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Stephen M. Metzger

Gerard of Abbeville (d. 1272) was the foremost secular theologian at the University of Paris during the third quarter of the thirteenth century. Significantly, Gerard’s corpus includes the most comprehensive treatment of the nature and extent of human knowledge from the generation before Henry of Ghent.
Stephen M. Metzger’s study presents Gerard’s complete theory of human knowledge, which is a hierarchy extending from the knowledge acquired in faith, through scientific thought and culminating in the full vision of God by the blessed in patria. It is the fullest exposition of the life, works and thought of Gerard yet written and is augmented by the presentation for the first time of editions of several disputed questions and other texts.

Edited by Gert Melville, Martial Staub, Francis G. Gentry and Timothy Barnwell

The two-volume Brill's Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages offers an accessible yet engaging coverage of medieval European history and culture, c. 500-c. 1500, in a series of themed articles, taking an interdisciplinary and comparative approach. Presenting a broad range of topics current in research, the encyclopedia is dedicated to all aspects of medieval life, organized in eight sections: Society; Faith and Knowledge; Literature; Fine Arts and Music; Economy; Technology; Living Environments and Conditions; and Constitutive Historical Events and Regions. This thematic structure makes the encyclopedia a true reference work for Medieval Studies as a whole. It is accessible and concise enough for quick reference, while also providing a solid grounding in a new topic with a good level of detail, since many of its articles are longer than traditional encyclopedia entries. The encyclopedia is supported by an extensive bibliography, updated with the most recent works and adapted to suit the needs of an Anglophone audience.

Brill's Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages is a unique work, and invaluable equally for research and for teaching. Anyone interested in the art, architecture, economy, history, language, law, literature, music, religion, or science of the Middle Ages, will find the encyclopedia an indispensable resource.

This is an English translation of the second edition (2013) of the well-known German-language Enzyklopädie des Mittelalters, published by Primus Verlag / Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Also available online as part of Brill's Medieval Reference Library Online.

Philosophy in the Islamic World

Volume 1: 8th-10th Centuries

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Edited by Ulrich Rudolph, Rotraud Hansberger and Peter Adamson

Philosophy in the Islamic World is a comprehensive and unprecedented four-volume reference work devoted to the history of philosophy in the realms of Islam, from its beginnings in the eighth century AD down to modern times. In the period covered by this first volume (eighth to tenth centuries), philosophy began to blossom thanks to the translation of Greek scientific works into Arabic and the emergence of autochthonous intellectual traditions within Islam. Both major and minor figures of the period are covered, giving details of biography and doctrine, as well as detailed lists and summaries of each author’s works. This is the English version of the relevant volume of the Ueberweg, the most authoritative German reference work on the history of philosophy ( Philosophie in der Islamischen Welt Band I: 8.–10. Jahrhundert., Basel: Schwabe, 2012).

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Ioana Feodorov, Yulia I. Petrova and Virgil Cândea

This is a thoroughly revised and expanded version of the first edition of the Arabic version of Dimitrie Cantemir’s The Divan or the Sage’s Dispute with the World (Ṣalāḥ al-ḥakīm wa-fasād al-ʿālam al-ḏamīm) (Iaşi, 1698), his first printed book, the earliest ethical treatise in Romanian literature and a testimony to his wide knowledge, reading, and proficiency in foreign languages. Completed in 1705 by Athanasius III Dabbās, Patriarch of the Antiochian Church (1684-1694, 1720-1724), the Arabic text is accompanied by the first translation into a modern language, English. Book III contains Cantemir’s version of the Latin work Stimuli virtutum, fraena peccatorum (Amsterdam, 1682) by the Unitarian Andzrej Wiszowaty (Andreas Wissovatius) of Raków (Poland), a chief representative of the Polish Brethren. Thus, in the space of twenty-three years Central-European Protestant ideas reached the Arab Christians of Ottoman Syria, by way of Greek and Arabic.

11 Al-Ghazālī’s “Demarcation of Science”

A Commonplace Apology in the Muslim Reception of Modern Science—and Its Limitations

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Martin Riexinger

3 Problems in al-Ghazālī’s Perfect World

Objections and Counter-Objections to His Best Possible World Thesis

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Stephen R. Ogden

4 Al-Ghazālī’s Teleology and the Galenic Tradition

Reading The Wisdom in God’s Creations (al-Ḥikma fī makhlūqāt Allah)

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Ahmed El Shamsy

5 Al-Ghazālī and Kalām

The Conundrum of His Body-Soul ­Dualism

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Ayman Shihadeh

6 Al-Ghazālī’s Veil Section

Comparative Religion before Religionswissenschaft?

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Anna Ayşe Akasoy

8 Intuition, Intellection, and Mystical Knowledge

Delineating Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Cognitive Theories

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Damien Janos

Appendix

Recent Publications on Syriac and Arabic Christian Philosophy and the Baghdad School

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Edited by Damien Janos

Ideas in Motion in Baghdad and Beyond

Philosophical and Theological Exchanges between Christians and Muslims in the Third/Ninth and Fourth/Tenth Centuries

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Edited by Damien Janos

This volume contains a collection of articles focusing on the philosophical and theological exchanges between Muslim and Christian intellectuals living in Baghdad during the classical period of Islamic history, when this city was a vibrant center of philosophical, scientific, and literary activity. The philosophical accomplishments and contribution of Christians writing in Arabic and Syriac represent a crucial component of Islamic society during this period, but they have typically been studied in isolation from the development of mainstream Islamic philosophy. The present book aims for a more integrated approach by exploring case studies of philosophical and theological cross-pollination between the Christian and Muslim traditions, with an emphasis on the Baghdad School and its main representative, Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī.

Contributors: Carmela Baffioni, David Bennett, Gerhard Endress, Damien Janos, Olga Lizzini, Ute Pietruschka, Alexander Treiger, David Twetten, Orsolya Varsányi, John W. Watt, Robert Wisnovsky

Islam and Rationality

The Impact of al-Ghazālī. Papers collected on his 900th Anniversary. Vol. 2

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Frank Griffel

Al-Ghazālī (d. 505/1111) is one of the most influential thinkers of Islam. There is hardly a genre of Islamic literature where he is not regarded as a major authority. Islamic Law, Sufism, ethics, philosophy, and theology are all deeply shaped by him. Yet in the past thirty years, the field of Ghazālī-studies has been shaken by the realization that Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, d. 428/1037) and other philosophers had a strong influence on him. Now, after the 900th anniversary at his death, the field emerges stronger than ever. This second volume of Islam and Rationality: The Impact of al-Ghazālī brings together twelve leading experts on al-Ghazālī who write about his thought and the impact it had on later Muslim thinkers.

Contributors are: Anna Ayşe Akasoy, Ahmed El Shamsy, Kenneth Garden, Frank Griffel, Jules Janssens, Damien Janos, Taneli Kukkonen, Stephen Ogden, M. Sait Özervarlı, Martin Riexinger, Ulrich Rudolph, and Ayman Shihadeh.

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Wouter Goris

Transcendental unity is a figure of thought of the Latin Middle Ages, which is indebted to Avicenna’s renewal of metaphysics and which is wrongly attributed to Aristotle. A specific interpretation of the demonstrable attribute determines the metaphysical reflection on ‘the one’ and turns it into a transcendental attribute of being. Notwithstanding the variety of epistemic constellations, however, this metaphysical relationship of being and unity always turns out to be a fundamental state of affairs. Transcendental unity identifies as a problem constellation, the principles of which are still effective in the critique of scholastic metaphysics in classical German philosophy.

The Thirteenth-Century Notion of Signification

The Discussions and their Origin and Development

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Ana María Mora-Marquez

In The Thirteenth-Century Notion of Signification, Ana María Mora-Márquez presents an exhaustive study of the three 13th-century discussions explicitly dealing with the notion of Significatio. Her study aims to show that the three discussions emerge because of apparently opposite claims about the signification of words in the authoritative literature of the period, namely in Aristotle, Boethius and Priscian. It also shows that the three discussions develop in the same direction – towards a unified use of the notion of signification, which keeps its explanatory role in semiotics, but loses its role in grammar and logic. Mora-Márquez offers us the first exhaustive analysis of the scholarly discussions around the notion of signification in the pre-nominalist medieval tradition.

Die metaphysische Synthese des Johannes von Damaskus

Historische Zusammenhänge und Strukturtransformationen

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Smilen Markov

Smilen Markov’s monograph on the metaphysical synthesis of John Damascene depicts a paradox ontological structure: the single man, whose ontological position is conditioned by non-being, participates in the life of the Origin of being. The term ‘historical interconnections’ denotes the basic elements of Damascene’s reception strategy through which he approaches the Holy Scripture and the tradition of the fathers. The structural transformation to which different epochs and cultural circles put Damascene’s concepts reveals regularity in understanding the intellectual scope of the Palestinian monk. The reception of his thought could serve as an indicator for the stable mental structures, ‘framing’ the epoch turning-points in European culture for at least six centuries.

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John Buridan

Edited by M. Streijger and P. J.J.M. Bakker

John Buridan (d. ca. 1360) was one of the most talented and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages. He spent his career as a master in the Arts Faculty at the University of Paris, producing commentaries and independent treatises on logic, metaphysics, natural philosophy, and ethics. His Questions Commentary on the eight books of Aristotle's Physics is the most important witness to Buridan's teachings in the field of natural philosophy. The commentary was widely read during the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance. This volume presents the first critical edition of books I & II of the final redaction of Buridan's Questions Commentary on the Physics. The critical edition of the Latin text is accompanied by a detailed guide to the contents of Buridan's questions.

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Edited by Jakob Leth Fink

Suárez on Aristotelian Causality offers the first comprehensive account of Francisco Suárez’s position with respect to the four Aristotelian causes in his Metaphysical Disputations. Suárez deals with these causes in the greater part of Metaphysical Disputations 12–27 approximately a third of his famous work on metaphysics. Nevertheless, no previous attempt at analysis of causality as a part of his overall metaphysical position has been offered.
The material, formal, efficient and final cause as understood by Suárez each receives a chapter in this volume just as his general account of causality is considered. This should be relevant to anyone interested in the role and pertinence of Aristotelian causality for Suárez’s metaphysics.
Contributors (in order of appearance) are Jakob Leth Fink, Erik Åkerlund, Kara Richardson, Stephan Schmid and Sydney Penner.

Pietro Pomponazzis Erkenntnistheorie

Naturalisierung des menschlichen Geistes im Spätaristotelismus

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Paolo Rubini

The Renaissance philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi (1462-1525) is mostly known for denying the human mind’s immateriality (and immortality) in accordance with his radical understanding of Aristotelianism. Pomponazzis Erkenntnistheorie attempts to reconstruct his theory of cognition. The author, Paolo Rubini, focuses on Pomponazzi’s scattered views about the mind’s ontological status and cognitive capacities, puts them into the context of Aristotelian-Scholastic psychology, and interprets them by reference to Pomponazzi’s ‘naturalistic’ approach to the human soul. Particular interest is devoted to the role of representations in cognitive acts, the functional link between intellect and imagination, and the process of abstraction. The study is based on Pomponazzi’s published writings about immortality as well as on unpublished records of his lectures about Aristotle’s De anima.

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Ana María Mora-Márquez

Edited by Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe and María Cerezo

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Ana María Mora-Márquez

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Ana María Mora-Márquez

'Anonymus Aurelianensis III' in Aristotelis Analytica priora

Critical edition, Introduction, Notes, and Indexes

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Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist

This is the first critical edition of the earliest known Latin commentary on Aristotle’s Prior Analytics, the Anonymus Aurelianensis III. In addition to the critical text, Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist’s edition contains a comparative analysis of the anonymous commentary and the extant Greek commentaries as well as a full comparison between Boethius’ translation and the translation used by the commentator. The edition provides a solid foundation for further study on the earliest medieval exegesis on the Prior Analytics and is an essential resource for any scholar who wants to learn more about the development of logic in general and the medieval reception of Aristotelian syllogistic in particular.

Franciscan Learning, Preaching and Mission c. 1220-1650

Cum scientia sit donum Dei, armatura ad defendendam sanctam Fidem catholicam…

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Bert Roest

Returning to themes first discussed in his book A History of Franciscan Education (Brill, 2000), Bert Roest discusses in this volume a wide range of issues pertaining to the organization of learning in the Franciscan order in the late medieval and early modern period, and the ways in which this order engaged in pastoral and missionary activities in confrontation with the rise of Protestantism. The essays in this volume break new ground in their treatment of school formation, the chronology of educational developments, and the transformation of Franciscan schools between the mid fifteenth and the mid seventeenth century. They also challenge ingrained scholarly verdicts on the efficacy of sixteenth-century mendicant homiletics, and on the role of the Franciscans in the Dutch mission from the early seventeenth century onwards.

History of Logic and Semantics

Studies on the Aristotelian and Terminist Traditions

Edited by Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe and María Cerezo

This volume pays homage to the historian of logic Angel d’Ors (1951-2012), by bringing together a set of studies that together illuminate the complex historical development of logic and semantics. Two main traditions, Aristotelian and terminist, are showcased to demonstrate the changes and confrontations that constitute this history, and a number of different authors and texts, from the Boethian reception of Aristotle to the post-medieval terminism, are discussed.
Special topics dealt with include the medieval reception of ancient logic; technical tools for the medieval analysis of language; the medieval theory of consequence; the medieval practice of disputation and sophisms; and the post-medieval refinement of the terminist tools.
Contributors are E.J. Ashworth, Allan Bäck, María Cerezo, Sten Ebbesen, José Miguel Gambra, C.H. Kneepkens, Kalvin Normore, Angel d’Ors, Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe, Stephen Read, Joke Spruyt, Luisa Valente, and Mikko Yrjönsuuri.

These articles were also published in Vivarium, Volume 53, Nos. 2-4 (2015).

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Michiel Streijger and Paul J.J.M. Bakker