Dorylaims are probably the most diverse order of nematodes and are often an abundant component of the fauna in soils and freshwater habitats. As a result of their widespread distribution and many different feeding habits, they are considered as good bio-indicators of environmental quality and soil health. Their usefulness in this regard is only impeded by practical difficulties related to the accurate identification of the members of such a large and complex group. In this volume, Professor Reyes Peña-Santiago gives a detailed morphology of the dorylaims and provides a thorough overview of their feeding behaviour, reproduction, ecology, and diversity. You will learn what dorylaims are like and how they live, making this book an invaluable tool for nematologists, ecologists and other scientists who wish to embark on an in-depth study of the members of this fascinating group.
Volume Editor: Mikhail Danilevsky
The aim of Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera is to provide a tool that addresses the most urgent needs:
1) a complete list of available names of taxa occurring in the Palaearctic Region with authors and publications dates,
2) a list of references to primary publications,
3) distributions of the species and subspecies.
Thus, the Catalogue is expected to respond to questions related to biodiversity, and to increase the badly needed nomenclatural stability.
The present updated and revised Catalogue is a collective international work by 12 authors from Austria, Belgium, China, Korea, Japan and Russia. It includes about 6453 species names of 913 genera. The general structure and the taxonomic, distributional and bibliographical information of the first edition of the Catalogue are followed with minor changes.

Species boundaries delineating tropical sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) of the zooxanthellate genus, Heteranthus , are unclear. There are currently two valid Heteranthus species: type species Heteranthus verruculatus , first reported from Koseir, Egypt, and H. insignis , from Poulo Condore, Vietnam. In describing the latter from a single, poorly preserved specimen, zoologist Oskar Carlgren expressed apprehension with traits he had used to establish this species. Carlgren’s doubts persisted later in writing when he found a similar-looking sea anemone from the Great Barrier Reef. Crucial details to positively identify either species have since remained limited. Here, we re-diagnosed Heteranthus and re-described its type species based on observations of specimens we have obtained from Singapore and Pulau Ambon (Indonesia), and of museum material collected elsewhere across the Indo-West Pacific region (n > 180). Supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence, the family Heteranthidae was reinstated and re-diagnosed. Heteranthus verruculatus is encountered in the lower intertidal region amongst seagrass, in rocky crevices, or coral rubble. It occurs as solitary individuals or in clonal clusters, well-camouflaged against the substratum. Individuals were observed to frequently propagate by longitudinal fission, resulting in a varied appearance. Type material of H. verruculatus and H. insignis were re-examined and as we found no differences between them, the two were synonymised. We inferred that Carlgren probably misinterpreted cnidae and histological data in defining H. insignis as a distinct species. This revision clarifies the taxonomy and geographic range of H. verruculatus, an Indo-West Pacific species that is found from the Red Sea to subtropical Australia and Hawaii.

In: Contributions to Zoology
Author: Larry Carbone

Abstract

Accurate pain evaluation is essential for ethical review of laboratory animal use. Warnings that “prey species hide their pain,” encourage careful accurate pain assessment. In this article, I review relevant literature on prey species’ pain manifestation through the lens of the applied ethics of animal welfare oversight. If dogs are the species whose pain is most reliably diagnosed, I argue that it is not their diet as predator or prey but rather because dogs and humans can develop trusting relationships and because people invest time and effort in canine pain diagnosis. Pain diagnosis for all animals may improve when humans foster a trusting relationship with animals and invest time into multimodal pain evaluations. Where this is not practical, as with large cohorts of laboratory mice, committees must regard with skepticism assurances that animals “appear” pain-free on experiments, requiring thorough literature searches and sophisticated pain assessments during pilot work.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
In: Chrysomeloidea I (Vesperidae, Disteniidae, Cerambycidae)
In: Chrysomeloidea I (Vesperidae, Disteniidae, Cerambycidae)

Abstract

The housing, care and handling of animals in a laboratory/research setting presents a wide variety of challenges to researchers, veterinarians and animal care staff. With that in mind, there are certain fundamental components of both facility design and procedural techniques which should always be considered. Some of the initial considerations should be the potential value of the research being proposed along with ethical aspects of the protocol design. The selected species should be appropriate for the study and essential needs of that species addressed with regard to their 24/7 environment. In addition, the equipment and expertise needed to humanely conduct restraint and other procedures should be available. At times, the goals of the science are moved ahead of the basic well-being of the subjects being studied. This can be problematic, especially for animals that are maintained long term. This review of facilities, animal care enrichment strategies and methodologies for swine will highlight some of the more effective and practical approaches to minimizing stress and enhancing the value of the research conducted.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

We characterized the genetic structure of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) meta-population living in the core of its Italian distribution range providing results from 191 fresh spraints, collected from 24 watercourses included in Southern Italy. Furthermore, according to ecological corridors and barriers, we discuss the likely ways of movement and possible evolutionary fate of these populations. We genotyped 136 samples using 11 Lut microsatellite nuclear markers amplified from faecal dna. Microsatellites were moderately variable (Ho = 0.45; He = 0.46), with a total number of alleles and average number of alleles per locus in the meta-population of 50 and 4.54, respectively. No significant heterozygosity excess was observed in meta-population suggesting no recent population bottlenecks. Bayesian clustering discriminated a sub-structuring of the meta-population in five putative clusters, indicating that local populations are genetically differentiated: three of these seem to be identifiable with geographically defined sub-populations (from the Cilento, Agri and Basento river basins). The fourth is represented by multiple sub-populations with admixed genotype, that include genotypes from the Lao, Sinni and Abatemaco river basins, living in a landscape with the higher environmental permeability. Landscape genetic analysis could provide evidence of an unexpected ecological corridor: the seacoast, highlighted, for the first time as a new way for the dispersion of the South-Italian otters. Deepening the knowledge of these perspectives is crucial to identify solid strategies aimed at the future health of the populations of the Italian otters, by restoring dispersal corridors and managing the watercourses.

In: Contributions to Zoology

A synoptic review of the family Dendronotidae is presented based on morphological and molecular data. Three genera are recognized: Dendronotus, Pseudobornella, and Cabangus gen. nov. Two new Dendronotus species are described, D. yrjargul sp. nov. and D. nordenskioeldi sp. nov., which reveal fine-scale differences. Dendronotus yrjargul sp. nov. from mid-Norway and the Arctic regions is a sister species to the North Pacific D. kalikal. These two species are showing clear morphological and ontogenetic differences but are close in genetic distance. In contrast, Dendronotus nordenskioeldi sp. nov. from the Laptev Sea is externally similar to the white morphs of D. lacteus or D. frondosus, but according to the molecular data and radular morphology it is distinct from any of its congenerics. Comparison of molecular and morphological data of D. niveus from the type locality (White Sea) and material from other localities with those from the American North Atlantic coast (type locality of D. elegans) reveals their substantial similarity. Therefore, D. niveus is considered a junior synonym of D. elegans. The present review of the family Dendronotidae contributes to a general discussion on the species concepts and on a recent proposal of multilevel organismal diversity.

In: Contributions to Zoology
Author: Nadine Dolby

Abstract

Animal welfare is an increasingly important component of veterinary medicine. While the AVMA Model Animal Welfare Curriculum is not required, there is growing research that examines veterinary students’ understanding of animal welfare and moral and ethical responsibility to animals. However, there is limited research that investigates incoming veterinary students’ perspectives on animal welfare: a significant pedagogical gap, as successful curriculum interventions take into account students’ pre-existing experiences. This study investigates this gap in the literature through a qualitative, interview-based study of twenty incoming veterinary students at an accredited veterinary college. Four themes are identified in the data: formative childhood experiences; pre-professional experiences in the field; public conversations in the media/ social media; and academic definitions memorized for admission interviews. In conclusion, I draw on the field of narrative medicine to discuss how students’ stories are important to understanding the curriculum and pedagogy of animal welfare in veterinary education.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

Some recent psychological studies suggest that the belief that humans matter more than other animals can be strengthened by cognitive dissonance. Jaquet (forthcoming) argues that some of these studies also show that the relevant belief is primarily caused by cognitive dissonance and is therefore subject to a debunking argument. We offer an alternative hypothesis according to which we are already speciesist but cognitive dissonance merely enhances our speciesism. We argue that our hypothesis explains the results of the studies at least as well as Jaquet’s. We then respond to a series of objections. Along the way, we highlight various respects in which further studies are needed to decide between Jaquet’s hypothesis and ours.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

AAALAC International is a nonprofit organization that evaluates and accredits research, testing and educational animal care and use programs around the world. The ethical review and oversight processes are key elements of a program, and therefore are thoroughly assessed during the accreditation process. Legal approaches to ethical review and oversight vary across geopolitical areas and are nonexistent in some regions, creating a heterogeneous landscape of processes globally. In AAALAC’s interpretation, ethical and oversight processes must first comply with applicable legislation (engineering standards), but also they must be effective (performance standards). To evaluate the efficacy of each system and be consistent in the assessments, AAALAC relies on a performance-based approach which focuses on the outcome of the process, as AAALAC considers that the same satisfactory outcome can be achieved by different procedures. How AAALAC assesses the combination of legal compliance and the efficacy of ethical review and oversight processes in the international context is described.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

According to Directive 2010/63/EU, project proposals involving experiments on animals must be favourably evaluated by the local Animal Welfare Body (AWB) before submission for approval to the central competent authority, i.e., the Ministry of Health in the case of Italy. Here the working experience of the AWB established in one Italian veterinary public health institution is considered and discussed to identify limits, difficulties, and provide suggestions for improvement based on practical cases. Given its pivotal role, the AWB should be strengthened to guarantee the safety and welfare of animals used for scientific purposes, and to further the awareness of researchers about animal welfare and ethics.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Dwarfish males are a relatively common phenomenon in animals, occurring in various taxa, most often when females conduct a sedentary life mode. Such males, beside smaller size, exhibit a series of morphological and anatomical alterations, mostly structural reductions. Here we present the case of the alimentary tract of dwarfish males of the aphid genus Stomaphis where, despite it being structurally normal, it does not serve its original function due to a lack of mouthparts. Cross-sections through mounted specimens revealed also that nervous and reproductive systems are fully developed. The question arises as to whether such a system may be considered vestigial, or an exaptation with secondary function shifted to play new primary function. Because the aphid genus Stomaphis is known from the fossil record to have existed for at least ca. 14 My and all of its species have dwarfish, arostral males, this indicates that it may be too short a period for reduction of the whole system. It also raises questions about the mechanisms of loss of the primary functionality of the whole physiological unit, and the influence of such modification on the evolution of its phylogenetic successors. Secondary functions of the tract are speculated to be responsible for its endurance.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The effect of food provisioning on ranging patterns of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in non-anthropogenic areas is largely unknown, as most published studies have focused on urban macaques. In this study, we quantified habitat selection, daily path length and home range size in long-tailed macaques in Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia, comparing a non-provisioned to a provisioned group. To track the groups, we deployed six GPS-collars on females in both groups, of which only two collected data. Home range size (90% Auto-correlated Kernel Density Estimate) was 23 times smaller for the provisioned group (10.62 ha) than the non-provisioned group (249.90 ha). Home range size and area changed from dry to wet season for the non-provisioned group. Provisioned group home range size correlated negatively with number of visitors in the national park. Daily path length was significantly higher for the non-provisioned group. The provisioned group preferred settlements, where most of the provisioning occurred, and avoided areas with invasive acacia (Acacia nilotica). The non-provisioned group also avoided invasive acacia, preferred secondary forest in the dry season and restored savannah in the wet season. Food provisioning can affect macaque spatial ecology, by shaping daily travel length and home range size, and changing patterns of habitat selection. Even tourism in a managed national park, where provisioning is strictly prohibited although not always enforced, has significant consequences for animal behaviour and their natural ecosystems.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The first comparative morphology study on antennal sensilla of Ochteridae, Gelastocoridae and Aphelocheiridae, carried out with the use of a scanning electron microscope, is provided. Our research hypothesis was: the antennal sensilla of the studied families reflect their different adaptations for use in aquatic habitats, while maintaining a common set of sensilla similar to other water bugs (Nepomorpha). Therefore, the number and placement of antennal sensilla of several species in the mentioned families were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Nine main types of mechano- chemo- and thermo-hygroreceptive sensilla were confirmed on their surface, including sensilla trichodea, chaetica, club-like, campaniformia, basiconica, coeloconica, plate-like, ampullacea and sensilla placodea multilobated. While seven of these were already documented in other species, two of them (sensilla plate-like and placodea multilobated) were yet to be documented on the antennae of Nepomorpha. All families display differences in the shape and length of antennae as well as among sensilla types. These findings support our hypothesis regarding differences in sensillar structures among families adapted differently to suitable niches. Differences between these families and previously studied nepomorphan taxa (Nepoidea) were also documented. However, the general set of sensilla observed on the antennae of the studied species is very similar to the one documented in Nepoidea. Therefore, we confirmed our assumptions regarding similarities in antennal sensilla between the studied families and other nepomorphan insects.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The biogeography and genetic structure of aquatic zooplankton populations remains understudied in the Eastern Palearctic, especially the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we explored the population-genetic diversity and structure of the cladoceran waterflea Daphnia magna found in eight (out of 303 investigated) waterbodies across China. The three Tibetan D. magna populations were detected within a small geographical area, suggesting these populations have expanded from refugia. We detected two divergent mitochondrial lineages of D. magna in China: one was restricted to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the other was present in lowland China. Several different haplotypes in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were most similar to those from various parts of Siberia, suggesting that as a source region. We also found substantial genetic differentiation between D. magna populations from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and those from lowland China. Moreover, significant morphological differences were identified: D. magna from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau had a larger head length, body length and body width than did those from lowland China. Geographical and environmental factors were correlated with the observed morphological variation and genetic divergence of D. magna in China. Our data offer an insight into the divergence of freshwater zooplankton due to the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The Hyalella species diversity in the high-altitude water bodies of the Andean Altiplano is addressed using mitochondrial cox1 sequences and implementing different molecular species delimitation criteria. We have recorded the presence of five major genetic lineages in the Altiplano, of which one seems to be exclusive to Lake Titicaca and nearby areas, whereas the rest occur also in other regions of South America. Eleven out of 36 South American entities diagnosed by molecular delimitation criteria in our study are likely endemic to the Titicaca and neighbouring water bodies. We have detected a remarkable disagreement between morphology and genetic data in the Titicacan Hyalella, with occurrence of several cases of the same morpho-species corresponding to several Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs), some even distantly related, and other instances where a particular MOTU is shared by a morphologically heterogeneous array of species, including species with body smooth and others with body heavily armoured. Species diversification and incongruence between morphological and molecular boundaries within this species assemblage may be associated to the sharp changes in hydrological conditions experienced by the water bodies of the Altiplano in the past, which included dramatic fluctuations in water level and salinity of Lake Titicaca. Such environmental shifts could have triggered rapid morphological changes and ecological differentiation within the Hyalella assemblage, followed by phenotypic convergence among the diverse lineages. Factors such as phenotypic plasticity, incomplete lineage sorting or admixture between divergent lineages might lie also at the root of the morphological-genetic incongruence described herein.

In: Contributions to Zoology

Assessing mosquito biodiversity is important for disease surveillance and ecosystem health assessments. Such studies are particularly needed in regions like the Caribbean, which have experienced a series of recent mosquito borne disease outbreaks but received little attention regarding its invertebrate biodiversity. Here, we report on results from a mosquito survey on the Dutch Leeward Islands (Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Saba), carried out in April and October 2018, which is the first integrative survey since those conducted by Van der Kuyp (1947) and Wagenaar Hummelinck (1949). Moreover, we present a novel key for adults and fourth instar larvae of the mosquitoes of the Dutch Leeward Islands. Overall, eleven species were recorded, eight on Sint Maarten, five on Saba and two on Sint Eustatius. Two new potential disease vectors, Culex nigripalpus and Aedes taeniorhynchus, were recorded on Sint Maarten. One previously recorded species, Cx. habilitator, was not retrieved from any of the islands, which is further discussed in the paper. Species indicative of natural forest which previously occurred on all three islands were absent from Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten but still present on Saba. In contrast, species indicative of human inhabitation, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, were highly abundant on Sint Maarten and Sint Eustatius and present in low numbers on Saba. Overall, the results of this study emphasize the importance of biodiversity surveys and indicate that frequent mosquito inventories may contribute to a better understanding of mosquito community composition and distribution of potential vector species.

In: Contributions to Zoology
This book is the first comprehensive work on oriental Notodontidae (Lepidoptera) outside mainland Asia. The studied area includes also Borneo Island, the Malayan Peninsula, entire New Guinea with adjacent islands. All species are illustrated in both sexes with a total number of 1272 specimens on 51 colour plates. Genitalia photos of both sexes as well as detailed distribution maps are provided for each species.
The book deals in the first volume with 298 species and contains descriptions of 99 new notodontid taxa. A second volume will treat with the remaining 160 species and include also a comprehensive biogeographic analysis.

Abstract

The topic of this contribution is the moral justification of the use of non-human animals in scientific research. First, we will discuss the position of leading antispeciesist approaches of animal ethics, arguing that a radical position is not tenable and justification of some animal use in research can be given based on the importance of science for human civilization. Such use must be justified case by case. Therefore, the harm-benefit analysis will be introduced, as an example of a case-by-case scenario. We will describe the challenge encountered by the evaluators of project proposals, and possible ways of considering harms and benefits in basic, translational and regulatory research, minimizing harms and possible future scenarios. Our approach can be regarded as a virtue consequentialist view of the ethics of human/animal relationships in scientific use, where the development of a morally appreciable character is a key topic for the education of scientists.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research