae sedis. Phylogenetic analysis of Nethersia was undertaken resulting in fully resolved topologies for a range of concavity constant settings (K = 2–6) under implied weights. The plant associations of Nethersia are documented, with most species recorded from phyllodinous Acacia species, with twenty designated as host plants.
Xuankun Li and David K. Yeates
We review the endemic Australian bee fly genus Eusurbus Roberts (Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) and recognize two described species and three new species. The monotypic genus Bromoglycis Hull is identified as a new junior synonym of Eusurbus. Another species, E. nigracinctus Roberts, is designated as the type species of a new genus Zentamyia gen. nov. This new genus is similar to Eusurbus based on several combined external characters including two-segmented palp, one-segmented flagellomere, open anal cell and cell r 5, and the cell br much longer than cell bm. However, Zentamyia gen. nov. has a more flattened scutum, and the apex of the flagellum is tapered. Moreover, the male genitalia are very different from Eusurbus, the male epandrium is narrow and long, and its posterolateral margin has a cluster of dense hairs; the female lacks a sand chamber, and the sperm pump is long and strong. A morphological phylogeny to Eusurbus species is provided.
Tomohide Yasunaga and Tadashi Ishikawa
The Asian eccritotarsine plant bug genus Ernestinus Distant is diagnosed, redescribed and discussed, on the basis of reevaluation on the effective taxonomic characters including the genitalic structures of both sexes as well as the unique biology. Nineteen congeners are now known, including a dozen of new species herein described from Indonesia (from the Sundaland to the Wallacea), SW Japan, Laos, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. All the new species were observed to inhabit leaves (mostly abaxial surfaces) of the Araceae monocots (particularly of the subfamily Aroideae), on which the adults and every instar immature forms are frequently gregarious together. In addition, three new species in three eccritotarsine genera, Diocleroides Stonedahl & Hernandez, Dioclerus Distant and Harpedona Distant, confirmed during examinations of related materials from Nepal and Thailand, are described. Annotated checklist of all the congeners and a key to all currently known species are provided, to facilitate species identifications.
Tyler Jay Raszick and Hojun Song
Schistocerca lineata is a widely distributed species found throughout North America, which is known to be highly variable and displays high levels of local host plant association, with four known ecotypes. Here, we test the hypothesis that the ecotype designation corresponds to genetic differentiation using molecular and morphological data by studying eight populations representing all ecotypes. Three size-dependent measures and one size-independent measure of morphology were used to evaluate phenotypic differences between populations, but these traits varied too greatly within populations and ecotypes to determine a signal of divergence. A phylogeographic analysis was unable to detect a robust signal of population-level genetic divergence. We provide evidence for a single distinct ecotype with a unique feeding habit that is genetically differentiated from all other ecotypes, suggesting that the other ecotype designations may not represent true evolutionary trajectories. Our work illustrates the need for robust molecular data when attempting to define ecotypes.
Natalia A. Matushkina and Halyna A. Stetsun
The solitary digger wasp Oxybelus uniglumis (Linnaeus, 1758) uses its sting not only for paralyzing prey but also for transporting the prey to the nest site. The sting morphology is expected to reflect the mechanical overloading applied to the sting during prey transportation. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the sting skeleton of Oxybelus uniglumis and define specific morphological characters in order to reveal possible morphological predictions for conducting specific prey-carriage behaviour. The most important features are the following: (1) In contrast to all other known Apoidea, Oxybelus uniglumis has a single (instead of double) valvillus; (2) There are no distinct borders between the rostral process and the 2nd valvula, so the valvula is relatively strongly articulated to the basal elements of the sting; (3) The internal skeleton exhibits intraspecific variation, which has not previously been recorded for Hymenoptera. Results are discussed from a functional standpoint.
Luciana Weiler, Augusto Ferrari and Jocelia Grazia
Phylogenetic analyses of the 13 species of the subgenus Lycipta based on morphological characters were performed under equal and implied weighting, following the method of Mirande (2009). Species from Dichelops, Ladeaschistus, Proxys, Spinalanx, Euschistus (Euschistus) and Euschistus (Mitripus) were included as outgroups, and the tree rooted on Carpocoris. Sixty-five morphological characters were coded in the data matrix. The cladistic analyses did not recover the monophyly of the subgenus Lycipta. A clade was supported based on characters of the pygophore and female ectodermal ducts strengthening a new definition of Euschistus (Lycipta). One species, Euschistus monrosi, was excluded from the subgenus and transferred to the nominal subgenus. Euschistus (Lycipta) species are distributed in two Neotropical subregions: Brazilian (Pará, Rondônia and Yungas provinces) and Chacoan (Pampean, Atlantic, Parana and Araucaria Forests and Puna provinces). Biogeographical analyses of spatial vicariance were performed employing different sets of parameters and allowed to identify five disjunctions nodes.
Lauxaniids are a species rich group of acalyptrate flies, with most species known from the tropics. Several genera are in suspicion of non-monophyly, but no phylogenetic analysis has been carried out. Three markers (28S rRNA, 16S rRNA and EF 1-α) were employed to analyze relationships of 66 European lauxaniids, including 9 sequences from GenBank. The data was analysed using the Bayesian and maximum parsimony approach. Genus Sapromyza appears in three distinct clades, confirming the expected non-monophyly. New combinations are proposed for the following species: Homoneura muscaria, comb. n., Paralauxania albiceps comb. n., Nannomyza basalis comb. n., Nannomyza takagii comb. n. Along with the analysis, Sapromyza slovaca sp. n. is described. The type material has been deposited in the Institute of zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.