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Iraklis Ioannidis offers fresh, yet radical, philosophical insights into the much contested topic of altruism. Whereas the debate on altruism, since time immemorial, consists in trying to determine whether we are biologically altruistic or not, Ioannidis explores altruism otherwise. Following Nietzsche, he traces altruism to the phenomenon of promising or giving one’s word. His analysis provokes us to think that our possibility to exist cannot be realized without this event.

Ioannidis’ passage to altruism attempts to perform altruism while exploring it. By reversing the axioms of classical phenomenology, what he calls unbracketing, he welcomes in his writing space any discourse, any human expression which could help the philosophical investigation.
Volume Editor: Jeremiah Morelock
How to Critique Authoritarian Populism: Methodologies of the Frankfurt School offers a comprehensive introduction to the techniques used by the early Frankfurt School to study and combat authoritarianism and authoritarian populism. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the writings of the early Frankfurt School, at the same time as authoritarian populist movements are resurging in Europe and the Americas. This volume shows why and how Frankfurt School methodologies can and should be used to address the rise of authoritarianism today. Critical theory scholars are assembled from a variety of disciplines to discuss Frankfurt School approaches to dialectical philosophy, psychoanalytic theory, human subjects research, discourse analysis and media studies.

Contributors include: Robert J. Antonio, Stefanie Baumann, Christopher Craig Brittain, Dustin J. Byrd, Mariana Caldas Pinto Ferreira, Panayota Gounari, Peter-Erwin Jansen, Imaculada Kangussu, Douglas Kellner, Dan Krier, Lauren Langman, Claudia Leeb, Gregory Joseph Menillo, Jeremiah Morelock, Felipe Ziotti Narita, Michael R. Ott, Charles Reitz, Avery Schatz, Rudolf J. Siebert, William M. Sipling, David Norman Smith, Daniel Sullivan, and AK Thompson.
Jean-François Lyotard, Pedagogy, Thought
Author: Derek R. Ford
In the first monograph on Lyotard and education, Derek R. Ford approaches Lyotard’s thought as pedagogical in itself. The result is a novel, soft, and accessible study of Lyotard organized around two inhuman educations: that of “the system” and that of “the human.” The former enforces an interminable process of development, dialogue and exchange, while the latter finds its force in the mute, secret, opaque, and inarticulable.

Threading together a range of Lyotard’s work through four pedagogical processes—reading, writing, voicing, and listening—the author insists on the distinct educational logics that can uphold or interrupt different ways of being-together in the world, touching on a range of topics from literacy and aesthetics to time and political-economy. While Inhuman Educations can serve as an introduction to Lyotard’s philosophy, it also constitutes a singular, provocative, and fresh take on his thought.
Editor / Translator: David Healan
Metabolic form inverts itself into content. Highlighting Hegel's conceptual realism, Hoffmann focuses on an undervalued move in his dialectic: inversion (μεταβολή). From precursors in Kant the author validates the philosopher's claim in not supplying a completeness proof for his table of categories: it's easy! Hoffmann shows how his new approach works on Hegel's central terms–paradigmatically language and individuality–in detailed analytical work through the two great masterpieces: Phenomenology and Objective Logic. From consciousness inversion at the start of the former to the modalities and subjectivity of substance at the end of the latter, Hoffmann develops Hegel's epochal conceptual realism and metabolic dialectic as keys to substantiating the philosopher's claim for his Logic: it is indeed the science of absolute form!
Editor: Peter Šajda
In debates about philosophical anthropology human beings have been defined in different ways. In Modern and Postmodern Crises of Symbolic Structures, the contributors view the human being primarily as animal symbolicum. They examine how the human being creates, interprets and changes symbolic structures, as well as how he is affected and impacted by them. The focus lies on the context of modernity and postmodernity, which is characterized by a number of interrelated crises of symbolic structures. These crises have affected the realms of science, religion, art, politics and education, and thus provoked crucial changes in the human being’s relations to himself, others and reality. The crises are not viewed merely as manifestations of dysfunctions, but rather as complex processes of transformation that also provide new opportunities.
Author: Onur Acaroglu
In Rethinking Marxist Theories of Transition, Onur Acaroglu traces the concept of transition across the tracts of Classical and Western Marxism. Rarely directly invoked, transition between different societies appears as an imminent social reality, and a useful conceptual tool for critical social theory.

Transitions as qualitative shifts between societies are often considered as eventual historical stages, or effaced altogether. Theorising transition in a new direction, Onur Acaroglu elaborates a theory of temporal dislocation. Considering transition through a framework of out-of-joint temporalities, the notion comes through as an undervalued tendency in social reproduction.
In: Research in Phenomenology
Author: Edward S. Casey

Abstract

It is a modernist article of faith that emotion belongs to the human subject—that it is possessed by this subject from within. We find this view espoused by thinkers as various as Descartes, Hume, and Kant. It is also found in the conventional belief that emotions have their seat “in the heart.” In this essay I explore an alternative paradigm whereby emotion exists as much, if not more, at the outer edges of the subject: in expressive gestures and other forms of what I call “exophany,” i.e., the showing-forth of emotion from without. Instead of concerning ourselves with the endogeny of emotions—its internal generation in the body, brain, or soul—I look at the peripherality of emotions. Examining concrete examples, I demonstrate that emotions are transmissible thanks to their capacity for being located at the edges of our lives.

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

Attention to the role of phenomenology in Frantz Fanon’s Black Skin, White Masks is fundamental to an appreciation of the book’s progressive structure. And it is through an appreciation of this structure that it becomes apparent that the book’s engagement with phenomenology amounts to an enrichment, not a critique, of existential phenomenology, although the latter might appear to be the case at first sight, given Fanon’s rejection of certain aspects of Jean-Paul Sartre’s “Black Orpheus.” This is demonstrated through an examination of Fanon’s references to Sartre, Günther Anders, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty in the book’s final crucial pages on temporality. His largely neglected relation to Karl Jaspers and the concept of historicity is also explored.

In: Research in Phenomenology
Author: Michael Naas

Abstract

This essay celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of Research in Phenomenology by reimagining or rethinking the speech act (whether explicit or implicit) that would have launched or inaugurated the journal back in 1971. It does this by rereading Derrida’s signature text on speech act theory, “Signature Event Context,” a text first presented by Derrida in the very year of the journal’s founding. The essay takes Derrida’s theses regarding the speech act’s fundamental relationship to writing, absence, death, and testimony in order to reread some of the first issues of Research in Phenomenology, including the memorial essays contained within them. The essay concludes by suggesting that Research in Phenomenology has done as much as any journal over the last half century to live up to the promise of that original speech act.

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

Retracing the way I have followed since the beginning of my philosophical studies, I focus on the main issues that have guided my teaching and research: Time, Death, and Nothingness, all of which take place in the domain of what I have called “negative philosophy”. My first interest was in the problem of language and logic in their relation to temporality, a special privilege being granted in this respect to poetry; subsequently I concentrated my work on the thematic of death and finitude, in order to show that mourning and relation to absence are what establish a fundamental difference between the human being and the animal; and finally, the critique of Western ontology has brought me to concentrate my research on Eastern thinking, with a special engagement with the thematic of nothingness in Indian and Japanese Buddhism. All my work in philosophy has been guided by Heidegger’s question of the relation between Being and Time.

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

In La Agonia de Europa, María Zambrano writes: “Europe is not dead, Europe cannot die completely; it agonizes. For Europe is perhaps the only thing—in history—that cannot die; it is the only thing capable of resurrection.” How to understand this provocative statement? What must Europe be for it not being able to completely die, but only to agonize? How to understand the mode of being Europe as one of continuous agonization? What kind of resurrection does European life refer to, and what is its significance in the context of Zambrano’s heretical Christianity? These are among the questions raised in the paper.

In: Research in Phenomenology
Author: Richard Kearney

Abstract

This essay explores Aristotle’s discovery of touch as the most universal and philosophical of the senses. It analyses his central insight in the De Anima that tactile flesh is a “medium not an organ,” unpacking both its metaphysical and ethical implications. The essay concludes with a discussion of how contemporary phenomenology—from Husserl to Merleau-Ponty and Irigaray—re-describes Aristotle’s seminal intuition regarding the model of “double reversible sensation.”

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to take up the largely unthought challenge of Kant’s celebrated remark about how “two things”—the starry sky above and the moral law within—fill the mind with wonder the more one reflects upon them. After briefly discussing the role of the image of the stars in early Greek thought, and then taking account of what we know about the heavens today, I ask if we have yet come to understand just what our relation to the heavens means. The conclusion is that taking the image of the stars seriously and making the effort to understand what we see in that image humbles us. It brings us before a profound limit regarding our understanding of what it means to be human and what it means to live on the earth.

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

The article discusses three research projects that I may never undertake: (1) a genealogy of Nietzsche interpretations devolving from Bataille and Heidegger; (2) a discussion of Derrida’s strange mix of biology and biography in his work on Nietzsche; and (3) an account of meetings I had on various occasions with Heidegger, Arendt, and Derrida.

In: Research in Phenomenology

Abstract

Dissident circles during the Czechoslovak communist regime were organized in semi-private islands of resistance. They saw themselves as a parallel polis in line with Arendt’s notion of political action by pursuing “life in truth,” authentic experience, and ultimately freedom. The heroes of these circles were that society’s pariahs. In their quest for authenticity, they turned to the past to find meaning, to understand the nature of their communities and the needs for political action towards the future. As such, they sought what Heidegger would label authentic public interpretations. After 1989, these heroes shaped and adapted to the constitutional design of the new polis and often experienced a transformation from pariah to inauthentic hero to at least the potential to become strong man, maintaining varying degrees of authenticity.

In: Modern and Postmodern Crises of Symbolic Structures
Author: Róbert Karul

Abstract

In the article I present the characterization of contemporary fine art as elaborated by Yves Michaud and based mainly on the ideas of Walter Benjamin and Arthur Danto. Michaud adds a number of his own new features to the interpretations of these authors. He claims that the work of art is distinguished by multiple “distractions”: the spatial one (the work of art is everywhere), the perceptual one (we perceive it as blurred), and the experiential one (the experience of art is a form of entertainment). Contemporary works of art become more and more entertaining cultural products. Michaud completes these sketches with one more sketch: art, including contemporary art, is a form of self-decoration. The function of decoration is very rudimentary; its roots reach into animality, and it has the ability to designate or confirm one’s identity. In the second part of the article I attempt to problematize the idea of identifying contemporary artifacts with products of consumption.

In: Modern and Postmodern Crises of Symbolic Structures
Author: Jon Stewart

Abstract

Feuerbach’s The Essence of Christianity tries to argue for the claim that it is a mistake to think of God as something objective, transcendent and fundamentally different from human beings, as is traditionally done in theology. Instead, according to his view, God is simply the essence of what is human, projected onto a fictional external entity. For this reason Feuerbach proposes to refer to his undertaking not as theology or philosophy of religion but as anthropology, that is, a study of the human. What is both striking and provocative here is that he argues that his radical reinterpretation of Christianity will not undermine it or diminish it; on the contrary, he claims, his theory will help to preserve it. In this paper I critically explore this claim by Feuerbach. Does it make sense to understand the field of theology or even the philosophy of religion as anthropology? I argue that Feuerbach’s proposal is a highly dubious attempt to reframe theology. His claim to be offering a support for religion is, I argue, disingenuous.