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Wie entsteht Neues in Kunst und Wissenschaft

Analogisches Denken und Leibniz' Idee der Erfindung

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Edited by Constanze Peres

Ob Neues erschaffen oder neukombiniert, erfunden oder entdeckt wird, stellt das Denken immer wieder vor ein Rätsel. Was ist das Neue? Kann es Neues in Kunst und Wissenschaft geben? Und was heißt es überhaupt, von „neu“ und „alt“, von „erfinden“ und „hervorbringen“ zu sprechen?
Analogiebildungen sind nach Douglas Hofstadter und Emmanuel Sanders konstitutiv für die Hervorbringung des Neuen und durchziehen die gesamte Erkenntnis in Alltagserfahrung, Wissenschaft und Kunst. Bei Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz spielen Analogie und Kombination für die Erfindung neuer „möglicher Welten“ eine ebenso zentrale Rolle wie die Schöpfung der Welt für die Idee des radikal Neuen. Im Sinne seiner Multiperspektivik werden in diesem Buch Kreativität, Erfindungskraft und analogisches Denken interdiziplinär analysiert, um aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln die Entstehung des Neuen in Wissenschaft und Kunst auszuleuchten.

Herder on Empathy and Sympathy

Einfühlung und Sympathie im Denken Herders

Edited by Eva Piirimäe, Liina Lukas and Johannes Schmidt

The English-German collection Herder on Empathy and Sympathy/ Einfühlung und Sympathie im Denken Herders considers the meaning and role of the concepts of empathy and sympathy in Herder’s thought. Herder invokes sympathy in a number of disciplinary domains ranging from metaphysics, biology, anthropology, epistemology, psychology, morality, politics, history, aesthetics to homiletics. It shows that while Herder belongs to a long line of thinkers who view sympathy as a metaphysical principle contributing to the interconnectedness of all parts of nature, he offers new insights about intra-/inter-species sympathetic communication and distinctively human varieties of sympathy for which he reserves the term “sich einfühlen”. Acknowledging the limits of the natural capacity for “sich einfühlen”, Herder nonetheless calls for its reflective cultivation in various domains.

Philosophical Theology in Islam

Later Ashʿarism East and West

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Edited by Ayman Shihadeh and Jan Thiele

Philosophical Theology in Islam studies the later history of the Ashʿarī school of theology through in-depth probings of its thought, sources, scholarly networks and contexts. Starting with a review of al-Ghazālī’s role in the emergence of post-Avicennan philosophical theology, the book offers a series of case studies on hitherto unstudied texts by the towering thinker Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī as well as specific philosophical and theological topics treated in his works. Studies furthermore shed light on the transmission and reception of later Ashʿarī doctrines in periods and regions that have so far received little scholarly attention. This book is the first exploration of the later Ashʿarī tradition across the medieval and early-modern period through a trans-regional perspective.

Contributors include: Peter Adamson, Asad Q. Ahmed, Fedor Benevich, Xavier Casassas Canals, Jon Hoover, Bilal Ibrahim, Andreas Lammer, Reza Pourjavady, Harith Ramli, Ulrich Rudolph, Meryem Sebti, Delfina Serrano, Ayman Shihadeh, Aaron Spevack, and Jan Thiele.

Natur - Geschlecht - Politik

Denkmuster und Repräsentationsformen vom Alten Testament bis in die Neuzeit

Edited by Andreas Höfele and Beate Kellner

Die Naturalisierung der Geschlechterordnung hat eine eminent politische Bedeutung. Dies lässt sich an der Geschichte der Geschlechter in vormodernen Gesellschaften beobachten, gewinnt aber auch in unseren Tagen erneut unerwartete Aktualität.
Die vermeintliche „Natur“-Ordnung der Geschlechter, die teils explizit behauptet, teils aber auch begründungslos vorausgesetzt wird, demonstriert die Wirkungsmacht von Naturalisierung in besonderem Maße. Gerade hier wird die Umwandlung gesellschaftlich-kulturell bedingter und historisch variabler Verhältnisse in vermeintlich ahistorische und invariable Naturgegebenheit und Naturnotwendigkeit exemplarisch deutlich. Der Band zeigt Strategien und Modelle der Naturalisierung der Geschlechterordnung sowie die Breite und Varianz der Geschlechterrollen vom Alten Testament und der klassischen Antike über naturphilosophische Spekulationen im Mittelalter bis in die Literaturen und die Kunst der Neuzeit.

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Edited by Jörg Tellkamp

This Companion aims to give an up-to-date overview of the historical context and the conceptual framework of Spanish imperial expansion during the early modern period, mostly during the 16th century. It intends to offer a nuanced and balanced account of the complexities of this historically controversial period analyzing first its historical underpinnings, then shedding light on the normative language behind imperial theorizing and finally discussing issues that arose with the experience of the conquest of American polities, such as colonialism, slavery or utopia. The aim of this volume is to uncover the structural and normative elements of the theological, legal and philosophical arguments about Spanish imperial ambitions in the early modern period.
Contributors are Manuel Herrero Sánchez, José Luis Egío, Christiane Birr, Miguel Anxo Pena González, Tamar Herzog, Merio Scattola, Virpi Mäkinen, Wim Decock, Christian Schäfer, Francisco Castilla Urbano, Daniel Schwartz, Felipe Castañeda, José Luis Ramos Gorostiza, Luis Perdices de Blas, Beatriz Fernández Herrero.

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Christoph Sander

Why does a magnet attract iron? Why does a compass needle point north? Although the magnet or lodestone was known since antiquity, magnetism only became an important topic in natural science and technology in the early modern period. In Magnes Christoph Sander explores this fascinating subject and draws, for the first time, a comprehensive picture of early modern research on magnetism (c. 1500–1650). Covering all disciplines of this period, Magnes examines what scholars understood by ‘magnet’ and ‘magnetism,’ which properties they ascribed to it, in which instruments and practices magnetism was employed, and how they tried to explain this exciting phenomenon. This historical panorama is based on circa 1500 historical sources, including over 100 manuscripts.

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Edited by Brigitte Weltman-Aron, Peter Westmoreland and Ourida Mostefai

Silence, Implicite et Non-Dit chez Rousseau/Silence, the Implicit, and the Unspoken in Rousseau prend acte d’un grand nombre de publications ayant trait à l’analyse par Rousseau des langues et du langage, de la parole par rapport à l’écriture, de la voix (y compris la voix de la nature). Mais ce volume se consacre tout particulièrement au fonctionnement et aux effets du silence, de l’implicite et du non-dit dans la pensée de Rousseau. Son approche est à la fois polyvalente et cohérente, et ses réflexions sur le silence sont associées à d’autres préoccupations esthétiques, politiques, et morales de son œuvre.

Silence, Implicite et Non-Dit chez Rousseau/Silence, the Implicit, and the Unspoken in Rousseau capitalizes on a great number of publications dealing with Rousseau’s analysis of languages and language, speech versus writing, of voice (including the voice of nature). But this volume is particularly dedicated to the study of the functioning and the effects of silence, the implicit and the unspoken in Rousseau’s thought. His approach is both polyvalent and consistent, and his reflections on silence are associated with other aesthetic, political, and moral concerns in his work.

Antiquity and Enlightenment Culture

New Approaches and Perspectives

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Edited by Felicity Loughlin and Alexandre Johnston

This volume represents the first move towards a comprehensive overview of the place of antiquity in Enlightenment Europe. Eschewing a narrow focus on any one theme, it seeks to understand eighteenth-century engagements with antiquity on their own terms, focusing on the contexts, questions, and agendas that led people to turn to the ancient past. The contributors show that a profound interest in antiquity permeated all spheres of intellectual and creative endeavour, from antiquarianism to political discourse, travel writing to portraiture, theology to education. They offer new perspectives on familiar figures, such as Rousseau and Hume, as well as insights into hitherto obscure antiquarians and scholars. What emerges is a richer, more textured understanding of the substantial eighteenth-century engagement with antiquity.

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Edited by Reimund Leicht and Giuseppe Veltri

This volume contains studies based on papers delivered at the international conference of the PESHAT in Context project entitled “Themes, Terminology, and Translation Procedures in Twelfth-Century Jewish Philosophy.” The central figure in this book is Judah Ibn Tibbon. He sired the Ibn Tibbon family of translators, which influenced philosophical and scientific Hebrew writing for centuries. More broadly, the study of this early phase of the Hebrew translation movement also reveals that the formation of a standardized Hebrew terminology was a long process that was never fully completed. Terminological shifts are frequent even within the Tibbonide family, to say nothing of the fascinating terminological diversity displayed by other authors and translators discussed in this book.

Samuel Pufendorf Disciple of Hobbes

For a Re-Interpretation of Modern Natural Law

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Fiammetta Palladini

First published in Italian in 1990, Fiammetta Palladini’s ground-breaking study of Samuel Pufendorf (1632–1694) remains one of the most important discussions of the subject to date. Now available in English for the first time, Palladini's book cuts through the existing field of Pufendorf studies, laying bare its inherited templates and tacit assumptions. Palladini is thus able to peel back the ‘Grotian’ commentary in which the great thinker had been shrouded, revealing a Pufendorf well-known in the 1680s—a formidable and dangerous natural jurist and political theorist—but doubly obscured in the 1980s and still today, by a philosophical history that flies too high to see him, and by a commentary literature that too often does not like what it sees. David Saunders’ lucid translation carries Palladini’s argument into English with maximum fidelity.

Translation of: Samuel Pufendorf discepolo di Hobbes. Per una reinterpretazione del giusnaturalismo moderno. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990.

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Edited by Paolo Ponzù Donato

Uberto Decembrio’s Four Books on the Commonwealth ( De re publica libri IV, ca. 1420), edited and translated by Paolo Ponzù Donato, is one of the earliest examples of the reception of Plato’s Republic in the fifteenth century. The humanistic dialogue provides an illuminating insight into such themes as justice, the best government, the morals of the prince and citizen, education, and religion. Decembrio’s dialogue is dedicated to Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, the ‘worst enemy’ of Florence. Making use of literary and documentary sources, Ponzù Donato convincingly proves that Decembrio’s thought, which shares many points with the Florentine humanist Leonardo Bruni, belongs to the same world of Civic Humanism.

Adrian Blau

This paper offers a systematic analysis of Hobbes’s practical political thought. Hobbes’s abstract philosophy is rightly celebrated, but he also gave much practical advice on how to avoid disorder. Yet he is typically interpreted too narrowly in this respect, especially by those who only read him economistically. Other scholars supplement this economistic focus with sociological or political interpretations, but to my knowledge, no one stresses all three aspects of his thought. This paper thus examines each of Hobbes’s practical proposals for avoiding corruption and a state of nature. Hobbes clearly uses economistic, sociological and political approaches, which involve shaping incentives, desires/preferences, and opportunities, respectively. This intentionally anachronistic framework helps us see further, highlighting Hobbes’s rich and wide-ranging practical proposals for avoiding disorder – a crucial part of his theory.

Stewart Duncan

Hobbes, in both the Elements of Law and Leviathan, argues that a wide variety of terms – including ‘good’, ‘bad’, and the names of virtues and vices – have a double and inconstant signification. This paper explores and explains that theory of Hobbes’s. (Two other interpretations are discussed: Pettit’s discussion in terms of indexicals, and Alexandra’s in terms of sense and reference.) This inconstancy of signification has considerable potential to cause confusion and conflict. Given those practical consequences, it is of some importance for Hobbes to find a solution to this problem. The paper examines several possible Hobbesian solutions to the problem. There is reason to think that these suggested solutions cannot completely solve the problem. Hobbes appears to believe that an appropriately powerful sovereign can resolve such problems when necessary, but this is a practical solution that relies on sovereign power, and the difficulty is never in principle resolved.

Frank Lovett

Few passages in Hobbes’s writings have generated as much critical interest as the notorious reply to the fool – one who believes it is reasonable to renege on our promises whenever it is advantageous for us to do so. In his reply, Hobbes appears to argue that it is never reasonable to renege on our promises because doing so is never in our prudential interest. The problem is not only that this reply seems wrong, but further that it seems inconsistent with Hobbes’s own philosophical commitments. This research note argues that the reply makes sense if we are willing to read it as an incompletely worked-out claim about the prudence of sometimes preventing oneself from being fully prudent in the future.

Gianni Paganini

Hobbes surely spent the ten years (1641–1651) of greatest significance for his philosophical career on the Continent, in France, above all, in Paris. It was during this period that he published De cive; wrote the De motu, loco et tempore; produced a draft of the entire Leviathan as well as most of De corpore. His complicated relationship with Descartes has been studied closely, and Mersenne’s role has become clearer. There remains however the task of more carefully delineating the contours of Hobbes’s relations with the circles of “learned libertinism.” The Libertinism which will be dealt with here was not only French, instead of English, but also “theoretical” and “intellectual” rather than practical, and nothing at all sexual, contrary to the common usage of that word in the current language. French Libertinism was a philosophical trend aimed at promoting a non-conformist approach to religion, history, morals, and even politics.

Eleanor Curran

Hobbes, in his political writing, is generally understood to be arguing for absolutism. I argue that despite apparently supporting absolutism, Hobbes, in Leviathan, also undermines that absolutism in at least two and possibly three ways. First, he makes sovereignty conditional upon the sovereign’s ability to ensure the safety of the people. Second and crucially, he argues that subjects have inalienable rights, rights that are held even against the sovereign. When the subjects’ preservation is threatened they are no longer obliged to obey the sovereign. Third, there is also a possible limitation on the absolute power of the sovereign in the form of restrictions Hobbes puts in place on what laws he may legitimately make. Finally, Hobbesian absolutism is compared to the absolutism of Carl Schmitt. This exercise demonstrates the limitations that Hobbes places on the power and authority of the sovereign.

J. Matthew Hoye

Scholars debate whether Hobbes held to a command theory of law or to a natural law theory, and to what extent they are compatible. Curiously, however, Hobbes summarizes his own teachings by claiming that it is “natural justice” that sovereigns should study, an idea that recalls ancient virtue ethics and which is seemingly incompatible with both command and natural law theory. The purpose of this article is to explicate the general significance of natural justice in Leviathan. It is argued that below the formal and ideological claims regarding the law’s legitimacy, the effective ground of the legitimacy of both the civil and natural laws is sovereign virtue. In turn, it is argued that the model for this idea was found in Aristotle. As such, this article constitutes a general recasting of Hobbes’s legal philosophy with a focus on the natural person of the sovereign.

Naturalism and Democracy

A Commentary on Spinoza's "Political Treatise" in the Context of His System

Edited by Wolfgang Bartuschat, Stephan Kirste and Manfred Walther

Naturalism and Democracy, first published in German in 2014, presents a long-awaited commentary on Spinoza’s Political Treatise (Tractatus politicus). Its contents reflect a recent intensification in the interest in Spinoza’s political philosophy in Germany. The volume addresses Spinoza’s political philosophy according to its place within his philosophical system as a whole, beginning with his theory of the natural genesis of law and state. Following from this are commentaries on the foundations of political philosophy, the relation of natural and state law, the theory of sovereignty, and theory of international relations. These chapters lay the basis for four essays interpreting Spinoza’s attempt to conceive of a systematic optimization of political and legal institutions for all three forms of governance (monarchy, aristocracy, democracy). The volume closes with an analysis of the current relevance of Spinoza’s political thinking and his influence on contemporary debates.

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Edited by Simone Zurbuchen

The Law of Nations and Natural Law 1625-1800 offers innovative studies on the development of the law of nations after the Peace of Westphalia. This period was decisive for the origin and constitution of the discipline which eventually emancipated itself from natural law and became modern international law.

A specialist on the law of nations in the Swiss context and on its major figure, Emer de Vattel, Simone Zurbuchen prompted scholars to explore the law of nations in various European contexts. The volume studies little known literature related to the law of nations as an academic discipline, offers novel interpretations of classics in the field, and deconstructs ‘myths’ associated with the law of nations in the Enlightenment.

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Edited by Christian Krijnen

The influence of Kant’s understanding of morality is too strong to be ignored. Hegel, however, fundamentally criticized Kant for offering merely a ‘formal’ model of normativity that cannot sufficiently comprehend human action as free. Instead, Hegel argues in his doctrine of ethical life ( Sittlichkeit) that the embeddedness of the acting subject must be taken into account when identifying normativity. Yet the issue of normativity in Kant and Hegel remains contested even today, not least due to the misunderstandings of their conceptions of the topic. The present volume explores developments within recent scholarship which enable a better understanding of the concept of normativity in the thought of Kant and Hegel.

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Edited by Andreas Christoph

Editorial-board Frederic Vandenberghe, Ralf Koerrenz, Heinz Thoma, Frauke Berndt, Jonathan Sheehan and Fritz Breithaupt

Der vorliegende Band versammelt verschiedene Perspektiven auf die Praktiken der Kartographie um 1800. Dabei geht es um mathematische Konstruktionen, politische Inskriptionen, künstlerische Adaptionen und wissenschaftshistorische Analysen.
Eine Handlungsempfehlung für den geographischen Unterricht aus dem ausgehenden 18. Jahrhundert rahmt den Publikationsteil ein und verweist auf die historische Bandbreite der Geographica und Cartographica sowie deren Wahrnehmung und Anwendung in der Zeit. »Kartieren um 1800« schärft durch unterschiedliche Zugangsweisen den Blick für die Bandbreite der Wissenspraktiken und Darstellungsformen in, auf und durch Karten, Atlanten und Globen und soll weiterführendes Interesse an der Thematik wecken.

Distinctions of Reason and Reasonable Distinctions

The Academic Life of John Wallis (1616–1703)

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Jason M. Rampelt

Distinctions of Reason and Reasonable Distinctions is an intellectual biography of John Wallis (1616-1703), professor of mathematics at Oxford for over half a century. His career spans the political tumult of the English Civil Wars, the religious upheaval of the Church of England, and the fascinating developments in mathematics and natural philosophy. His ability to navigate this terrain and advance human learning in the academic world was facilitated by his use of the Jesuit Francisco Suarez’s theory of distinctions. This Roman Catholic’s philosophy in the hands of a Protestant divine fostered an instrumentalism necessary to bridge the old and new. With this tool, Wallis brought modern science into the university and helped form the Royal Society.

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Edited by Pietro Daniel Omodeo

This volume is devoted to the natural philosopher Bernardino Telesio (1509-1588) and his place in the scientific debates of the Renaissance. Telesio’s thought is emblematic of Renaissance culture in its aspiration towards universality; the volume deals with the roots and reception of his vistas from an interdisciplinary perspective ranging from the history of philosophy to that of physics, astronomy, meteorology, medicine, and psychology. The editor, Pietro Daniel Omodeo and leading specialists of intellectual history introduce Telesio’s conceptions to English-speaking historians of science through a series of studies, which aim to foster our understanding of a crucial early modern author, his world, achievement, networks, and influence.

Contributors are Roberto Bondì, Arianna Borrelli, Rodolfo Garau, Giulia Giannini, Miguel Ángel Granada, Hiro Hirai, Martin Mulsow, Elio Nenci, Pietro Daniel Omodeo, Nuccio Ordine, Alessandro Ottaviani, Jürgen Renn, Riccarda Suitner, and Oreste Trabucco.

Sacrifice and Self-interest in Seventeenth-Century France

Quietism, Jansenism, and Cartesianism

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Thomas M. Lennon

How much of our own self- interest should we be willing to sacrifice for love of another? The Quietists answered, all of it, even the salvation of our own soul. Opposing them were the Jansenists, including Arnauld, who saw self-interest as inescapable. The debate swept across French society in the 17th century, with Bossuet and Fénelon on opposite sides, and was multi- dimensional, with political and ecclesiastical intrigue, charges of heresy, and many shenanigans. Initially theological, the debate’s basis lay in differing philosophical concepts of freewill, with both sides claiming support from Descartes’s views. The debate thus highlights interpretation of the Cartesians, especially Malebranche, a prominent participant in it. Nevertheless, this is the first book on the debate in English.

Exceptional Crime in Early Modern Spain

Taxonomic and Intellectual Perspectives

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Elena del Río Parra

Exceptional Crime in Early Modern Spain accounts for the representation of violent and complex murders, analysing the role of the criminal, its portrayal through rhetorical devices, and its cultural and aesthetic impact.
Proteic traits allow for an understanding of how crime is constructed within the parameters of exception, borrowing from pre-existent forms while devising new patterns and categories such as criminography, the “star killer”, the staging of crimes as suicides, serial murders, and the faking of madness. These accounts aim at bewildering and shocking demanding readers through a carefully displayed cult to excessive behaviour. The arranged “economy of death” displayed in murder accounts will set them apart from other exceptional instances, as proven by their long-standing presence in subsequent centuries.

Francisco Suárez (1548–1617):

Jesuits and the Complexities of Modernity

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Edited by Robert Aleksander Maryks and Juan Antonio Senent de Frutos

This is a bilingual edition of the selected peer-reviewed papers that were submitted for the International Symposium on Jesuit Studies on the thought of the Jesuit Francisco Suárez (1548–1617). The symposium was co-organized in Seville in 2018 by the Departamento de Humanidades y Filosofía at Universidad Loyola Andalucía and the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies at Boston College.
Suárez was a theologian, philosopher and jurist who had a significant cultural impact on the development of modernity. Commemorating the four-hundredth anniversary of his death, the symposium studied the work of Suárez and other Jesuits of his time in the context of diverse traditions that came together in Europe between the late Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and early modernity.

Enlightened Religion

From Confessional Churches to Polite Piety in the Dutch Republic

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Edited by Joke Spaans and Jetze Touber

The history of the relation between religion and Enlightenment has been virtually rewritten In recent decades. The idea of a fairly unidirectional ‘rise of paganism’, or ‘secularisation’, has been replaced by a much more variegated panorama of interlocking changes—not least in the nature of both religion and rationalism. This volume explores developments in various cultural fields—from lexicology to geographical exploration, and from philosophy and history to theology, media and the arts—involved in the transformation of worldviews in the decades around 1700. The main focus is on the Dutch Republic, where discussion culture was more inclusive than in most other countries, and where people from very different walks of life joined the conversation.

Contributors include: Wiep van Bunge, Frank Daudeij, Martin Gierl, Albert Gootjes, Trudelien van ‘t Hof, Jonathan Israel, Henri Krop, Fred van Lieburg, Jaap Nieuwstraten, Joke Spaans, Jetze Touber, and Arthur Weststeijn.

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Rudolf Schuessler

In The Debate on Probable Opinions in the Scholastic Tradition, Rudolf Schuessler portrays scholastic approaches to a qualified disagreement of opinions. The book outlines how scholastic regulations concerning the use of opinions changed in the early modern era, giving rise to an extensive debate on the moral and epistemological foundations of reasonable disagreements. The debate was fueled by probabilism and anti-probabilism in Catholic moral theology and thus also serves as a gateway to these doctrines. All developments are outlined in historical context, while special attention is paid to the evolution of scholastic notions of probability and their importance for the emergence of modern probability.

DE TRIBUS PRINCIPIIS, oder Beschreibung der Drey Principien Göttliches Wesens

Of the Three Principles of Divine Being, 1619, by Jacob Boehme

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Andrew Weeks and Leigh Penman

Jacob Boehme’s Of the Three Principles of Divine Being, 1619, is vital for understanding his work as a whole, its relationship to its epoch, and its role in intellectual history. Reproduced here using the methods of critical edition, the original of the work and its adjacent translation, together with an extensive introduction and commentary, provide unprecedented access to this essential work of early modern thought and cast a fresh light on the revolutionary theological, philosophical, and scientific developments coinciding with the start of the Thirty Years’ War.

The 1730 edition is annotated with reference to the manuscript sources to clarify ambiguities so that the translation can interpret the text without refracting its meaning. This makes it possible to interpret Boehme’s complex theories of the origin of the divine being and of nature, the human creature, and the female aspect of divinity.

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Edited by Cristiano Casalini

Jesuit Philosophy on the Eve of Modernity, edited by Cristiano Casalini, is the first comprehensive volume to trace the origins and development of Jesuit philosophy during the first century of the Society of Jesus (1540–c.1640). Filling a gap in the history of philosophy, the volume seeks to identify and examine the limits of the “distinctiveness” of Jesuit philosophers during an age of dramatic turbulence in Western thought. The eighteen contributions by some of the leading specialists in various fields are divided into four sections, which guide the reader through cultural milieus, thematic issues, and intellectual biographies to show the impact of Jesuit philosophy on early modern thought.

Natural and Political Conceptions of Community

The Role of the Household Society in Early Modern Jesuit Thought, c.1590–1650

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Christoph Haar

In Natural and Political Conceptions of Community, Christoph Haar examines the role of the household community in Jesuit political thought. Introducing a fresh perspective on the early modern Jesuit academic discourse, the book explores how leading Jesuit thinkers drew on their theologically inspired conceptions of the family community to determine the usefulness as well as the limitations of the political realm.
Natural and Political Conceptions of Community is about the place of the household in Scholastic theoretical works. The book demonstrates that Jesuits considered the human being as a household being when they determined the origin and purpose of the political community, producing a notion of politics that integrated their account of human nature with the sphere of law, rights, and virtues.

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Edited by Simon J.G. Burton, Joshua Hollmann and Eric M. Parker

Nicholas of Cusa and Early Modern Reform sheds new light on Cusanus’ relationship to early modernity by focusing on the reform of church, the reform of theology, the reform of perspective, and the reform of method – which together aim to encompass the breadth and depth of Cusanus’ own reform initiatives. In particular, in examining the way in which he served as inspiration for a wide and diverse array of reform-minded philosophers, ecclesiastics, theologians, and lay scholars in the midst of their struggle for the renewal and restoration of the individual, society, and the world, our volume combines a focus on Cusanus as a paradigmatic thinker with a study of his concrete influence on early modern thought. This volume is aimed at scholars working in the field of late medieval and early modern philosophy, theology, and history of science.
As the first Anglophone volume to explore the early modern reception of Nicholas of Cusa, this work will provide an important complement to a growing number of companions focusing on his life and thought.

Becoming Marxist

Studies in Philosophy, Struggle, and Endurance

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Ted Stolze

In Becoming Marxist Ted Stolze offers a series of studies that take up the importance of philosophy for the development of an open and critical Marxism. He argues that an adequate ‘philosophy for Marxism’ must be open to engagement with a diverse range of traditions, texts, and authors – from Paul of Tarsus, via Averroes, Spinoza, and Hobbes, to Althusser, Deleuze, Negri, Habermas, and Žižek. Stolze also explores such practical contemporary issues as the politics of self-emancipation, the nature of Islamophobia, and climate change.
Brill’s Companions in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy is a leading series of handbooks providing graduate-level synthesis of debate and the state of scholarship on key authors and topics in Philosophy from the 19th century until the present period. Planned volumes include: German Romantic Philosophy, Humanist Political Thought in Italy, etc.

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Edited by Jeroen De Keyser

Investigating the oeuvre of the Italian humanist Francesco Filelfo (1398-1481), this collection is the first to make extensive use of the critical editions of Filelfo’s numerous writings – in particular of his Epistolarium, published in 2016 by Jeroen De Keyser, who also edited this volume. Uncovering a lot of new information not previously mentioned in the literature on Filelfo, twelve specialized scholars draw attention to long-neglected material, shedding new light on Filelfo’s intellectual endeavors and his literary journey between Greek and Latin. This illuminating collection offers historians of ideas as well as literary scholars and Neo-Latinists new inroads into Filelfo’s vast oeuvre, and through it to the world of Quattrocento humanism.

Contributors include: Jean-Louis Charlet, Guy Claessens, Jeroen De Keyser, Tom Deneire, Ide François, James Hankins, Noreen Humble, Gary Ianziti, Han Lamers, David Marsh, John Monfasani, and Jan Papy.

From Bayle to the Batavian Revolution

Essays on Philosophy in the Eighteenth-Century Dutch Republic

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Wiep van Bunge

This book is an attempt to assess the part played by philosophy in the eighteenth-century Dutch Enlightenment. Following Bayle’s death and the demise of the radical Enlightenment, Dutch philosophers soon embraced Newtonianism and by the second half of the century Wolffianism also started to spread among Dutch academics. Once the Republic started to crumble, Dutch enlightened discourse took a political turn, but with the exception of Frans Hemsterhuis, who chose to ignore the political crisis, it failed to produce original philosophers. By the end of the century, the majority of Dutch philosophers typically refused to embrace Kant’s transcendental project as well as his cosmopolitanism. Instead, early nineteenth-century Dutch professors of philosophy preferred to cultivate their joint admiration for the Ancients.

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Paul F. Grendler

Paul F. Grendler, noted historian of European education, surveys Jesuit schools and universities throughout Europe from the first school founded in 1548 to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773. The Jesuits were noted educators who founded and operated an international network of schools and universities that enrolled students from the age of ten through doctoral studies. The essay analyzes the organization, curriculum, pedagogy, culture, financing, relations with civil authorities, enrollments, and social composition of students in Jesuit pre-university schools. Grendler then explains Jesuit universities. The Jesuits governed and did all the teaching in small collegiate universities. In large civic-Jesuit universities the Jesuits taught the humanities, philosophy, and theology, while lay professors taught law and medicine. The article provides examples ranging from the first Jesuit school in Messina, Sicily, to universities across Europe. It features a complete list of Jesuit schools in France.

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Edited by Annemie De Gendt and Alicia Montoya

La pensée sérielle : du Moyen Age aux Lumières se propose d’étudier le phénomène discursif de la série, du Moyen Age à la première modernité. Le volume enrichit nos connaissances sur la façon dont la notion de série – actualisée entre autres sous la forme des sept vices et vertus, des cinq sens, de l’hexaëmeron - a été pensée et mise en forme dans les écrits philosophiques et littéraires et, de manière moins exhaustive, dans la peinture et la musique. Une réflexion méthodologique et théorique introduit le volume, offrant de nouvelles pistes scientifiques.

La pensée sérielle : du Moyen Age aux Lumières, a collection of essays edited by Anne-Marie De Gendt and Alicia C. Montoya, proposes to study the discursive phenomenon of the series, from the Middle Ages to early modernity. The volume sheds light on the way the concept of the series – manifested among others through the seven vices and virtues, the five senses, or the Hexameron – has been thought and formalized in philosophical and literary texts and, to a lesser extent, in music and the visual arts. A methodological and theoretical reflection introduces the volume, offering new scholarly approaches to the phenomenon.

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Ben Mijuskovic

Current research claims loneliness is passively caused by external conditions: environmental, cultural, situational, and even chemical imbalances in the brain and hence avoidable. In this book, the author argues that loneliness is actively constituted by acts of reflexive self-consciousness (Kant) and transcendent intentionality (Husserl) and is, therefore, unavoidable. This work employs a historical, conceptual, and interdisciplinary approach (philosophy, psychology, literature, sociology, etc.) criticizing both psychoanalysis and neuroscience. The book pits materialism, mechanism, determinism, empiricism, phenomenalism, behaviorism, and the neurosciences against dualism, both subjective and objective idealism, rationalism, freedom, phenomenology, and existentialism. It offers a dynamic of loneliness, whose spontaneous subconscious sources undercuts the unconscious of Freud and the “computerism” of the neurosciences by challenging their claims to be predictive sciences.

Freiheit nach Kant

Tradition, Rezeption, Transformation, Aktualität

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Edited by Saša Josifović and Jörg Noller

Kant’s conception of freedom is of special importance in the history of philosophy. It not only brings together older traditions but has great influence on later theories of freedom. The edited volume analyzes Kant’s theory, referring to the concepts of will, choice, autonomy, and reason. It consists of four parts: Kant’s theory in its historical context; Kant’s own conception as developed in his various philosophical works; central conceptions of freedom in German Idealism after Kant (including Reinhold, Schiller, Maimon, Jacobi, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer); the systematic relevance of Kant’s conception of freedom with regard to recent debates in analytic philosophy (agent causality, compatibilism and incompatibilism).

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Edited by Bo Andersson, Lucinda Martin, Leigh Penman and Andrew Weeks

Jacob Böhme (1575–1624) is famous as a shoemaker and spiritual author. His works and thought are frequently studied as a product of his mystical illumination.
Jacob Böhme and His World adopts a different perspective. It seeks to demystify Böhme by focusing on aspects of his immediate cultural and social context and the intellectual currents of his time, including Böhme’s writing as literature, the social conditions in Görlitz, Böhme’s correspondence networks, a contemporary “crisis of piety,” Paracelsian and kabbalistic currents, astrology, astronomy and alchemy, and his relationship to other dissenting authors. Relevant facets of reception include Böhme’s philosophical standing, his contributions to pre-Pietism, and early English translations of his works.

Image, Imagination, and Cognition

Medieval and Early Modern Theory and Practice

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Edited by Christoph Lüthy, Claudia Swan, Paul J.J.M. Bakker and Claus Zittel

How were the relations among image, imagination and cognition characterized in the period 1500 – 1800? The authors of this volume argue that in those three centuries, a thoroughgoing transformation affected the following issues: (i) what it meant to understand phenomena in the natural world (cognition); (ii) how such phenomena were visualized or pictured (images, including novel types of diagrams, structural models, maps, etc.); and (iii) what role was attributed to the faculty of the imagination (psychology, creativity). The essays collected in this volume examine the new conceptions that were advanced and the novel ways of comprehending and expressing the relations among image, imagination, and cognition. They also shed light, from a variety of perspectives, on the elusive nexus of conceptions and practices.

Magic and Memory in Giordano Bruno

The Art of a Heroic Spirit

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Manuel Mertens

In Magic and Memory in Giordano Bruno Manuel Mertens unravels the enigmatic knot between the mnemonic treatises and the magical writings of the sixteenth-century Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno. Since long the magical orientation of the Brunian art of memory has been a preoccupation for Bruno scholars (like Paolo Rossi, Frances Yates and Rita Sturlese). This serious study of the philosophical underpinnings of both Bruno’s mnemonic treatises and his writings on magic shows that Bruno believed his mnemonic method could prevent demons from corrupting the cognitive process. Mertens’s focus on Bruno’s idea of deification through memory and the philosopher’s view on fiery heroic spirits points to a surprisingly literal reading of the heretic’s last words.

Rationis Imago

Descartes' Dichten, Träumen, Denken

Jakob Moser

Zum Abschluss seines Studiums entwirft Descartes ein Thesenblatt. Darin dichtet er eine Allegorie seines Bildungsweges, die unser Bild vom Begründer des modernen Rationalismus irritiert. Für den klassischen Descartes gilt allein das rationale Denken als unbezweifelbare Quelle aller Wissenschaft. Dahingegen schöpfte er in seinem frühsten Text, der Widmung seines Thesenblatts von 1616, aus den Quellen der Musen, der antiken Poesie und Mythologie. Wenige Jahre später erblickte er in seinen Träumen eine Anthologie römischer Dichter und deutet sie als Verheißung seiner künftigen Philosophie. Die intuitive Einbildungskraft der Dichter überflügelt das deduktive Denken der Philosophen. Ausgehend vom Thesenblatt zeichnet Moser ein ungewöhnliches Portrait des jungen Descartes, um es schlaglichtartig mit seinen späteren Werken zu kontrastieren. Die nackte Vernunft erscheint dabei immer wieder neu im Kleid der Imagination.

The Scottish Enlightenment Abroad

The Russells of Braidshaw in Aleppo and on the Coast of Coromandel

Janet Starkey

In The Scottish Enlightenment Abroad, Janet Starkey examines the lives and works of Scots working in the mid eighteenth century with the Levant Company in Aleppo, then within the Ottoman Empire; and those working with the East India Company in India, especially in the fields of natural history, medicine, ethnography and the collection of Arabic and Persian manuscripts. The focus is on brothers from Edinburgh: Alexander Russell MD FRS, Patrick Russell MD FRS, Claud Russell and William Russell FRS.

By examining a wide range of modern interpretations, Starkey argues that the Scottish Enlightenment was not just a philosophical discourse but a multi-faceted cultural revolution that owed its vibrancy to ties of kinship, and to strong commercial and intellectual links with Europe and further abroad.

The Sovereign and the Prophets

Spinoza on Grotian and Hobbesian Biblical Argumentation

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Atsuko Fukuoka

Tracing key biblical topics recurrent in Grotian and Hobbesian discourses on the church-state relationship, The Sovereign and the Prophets examines Spinoza’s Old Testament interpretation in the Theologico-political Treatise and elucidates his effort to establish what Hobbes could not adequately offer to the Dutch: the liberty to philosophize. Fukuoka develops an original method for understanding seventeenth-century biblical arguments as a shared political paradigm. Her in-depth analysis reveals the discourses that converged on the question, ‘Who stands immediately under God to mediate His will to the people?’ This subtly nuanced theme not only linked major theoreticians diachronically—from the Remonstrants such as Grotius to the anti-Hobbesian jurist Ulrik Huber (1636–1694)—but also synchronically built the axis of resonances and dissonances between Leviathan and the Theologico-political Treatise.

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Piotr Jaroszyński

Metaphysics or Ontology? treats the evolution of the object of metaphysics from being, to the concept of being, to, finally, the object (thought). Possible being must be non-contradictory, but an object of thought includes anything a human being can think, including contradictions and nothingness. When the concept of being, or object of thought, replaces existence as the object of metaphysics, it becomes something other than metaphysics—ontology, or something beyond ontology. However, ontology cannot examine existence because it only investigates concepts and possibility. Only classical metaphysics investigates reality qua reality. This book masterfully treats the history of this controversy and many other important metaphysical questions raised over the centuries

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Edited by Mogens Lærke and Raphaele Andrault

Steno and the Philosophers offers an account of the life and works of the Danish scientist and theologian Nicolas Steno (1638-1686). Its aim is to study the intricate relations between philosophy, theology, and the emerging sciences (anatomy, medicine and geology in particular) in the early modern Republic of Letters through the biographical prism of one of its most fascinating members. Concentrating on Steno’s contributions to natural philosophy and his relations to philosophers, the volume portrays Steno, not only as an influential scientist and theologian, but also as a natural philosopher who played a pivotal, albeit ambivalent, role in the intellectual networks amongst philosophers and natural scientists in the late seventeenth century.

Contributors include Raphaële Andrault, Jakob Bek-Thomsen, Daniel Garber, Vasiliki Girgoropoulo, Eric Jorink, Troels Kardel, Mogens Lærke, Sebastian Olden-Jørgensen, Justin E. H. Smith, Frank Sobiech and Pina Totaro.

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Maria-Cristina Pitassi and Daniela Solfaroli Camillocci

English Irena Backus' scholarship has been characterised by profound historical learning and philological acumen, extraordinary mastery of a wide range of languages, and broad-ranging interests. From the history of historiography to the story of Biblical exegesis and the reception of the Church Fathers, her research on the long sixteenth century stands as a point of reference for both historians of ideas and church historians alike. She also explored late medieval theology before turning her attention to the interplay of religion and philosophy in the seventeenth century, the focus of her late research. This volume assembles contributions from 35 international specialists that reflect the breadth of her interests and both illustrate and extend her path-breaking legacy as a scholar, teacher and colleague.

Français La recherche d’Irena Backus témoigne d’une culture historique et philologique étendue, de son impeccable maîtrise des instruments linguistiques et de la multiplicité de ses centres d’intérêt. Ses études sont aujourd’hui une référence essentielle pour les spécialistes de l’histoire intellectuelle, de l’histoire de l’exégèse biblique et de la réception des Pères de l’Eglise pendant le long XVIe siècle. Seiziémiste de formation, elle s’est également aventurée dans d’autres chronologies, en s’intéressant à l’Église de la fin du moyen âge et à la philosophie de ce XVIIe siècle qui l’a de plus en plus passionnée et qui constitue aujourd’hui son centre d’intérêt majeur. Ce recueil célèbre son long et original enseignement et ses grandes qualités de chercheuses et de collègue.

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Edited by Anthony Ossa-Richardson and Margaret Meserve

Jill Kraye, Professor Emerita of the Warburg Institute, is renowned internationally for her scholarship on Renaissance philosophy and humanism. This volume pays tribute to her achievements with essays by friends, colleagues, and doctoral students—all leading scholars—on subjects as diverse as her work. Articles on canonical figures such as Marsilio Ficino and Justus Lipsius mix with more quirky pieces on alphabetic play and the Hippocratic aphorisms. Many chapters seek to bridge the divide between humanism and philosophy, including David Lines's survey of the way fifteenth-century humanists actually defined philosophy and Brian Copenhaver's polemical essay against the concept of humanist philosophy. The volume includes a full bibliography of Professor Kraye's scholarly publications.

Contributors are: Michael Allen, Daniel Andersson, Lilian Armstrong, Stefan Bauer, Dorigen Caldwell, Brian Copenhaver, Martin Davies, Germana Ernst, Guido Giglioni, Robert Goulding, Anthony Grafton, James Hankins, J. Cornelia Linde, David Lines, Margaret Meserve, John Monfasani, Anthony Ossa-Richardson, Jan Papy, Michael Reeve, Alessandro Scafi, and William Stenhouse.

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Teodoro Katinis

In Sperone Speroni and the Debate over Sophistry in the Italian Renaissance Teodoro Katinis mines a number of little or unstudied primary sources and offers the first book on the rebirth of ancient sophists in the Italian literature of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, from Leonardo Bruni to Jacopo Mazzoni, with a focus on the Italian writer and philosopher Sperone Speroni (1500-1588). Katinis convincingly argues that Speroni is a unique case of an early modern thinker who explicitly rejected Plato’s demonization and defended the public role of the sophistic rhetoric, which enhanced the debate over the sophistic arts and scepticism in a variety of fields and anticipated some of the most revolutionary modern thoughts.

The Lynx and the Telescope

The Parallel Worlds of Cesi and Galileo

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Paolo Galluzzi

Set in the context of Counter-Reformation Rome, this book focuses on the twenty-year long relationship (1611-1630) between Galileo Galilei and Federico Cesi, the founder of the Academy of the Lynx-eyed. Contrary to the historiographical tradition, it demonstrates that the visions of Galileo and Cesi were not at all convergent. In the course of the events that led to the adoption of the anti-Copernican decree of 1616, Galileo realized that the Lynceans were not prepared to support his battle for freedom of thought. In addition to identifying the author of the anonymous denunciation of Galileo’s Assayer, Paolo Galluzzi offers an original reconstruction of the dynamics which culminated in the Church’s condemnation of the famous Tuscan scientist in 1633.

This book was originally published in Italian as Libertà di filosofare in naturalibus: I mondi paralleli di Cesi e Galileo (Storia dell’Accademia dei Lincei, Studi 4). Rome: Scienze e Lettere, Editore Commerciale, 2014.

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Alessandro Ferrara

In Rousseau and Critical Theory, Alessandro Ferrara argues that among the modern philosophers who have shaped the world we inhabit, Rousseau is the one to whom we owe the idea that identity can be a source of normativity (moral and political) and that an identity's potential for playing such a role rests on its capacity for being authentic. This normative idea of authenticity brings unity to Rousseau's reflections on the negative effects of the social order, on the just political order, on education, and more generally, on ethics. It is also shown to contain important teachings for contemporary Critical Theory, contemporary views of self-constitution (Korsgaard, Frankfurt and Larmore), and contemporary political philosophy.

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Edited by William Poole

John Wilkins (1614-72): New Essays presents ten fresh essays on the life and work of the influential English natural philosopher and theologian, John Wilkins. Wilkins, one of the most prominent figures in the scientific revolution in England, and a founder of the Royal Society of London, published widely on astronomy, mechanics, language, and theology, and was also an important churchman and politician. These ten essays review Wilkins’s writings and influence, while also addressing the wider contexts of his activities, including his service as head of house at two successive colleges in Oxford and Cambridge, and his political work. This new collection thus covers all aspects of Wilkins’s career, and functions as a complete reappraisal of this seminal early modern figure.

Contributors are: C. S. L. Davies, Mordechai Feingold, Felicity Henderson, Natalie Kaoukji, Rhodri Lewis, Scott Mandelbrote, Jon Parkin, William Poole, Anna Marie Roos, and Richard Serjeantson.

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Federica Ciccolella and Luigi Silvano

The beginning of the Greek revival in the West is generally attributed to the teaching of the Byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysoloras in Florence between 1397 and 1400. Causes, aspects, and consequences of this important cultural phenomenon still need to be analyzed in depth.

The essays collected in this volume examine the development of the study of Greek from the fifteenth to the early sixteenth century, reconstructing its spread and impact on early modern literatures, philosophy, and visual arts. An analysis of the methods and tools used to teach and learn Greek sheds light on the complex cultural relationships between Byzantium and the West and enlarges the traditional picture of the Greek revival in early modern Europe.

Contributors are: Lilia Campana, Federica Ciccolella, Mariarosa Cortesi, Francesco G. Giannachi, Fevronia Nousia, Kalle Lundahl, Erika Nuti, Denis Robichaud, Antonio Rollo, Luigi Silvano, David Speranzi, and Paola Tomé.


Biography, Historiography, and Modes of Philosophizing

The Tradition of Collective Biography in Early Modern Europe

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Patrick Baker

By way of essays and a selection of primary sources in parallel text, Biography, Historiography, and Modes of Philosophizing provides an introduction to a vast, significant, but neglected corpus of early modern literature: collective biography. It focuses especially on the various related strands of political, philosophical, and intellectual and cultural biography as well as on the intersection between biography, historiography, and philosophy. Individual texts from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century are presented as examples of how the ancient collective biographical tradition – as represented above all by Plutarch, Suetonius, Diogenes Laertius, and Jerome – was received and transformed in the Renaissance and beyond in accordance with the needs of humanism, religious controversy, politics, and the development of modern philosophy and science.

Kant on Conscience

A Unified Approach to Moral Self-Consciousness

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Emre Kazim

In Kant on Conscience Emre Kazim offers the first systematic treatment of Kant’s theory of conscience. Contrary to the scholarly consensus, Kazim argues that Kant’s various discussions of conscience - as practical reason, as a feeling, as a power, as a court, as judgement, as the voice of God, etc. - are philosophically coherent aspects of the same unified thing (‘Unity Thesis’). Through conceptual reconstruction and historical contextualisation of the primary texts, Kazim both presents Kant’s notion of conscience as it relates to his critical thought and philosophically evaluates the coherence of his various claims. In light of this, Kazim shows the central role that conscience plays in the understanding of Kantian ethics as a whole.

The Beginning of the World in Renaissance Jewish Thought

Ma’aseh Bereshit in Italian Jewish Philosophy and Kabbalah, 1492-1535

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Brian Ogren

In The Beginning of the World in Renaissance Jewish Thought, Brian Ogren offers a deep analysis of late fifteenth century Italian Jewish thought concerning the creation of the world and the beginning of time. Ogren’s book is the very first to seriously juxtapose the thought of the great Jewish thinker Yohanan Alemanno, Alemanno’s famed Christian interlocutor, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the important Iberian exegete active in Italy, Isaac Abravanel, and Abravanel’s renowned philosopher son Judah, known as Leone Ebreo. By bringing these thinkers together, this book presents a new understanding of early modern uses of Jewish texts and hermeneutics. Ogren successfully demonstrates that the syntheses of philosophy and Kabbalah carried out by these four intellectuals in their quests to understand the beginning itself marked a new beginning in
Western thought, characterized by simultaneous continuity and rupture.

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Mario Biagioni

In The Radical Reformation and the Making of Modern Europe, Mario Biagioni presents an account of the lives and thoughts of some radical reformers of the sixteenth century (Bernardino Ochino, Francesco Pucci, Fausto Sozzini, and Christian Francken), showing that the Radical Reformation was not merely a subplot of heretical history within the larger narrative of the Magisterial Reformation. Religious radicalism was primarily an extraordinary laboratory of ideas, which played a pivotal role in the rise of modern Europe: it influenced the intellectual process leading to the cultural revolution of the Enlightenment. Secularism, toleration, and rationalism ― three basic principles of Western civilization ― are part of its cultural heritage.

Edited by Sonja Lavaert and Winfried Schröder

While Spinoza’s impact on the early Enlightenment has always found due attention of historians of philosophy, several 17th-century Dutch thinkers who were active before Spinoza’s Tractatus theologico-politicus was published have been largely neglected: in particular Spinoza’s teacher, Franciscus van den Enden ( Vrye Politijke Stellingen, 1665), Johan and Pieter de la Court ( Consideratien van Staet, 1660, Politike discoursen, 1662), Lodewijk Meyer ( Philosophia S. Scripturae Interpres, 1666), the anonymous De Jure Ecclesiasticorum (1665), and Adriaan Koerbagh ( Een Bloemhof van allerley lieflijkheyd, 1668, Een Ligt schynende in duystere plaatsen, 1668). The articles of this volume focus on their political philosophy as well as their philosophy of religion in order to assess their contributions to the development of radical movements (republicanism / anti-monarchism, critique of religion, atheism) in the Enlightenment.

The Political Thought of Václav Havel

Philosophical Influences and Contemporary Applications

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Daniel Brennan

The book considers Václav Havel’s body of writing as a cohesive whole offering a consistent political philosophy. This bold claim is backed up through a close examination of Havel’s plays, letters, essays and aphorisms. The political philosophy that a close reading of Havel reveals is a liberal one. However, Havel is not the run-of the-mill liberal having influences from the field of phenomenology, Masaryk, Husserl, Levinas Patočka and Heidegger which give him a nuanced view of the self. Havel sees the self as something always being formed. Hence for Havel man has an ability to ‘shake’ his current state and invite transcendence into his life. This agonistic process reveals our responsibility and liberates the self from forces which coerce behaviour.

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Ansgar Lorenz and Heiner F. Klemme

Im Jahre 1781 ruft der Philosoph Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) das »Zeitalter der Kritik« aus. Alles muss sich der »freien und öffentlichen Prüfung« durch die Vernunft unterwerfen: die Religion, die Gesetzgebung, in erster Linie aber die reine Vernunft selbst. In ihrem ungezügelten Verlangen nach Erkenntnis verstrickt sie sich in endlose Streitigkeiten mit sich selbst. Kein Wunder also, dass die alte Metaphysik ein Kampfplatz ist, auf dem ein »rüstiger Ritter« den »Siegeskranz« davonträgt, solange er keinen neuen Angriff des Gegners aushalten muss. Abhilfe schafft die Kritik, ein Gerichtshof, den die reine Vernunft einsetzt, um über ihre berechtigten und unberechtigten Ansprüche zu entscheiden. Die Kritik stiftet Frieden im Reich des Denkens. Wir erkennen die Bedingungen, unter denen Metaphysik, Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft als Wissenschaften möglich sind.
Der Comic bietet anschaulich und leicht verständlich Einblicke in Kants Leben sowie den historischen und intellektuellen Kontexten seines Wirkens. Wir schauen dem »Fürsten der deutschen Denker« (K. von Knoblauch) beim Philosophieren über Gut und Böse, Freiheit und Natur, Politik und Recht, das Schöne und Erhabene, die Entstehung des Universums und vieles andere mehr über die Schulter. Und natürlich kommen auch seine Anhänger und Kritiker zu Wort.

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Peter Edwards and Elspeth Graham

The lives of William Cavendish, first duke of Newcastle, and his family including, centrally, his second wife, Margaret Cavendish, are intimately bound up with the overarching story of seventeenth-century England: the violently negotiated changes in structures of power that constituted the Civil Wars, and the ensuing Commonwealth and Restoration of the monarchy. William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, and his Political, Social and Cultural Connections: Authority, Authorship and Aristocratic Identity in Seventeenth Century England brings together a series of interrelated essays that present William Cavendish, his family, household and connections as an aristocratic, royalist case study, relating the intellectual and political underpinnings and implications of their beliefs, actions and writings to wider cultural currents in England and mainland Europe.

David Hume and the Culture of Scottish Newtonianism

Methodology and Ideology in Enlightenment Inquiry

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Tamás Demeter

David Hume has a canonical place in the context of moral philosophy, but his insights are less frequently discussed in relation to natural philosophy. David Hume and the Culture of Scottish Newtonianism offers a discussion of Hume’s methodological and ideological commitments in matters of knowledge as reflected in his language and outlook. Tamás Demeter argues that several aspects of Hume’s moral philosophy reflect post-Newtonian tendencies in the aftermath of the Opticks, and show affinities with Newton-inspired Scottish physiology and chemistry. Consequently, when Hume describes his project as an 'anatomy of the mind' he uses a metaphor that expresses his commitment to study human cognitive and affective functioning on analogy with active and organic nature, and not with the Principia’s world of inert matter.

Julius Caesar Scaliger, Renaissance Reformer of Aristotelianism

A Study of His Exotericae Exercitationes

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Kuni Sakamoto

This monograph is the first to analyze Julius Caesar Scaliger’s Exotericae Exercitationes (1557). Though hardly read today, the Exercitationes was one of the most successful philosophical treatises of the time, attracting considerable attention from many intellectuals with multifaceted religious and philosophical orientations. In order to make this massive late-Renaissance work accessible to modern readers, Kuni Sakamoto conducted a detailed textual analysis and revealed the basic tenets of Scaliger’s philosophy. His analysis also enabled him to clarify the historical provenance of Scaliger’s Aristotelianism and the way it subsequently influenced some of the protagonists of the “New Philosophy.” The author thus bridges the historiographical gap between studies of Renaissance philosophy and those of the seventeenth-century.

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Pierre Bayle

Edited by Michael W. Hickson

Dialogues of Maximus and Themistius is the first English translation of Pierre Bayle’s last book, Entretiens de Maxime et de Thémiste, published posthumously in 1707. The two parts of the Dialogues offer Bayle’s final responses to Jean Le Clerc and Isaac Jaquelot, who had accused Bayle of supporting atheism through his writings on the problem of evil. The Dialogues defends Bayle’s thesis that the problem of evil cannot be solved by reason alone, but serves only to demonstrate the necessity of faith. In his Introduction to the Dialogues, Michael W. Hickson provides detailed historical and philosophical background to the problem of evil in early modern philosophy, as well as summary and analysis of Bayle’s debates with Le Clerc and Jaquelot.

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Line Cottegnies, John Thompson and Sandrine Parageau

In Women and Curiosity in Early Modern England and France, the rehabilitation of female curiosity between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries is thoroughly investigated for the first time, in a comparative perspective that confronts two epistemological and religious traditions.

In the context of the early modern blooming “culture of curiosity”, women’s desire for knowledge made them both curious subjects and curious objects, a double relation to curiosity that is meticulously inquired into by the authors in this volume. The social, literary, theological and philosophical dimensions of women’s persistent association with curiosity offer a rich contribution to cultural history.

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José Manuel García Valverde

Giacomo Zabarella (1533-1589) was a Renaissance Aristotelian who enjoyed extraordinary prestige in life, especially in the fields of logic and natural philosophy. The De rebus naturalibus libri XXX was completed by Zabarella at the very end of his life: the dedicatory letter to Pope Sixtus V is dated just a month before his death. This writing had great impact and a large influence, as its editorial success in Italy and abroad (especially in Germany) reflects. It represents a massive effort to collect all the issues that come under the heading of “natural philosophy” and that had been taking shape from antiquity to the time of Zabarella within the vast and multifarious field of Aristotelianism: hence its encyclopedic character and extraordinary extension.

The Radical Machiavelli

Politics, Philosophy, and Language

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Edited by Filippo Del Lucchese, Fabio Frosini and Vittorio Morfino

In The Radical Machiavelli: Politics, Philosophy and Language, some of the finest Machiavellian scholars explore the Florentine’s thought five hundred years after the composition of his masterpiece, The Prince. Their analysis, however, goes past The Prince, extending to Machiavelli’s entire corpus and shining new light on his political, historical, and military works, with a special focus on their heritage in modern Marxist thought, the arena in which they reverberate most profoundly and originally.

Rather than a neutral, comprehensive, and safe interpretation, this book offers a partial and even partisan reading of Machiavelli, the 16th-century thinker who continues to divide scholars and interpreters, forcing them to confront their responsibility as contemporary thinkers in a global society where Machiavelli's ideas and the issues they address still matter.

Contributors are: Etienne Balibar, Banu Bargu, Jérémie Barthas, Thomas Berns, Alison Brown, Filippo Del Lucchese, Romain Descendre, Jean-Louis Fournel, Fabio Frosini, Giorgio Inglese, Mikko Lahtinen, Jacques Lezra, John P. McCormick, Warren Montag, Vittorio Morfino, Mohamed Moulfi, Gabriele Pedullà, Tania Rispoli, Peter D. Thomas, Sebastian Torres, Miguel Vatter, Stefano Visentin, Yves Winter, and Jean-Claude Zancarini.

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Edited by Line Cottegnies, Sandrine Parageau and John J. Thompson

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Line Cottegnies and Sandrine Parageau

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Richard Lansdown

Eighteenth-century literature is often associated with the birth of the realistic novel, just as the Romantic movement is often associated with intellectual idealism. This study asks its readers to reconsider and perhaps even to invert impressions like these. It re-examines English Romantic literature in the light of a profound shift of realistic understanding, going beyond the empirical representation of people and objects into new and bold explorations of moral psychology.