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Between Uniatism and Arabism

Missionary Policies and Diplomatic Interest of the Melkites in Jordan during the Interwar Period

Norig Neveu

Abstract

In the Emirate of Transjordan, the interwar period was marked by the emergence of the Melkite Church. Following the Eastern rite and represented by Arab priests, this church appeared to be an asset from a missionary perspective as Arab nationalism was spreading in the Middle East. New parishes and schools were opened. A new Melkite archeparchy was created in the Emirate in 1932. The archbishop, Paul Salman, strengthened the foundation of the church and became a key partner of the government. This article tackles the relationship between Arabisation, nationalisation and territorialisation. It aims to highlight the way the Melkite Church embodied the adaptation strategy of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches in Transjordan. The clergy of this national church was established by mobilising regional and international networks. By considering these clerics as go-between experts, this article aims to decrypt a complex process of territorialisation and transnationalisation of the Melkite Church.

Catholic Missionaries of the ‘Holy Land’ and the Nahda

The Case of the Salesian Society (1904–1920)

Paolo Pieraccini

Abstract

At the beginning of the twentieth century, some Palestinian and Lebanese Salesians, influenced by the Arab Renaissance movement, began to claim the right to oppose the ‘directorships’ of the institutes of the Don Bosco Society in Bethlehem and the surrounding area. They also began to request better recognition of their native language, in schools and within the religious community. They clashed with their superiors who, in the meantime, had signed an agreement with the Salesian government in Rome, committing them to developing the Italian language in their teaching institutes. The struggle became particularly fierce after the Holy See rebuked the Palestinian religious congregations for teaching the catechism and explaining the Sunday Gospel to people in a foreign language and urged them to do so in Arabic. The clash caused a serious disturbance within the Salesian community. Finally, after the First World War, the most turbulent Arab religious were removed from the Society of Don Bosco. All converged in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, where they continued forcefully (but in vain) to put forward their national demands. This article is based on several unpublished sources.

Paolo Maggiolini

Abstract

Reconsidering the relationship between the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the Melkite Catholic Church, the paper aims to analyze the changes and developments of the Catholic Church’s presence in post-World War I Palestine and Transjordan. It specifically examines how the dialectic and debate on the issue of Arabization and Latin-Melkite competition during the Mandate period went beyond the traditional inter-Church rivalry, epitomizing the progression of a complex process of reconfiguring the Catholic ecclesiastical and missionary presence in the Holy Land in efforts to amalgamate and harmonize its “national-local” and “transnational” scopes and characters. The paper will specifically look at the local Catholic dimension and its religious hierarchies to understand the logic behind their positioning in regard to such issues. This perspective makes it possible to reveal how local religious Catholic leaderships (of both the Latin Patriarchate and Melkite Catholic Church) sought to interpret and promote the reconfiguration of their respective Church and religious community organizations and structures in these two lands during the Mandate. The intra-Catholic perspective will help us understand how intra-denominational as well as inter-denominational competition acted as tools for missionary, ecclesiastical and community development as well as a catalyst of change, anticipating most of the issues that still characterize the complex position and condition of the Church in this territory.

Philippe Bourmaud and Karène Sanchez Summerer

Missionary Politics in Late Ottoman Palestine

The Stance of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem

Konstantinos Papastathis

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to elaborate on the Jerusalem Orthodox Patriarchate’s missionary work in late Ottoman times, paying special attention on its incapacity to counteract the activities of its rivals within the religious market of Palestine. In particular, the article addresses the following research questions: What was the extent of the Patriarchate’s missionary activity, and its stance vis-à-vis the work of the other Church missions, i.e. the Roman-Catholic, and Protestant? Was its policy effective; and if not, why? Overall, the article argues that neither the missionary enterprise nor the blocking of the western missions’ conversion activities were at the top of the patriarchal agenda. It is suggested that the causes of this stance were mainly: a) the financial and political disadvantageous position of the institution; b) the centrality of the custodianship of the Holy Places as the primary aim of its function; and c) the development of Greek nationalism as the nodal point of the discourse.

Une interprétation politique de la représentation pontificale en Syrie et au Liban

Frediano Giannini et les Églises orientales face au mandat français (1918-1936)

Édouard Coquet

Résumé

Au début du mandat français en Syrie et au Liban, le Saint-Siège renouvelle ses objectifs et ses moyens d’ action dans la région. Nous avons étudié ce mouvement à travers les lettres adressées à Rome par Mgr Frediano Giannini, vicaire apostolique d’ Alep et délégué apostolique en Syrie de 1905 à 1936. Les rapports de Giannini constituent un bon exemple de la manière dont les missionnaires participent à la production de connaissances sur les communautés chrétiennes orientales. En rendant compte des épreuves et des migrations qui leur sont imposées, Giannini participe au développement d’ une nouvelle perception de ces communautés, vues comme des minorités persécutées. Giannini sollicite les autorités françaises pour défendre les intérêts des chrétiens (à la fois les catholiques et les orthodoxes). Sa position est ambiguë : alors qu’ il exprime sa nostalgie au sujet du fonctionnement traditionnel du protectorat français, Giannini s’ implique lui-même dans le domaine politique et prend en charge une partie de l’ ancien rôle des Français. Cette ambivalence révèle l’ émergence d’ une nouvelle politique pontificale, fondée sur un double mouvement d’ autonomisation et de centralisation.

Une mission catholique en mutation

Les salésiens dans l’ Égypte nassérienne

Annalaura Turiano

Résumé

Les décennies 1950-1960 constituent un tournant pour les multiples sociétés missionnaires implantées en Égypte depuis le XIX e siècle. De nombreuses missions se retirent du pays pour laisser la place à des Églises qu’ elles ont elles-mêmes contribué à créer. D’ autres ordres parviennent, au prix de plusieurs réajustements, à assurer leur présence. Cet article interroge les restructurations à l’ œuvre dans une mission italienne – la mission salésienne – et la manière dont elle relève le défi de l’ arabisation. Au-delà des stratégies d’ adaptation d’ une mission catholique dans l’ Égypte nassérienne, cet article propose une réflexion sur l’ évolution des formes et des contenus de l’ action missionnaire durant deux décennies.

Juan Antonio Senent-De Frutos

I present here a key to reading the work of Jesuit thinker Francisco Suárez in the context of the plurality and complexity of modernity. I show the main configuration that defines modernity in its hegemonic version, as well as its limitations. From there, I propose how Suárez’s work can be understood from the perspective of its own Ignatian and Jesuit spiritual framework and in relation to the development of modernity. Although a dominant version of modernity has historically prevailed, modernity cannot be understood as a uniform process but one that has been articulated and expressed in different civilizing missions since the Renaissance. One modern way of responding to the socio-cultural challenges of the Renaissance was articulated by the Society of Jesus. I believe that in light of what I term an “Ignatian modernity,” we can better understand Suárez’s intellectual mission, its historical virtuality, and the possibilities marginalized by hegemonic modernity.

Claudio M. Burgaleta S.J.

One of the first and largest migrations of Latin Americans to the United States occurred from Puerto Rico to New York City in the 1950s. At its height in 1953, the Great Puerto Rican Migration saw some seventy-five thousand Puerto Ricans settled in the great metropolis, and by 1960 there were over half a million New Yorkers of Puerto Rican ancestry in the city. The exodus transformed the capital of the world and taxed its social fabric and institutions. Joseph P. Fitzpatrick, S.J. (1913–95), a Harvard-trained sociologist teaching at Fordham University in the Bronx, played a key role in helping both New York City, its people and social institutions, respond with compassion and creativity to this upheaval. This article chronicles Fitzpatrick’s involvement with the Puerto Ricans for over three decades as priest, public intellectual, and advocate on behalf of the newcomers, and social researcher.

Daniel Cosacchi

This article examines the history of social justice ministries within the Society of Jesus. Despite the fact that the term is fraught by a great disagreement both about its meaning and its place within Jesuit apostolates, successive Jesuit general congregations have upheld its importance over the last five decades. Even though what we now consider to be social justice has been a part of Jesuit life since the order’s founding, this paper primarily considers the period 1974–present, so as to coincide with GC 32 (1974–75). Social justice has taken many forms, based both on geography and personal interests of the particular Jesuit in question. The broad term covers issues such as the Jesuit Refugee Service, the Plowshares Movement, justice in higher education, and Homeboy Industries. Finally, the paper concludes by considering two growing edges for the order regarding social justice: the role of women in Jesuit apostolates, and the ecological question.

Francesco Gusella

The Good Shepherd Rockery is the only original iconography developed in the ivory carving tradition of Portuguese India. Despite the large production of these statuettes, the scarcity of written sources and the untracked diffusion of such artworks did not allow the clear understanding of the original purposes of this iconography. The present essay wishes to establish a comparison between the artworks’ iconography and the prologue of the Onvalleancho Mallo (Garden of Shepherds) by the Jesuit Miguel de Almeida (1607–83), published in Goa in 1658. This doctrinal work presents a detailed interpretation of pastoral images which perfectly overlaps with the artworks’ iconography. Almeida’s work represents the best documentation for the interpretation of the iconography as it was circulating in the missionary discourse of Portuguese India. It suggests that the statuettes symbolized the eschatological role of the missionary clergy and the Catholic Church though the didactic use of pastoral allegories.

Mordechai Feingold

In chronicles of early Catholic missions to England, John Hart (d.1586) comes across as something of an embarrassment. Slated to be executed alongside Edmund Campion on December 1, 1581, at the last moment Hart chose life over martyrdom. In exchange for his freedom he volunteered to spy on William Allen, president of the English College in Rheims. Equally embarrassing, in the context of the charged religious and political atmosphere of the early 1580s, when put to the test as a scholar, Hart revealed weakness instead of strength in his conference with John Rainolds. Though this basic story line is known and often summarily retold, few scholars have delved into the intricacies of the affair—an omission this article seeks to remedy.

Thomas M. McCoog S.J.

Pedro de Ribadeneyra, first official biographer of Ignatius of Loyola, showered praise upon him and his companions for abandoning immoderate sentiment “for particular lands or places” in their quest for “the glory of God and the salvation of their neighbors.” Superior General Goswin Nickel praised a Society conceived in Spain, born in France, approved in Italy, and propagated in Germany and elsewhere. Out of diversity Ignatius had forged unity. Ribadeneyra prayed that nothing would ever threaten this union. His prayers were not heard: the Society’s internal unity was often endangered by national sentiment despite congregational attempts to curtail and eliminate it. This article does not purport to be an exhaustive study of localism versus internationalism—although such a study is needed—but an investigation of relations between Irish and English Jesuits principally in the seventeenth century. Individual Jesuits did in fact cooperate, but there were limits. A proposal in 1652 that the independent Irish mission become part of the English mission was that limit.

David Muthukumar Sivasubramanian

Abstract

Universal salvation (apokatastasis), once considered as an anathema, has recently gained a lot of currency in theological reflections. This paper will attempt to explore the possibilities for such a universal restitution of all creation using Irenaeus’ conception of the double mission of the Son and the Spirit in relation to creation as “the two hands with which God creates and perfects.” Toward this purpose, it will try to address the inherent limitations within the traditional notion of conceiving Christ as the Redeemer and the Spirit as the Sanctifier that has often resulted in a binary understanding of the role of Christ as “objective” and that of the Spirit as “subjective.” It will argue for a complementary understanding of the “twin mission” through a dialectical-chiastic pattern that will balance the subjective-objective and particular-universal aspects of the Logos and the Ruach.

David Ngong

Abstract

This article argues that Emmanuel Katongole’s theology focuses on contesting conversions in African Christianity. To him, conversions that have so far taken place in much of African Christianity, especially those informed by the theology of inculturation, have not adequately emphasized the formation of critical Christian social imagination that would challenge the violent politics of the postcolonial nation-state in Africa. The article engages Katongole’s theology by showing how his understanding of conversion aligns him with a form of African Christianity which he criticizes – the neo-Pentecostal and Charismatic variety of African Christianity. It critiques Katongole’s proposal by suggesting that the social and political transformation he seeks may be enhanced by forms of conversion rooted in the theology of inculturation which he minimizes.

Steve Taylor

Abstract

This essay analyzes Christian witness, applying a post-colonial lens to Drusilla Modjeska’s The Mountain to account for conversion and transformation in Papua New Guinea. A hapkas (half-caste) Christology of indigenous agency, communal transformation and hybridity is examined in dialogue with New Testament themes of genealogy, redemption as gift and Jesus as the new Adam. Jesus as “good man true” is placed in critical dialogue with masculine identity tropes in Melanesian anthropology. Jesus as ancestor gift of Canaanite descent is located in relation to scholarship that respects indigenous cultures as Old Testament and post-colonial theologies of revelation which affirm cultural hybridity and indigenous innovation in conversion across cultures. This hapkas Christology demonstrates how a received message of Christian mission is transformed in a crossing of cultures.

Kirsteen Kim

Alexander Chow

Abstract

Studies on mission and migration have often focused on the propagation of Christianity from a home context to a foreign context. This is true of studies of Christian mission by Catholics and Protestants, but also true in the growing discussion of “reverse mission” whereby diasporic African and Korean missionaries evangelize the “heathen” lands of Europe and North America. This article proposes the alternative term “return mission” in which Christians from the diaspora return to evangelize the lands of their ancestral origins. It uses the case study of Jonathan Chao (Zhao Tian’en 趙天恩), a return missionary who traveled in and out of China from 1978 until near his death in 2004 and is considered an instrumental figure in the revival of Calvinism in China. This article suggests that “return mission” provides a new means to understand the subjects of mission and migration, and raises new challenges to questions about paternalism and independency.

Martin Ward

Abstract

By 1920 Fujian became one of the most missiologically prominent regions in China. This article examines the development of the veteran missionary of the Church Missionary Society, J.R. Wolfe’s missiological ideology in relation to the implementation of the Treaty of Tianjin in Fujian from 1862–1878. Amidst considerable frustration at perceived scant manpower and finances commensurate to his evangelistic zeal, he discovered the expedience of consular intervention in cases of persecution and came to seek it as a matter of course. His subsequent experiential epiphany of the British Government’s slighting of the articles in the Treaty relating to the safeguarding of the missionary enterprise exacerbated his sense of frustration. This article argues that the disparity between his hagiographical title of “Moses of Fujian” and the controversy surrounding his politicalness is irreconcilable, and that the example of Wolfe demonstrates the complexities of the evolution of missionary ideology and the importance of a thorough archival reappraisal.

Mika Vähäkangas and Aron Engberg

Francis Benyah

Abstract

Until recently, religion has been quite a neglected subject of enquiry to development workers and policy makers. This neglect is as a result of the suspicious, corrosive and irrational view many attach to religion as a vital instrument for development. This article, discusses how Pentecostal theology of salvation evinces a development ethos that needs to be taken seriously by policy makers and development workers. Focusing on some of the religious practices and initiatives undertaken by Pentecostal/Charismatic churches as an aspect of their theology of salvation, this article demonstrates how the Pentecostal movement in sub-Saharan Africa, especially Ghana, has made what others see as developmental goals part of an indigenous faith. The paper argues that in order to achieve a desired transformative development, development workers and policy makers need to recognize and place maximum attention to the religious resources that serve as a driving force for most development initiatives in Africa.

Joseph Drexler-Dreis

Abstract

This essay develops a response to the historical situation of the North Atlantic world in general and the United States in particular through theological reflection. It offers an overview of some decolonial perspectives with which theologians can engage, and argues for a general perspective for a decolonial theology as a possible response to modern/colonial structures and relations of power, particularly in the United States. Decolonial theory holds together a set of critical perspectives that seek the end of the modern/colonial world-system and not merely a democratization of its benefits. A decolonial theology, it is argued, critiques how the confinement of knowledge to European traditions has closed possibilities for understanding historical encounters with divinity, and thus possibilities of critical reflection. A decolonial theology reflects critically on a historical situation in light of faith in a divine reality, the understanding of which is liberated from the monopoly of modern/colonial ways of knowing, in order to catalyze social transformation.

Michela Catto

In the first decades of the eighteenth century, the Society of Jesus was busy changing its interpretation of the Chinese world and denying the possible existence of a society of atheists. To safeguard the Chinese mission, the Jesuit Antonio Provana claimed that European cultural models could not be used in order to interpret China, and that the voices and purported beliefs of the Chinese should be reported on their own terms. The same refusal to interpret Chinese culture through the interpretative schemes that European cultures had inherited (largely from the ancient Greeks or Romans) also filled the pages of the Jesuit journal Mémoires de Trévoux between 1701 and 1719, the period analyzed in this contribution. My article in this special issue argues that, due to the extreme rhetorical caution necessary to the Jesuits in France during the third phase (1700) of the Chinese rites controversy, the Mémoires de Trévoux pursued a cultural policy intended to deny the existence of any atheism whether in a single individual or in a whole nation. This departure from a Eurocentric perspective, as well as the denial of atheism in any form, became themes that forcefully reappeared during the Enlightenment.

Carolina Armenteros

Few authors of scholarly classics shy away from being acknowledged, but such is the case of the author of Mœurs et coutumes des Indiens (Mores and customs of the Indians) (1777)—the first treatise of Indology and a classic of early anthropology—whose real, Jesuit identity remained obscured for over two centuries. The author’s concealment did not, however, prevent his work’s regular re-editing, or its conveyance of an original methodology that helped found ethnography as a discipline and harmonized with enlightened conservatism. To date, this methodology has been read simply as a direct reply to enlightened authors, especially Voltaire, but this essay demonstrates that it derived also from the immersion of eighteenth-century Jesuits in Indian culture, and above all from the vast Indianist tradition that members of the Society of Jesus developed over two centuries of missionary work. Indeed, the story of Mœurs et coutumes discloses that, far from being limited to Europe, enlightened conservatism was a global discourse; and that beyond being invented by Europe’s armchair philosophers, anthropology was a science born outside Europe from the pens of missionaries.

Paul Shore

The former Jesuits Adam František Kollár and György Pray each devoted much of their careers to work in libraries; thereby contributing to the literary and scholarly culture of the eastern Habsburg lands during the second half of the eighteenth century. Kollár, who left the Jesuits early in his career, authored works defending the rights of the Hungarian crown, and chronicled the history of the Rusyn people, ultimately achieved an international reputation as a scholar, coining the term ethnologia. Pray is remembered for his discovery of the oldest written example of the Hungarian language, his extensive historical publications, and for his role, following the papal suppression of 1773, as “Historiographus Hungariae” (Hungary’s hagiographer). The impact of these scholarly efforts by these former Jesuits was a rich and enduring foundation upon which later Hungarian historiography and library science would be based.

Jeffrey D. Burson

Although works on religious, specifically Catholic, and more specifically Jansenist, contributions to the Enlightenment abound, the contributions of the Jesuits to the Enlightenment have remained relatively unexplored since Robert R. Palmer initially identified affinities between Jesuit thought and the emergence of the French Enlightenment as long ago as 1939. Accordingly, this introduction and the essays contained within the pages of this special issue revisit and further explore ways in which the individual Jesuits contributed to broader patterns of European intellectual and cultural history during the age of Enlightenment. Taken together, the contributions to this special issue investigate different aspects of an important question: to what extent were some Jesuits (at time, despite themselves, and at times, even against the grain of the order’s official positions) unlikely contributors to the Enlightenment? This question of whether one might speak of a specifically Jesuit Enlightenment is complicated by the still unsatisfactory scholarly consensus regarding the definition of the Enlightenment. But, growing scholarly attention to the nature of Catholic Enlightenment, and to the continuities linking eighteenth-century preoccupations to the controversies of the seventeenth century have further underscored the need for greater attention to Jesuit contributions to the Enlightenment itself. In this introduction, rather than considering the Enlightenment as a series of transformative and largely eighteenth-century debates rooted in the middle or late seventeenth century, I suggest that Jesuit engagement with the Enlightenment is best understood if the Enlightenment is more firmly anchored somewhat earlier in the culture of late Humanism—a culture that was first weaponized then chastened within the crucible of the European Reformations.

Daniel J. Watkins

This article evaluates the early career of the French Jesuit Jean Hardouin (1646–1729) and the impact that it had on other Jesuit scholars of the first decades of the eighteenth century. It argues that Hardouin’s historical criticism—a response to skeptical critiques of the certainty of knowledge—pushed other Jesuit writers to consider new epistemological arguments and use new philosophical tools. In this way, Hardouin’s career helped motivate French Jesuit engagement with the ideas and sensibilities of the Enlightenment.

Thomas M. McCoog S.J.

Abstract

The British Isles and Ireland tested the self-proclaimed adaptability and flexibility of the new Society of Jesus. A mission to Ireland highlighted the complexities and ended in failure in the early 1580s, not to be revived until 1598. The fabled Jesuit mission to England in 1580 conceived in wistful optimism was baptized with blood with the execution of Edmund Campion in 1581 and the consequent political manoeuvres of Robert Persons. The Scottish mission began in December 1581. The three missions remained distinct in the pre-suppression period despite an occasional proposal for integration. The English mission was the largest, the bloodiest, the most controversial, and the only one to progress to full provincial status. The government tried to suppress it; the Benedictines tried to complement it; the vicars apostolic tried to control it; and foreign Jesuits tried to recognize it. Nonetheless, the English province forged a corporate identity that even withstood the suppression.

Andrew Horn

Considered within the context of Jesuit theatre and liturgy, and within the broader culture of spectacle and ritual in the era of Counter-Reform, the works of art and architecture commissioned by the Jesuits in the seventeenth century can be read as “theatres” of religious performance. This concept is given an ideal case study in the work of Jesuit artist Andrea Pozzo (1642–1709). In this essay I present Pozzo’s work within the context of ritual and prayer for which it was produced, focusing on two of his religious scenographies and two of his lesser-known painting projects. As I consider their use of allegory, emblems and symbols, visual narratives, spatial illusions, and architecture, I argue that both the scenographies and the permanent church decorations achieve persuasion through the engagement of the observer as a performer in a ritual involving both internal and external performance.

Christa Irwin

Bernardo Bitti was an Italian Jesuit and painter who traveled to the viceroyalty of Peru at the end of the sixteenth century to make altarpieces in the service of the order’s conversion campaigns. He began his New World career in Lima, the viceregal capital and then, over a span of thirty-five years, traveled to Jesuit mission centers in cities throughout Peru, leaving a significant imprint on colonial Peruvian painting. In 1586, Bitti was in Juli, a small town on Lake Titicaca in southern Peru, where the Jesuits had arrived a decade prior and continually faced great resistance from the local population. In this paper, I will argue that Bitti’s paintings were tools implemented by the Jesuit missionaries seeking to establish European, Christian presence in the conflicted city. Thus, Bitti’s contribution at Juli can serve as but one example of how the Jesuits used art as part of their methodology of conversion.

Rachel Miller

This article discusses an altarpiece by Luca Giordano painted for the church of San Francesco Saverio (now San Ferdinando) in Naples in 1685. Described in contemporary sources as “St. Francis Xavier baptizing the people of Japan,” the painting reveals little about Japan or Jesuit missionary efforts in Asia; instead, the painting discloses much about how Jesuits approached their mission in Naples. Here, Jesuit missionaries found a heterogeneous environment, filled with a variety of different types of potential converts, including unruly nobles, superstitious peasants, fallen women, and a large number of Muslim slaves. Giordano’s altarpiece uses the figures of St. Francis Xavier and St. Francisco de Borja to exemplify two models for the conversions that Neapolitan Jesuits hoped to bring about—the baptism of non-Christians and the religious reform of those who had been born Christian. This article will demonstrate that Giordano’s altarpiece thematized the transformation of heterodoxy into orthodoxy, while also contributing to a Jesuit discourse that characterized Naples as being another “Indies,” an environment mired in religious heterodoxy and thus attractive to ambitious Jesuits who longed for the mission fields of far off lands.

John Marciari

While Bernini and other artists of his generation would be responsible for much of the decoration at the Chiesa del Gesù and other Jesuit churches, there was more than half a century of art commissioned by the Jesuits before Bernini came to the attention of the order. Many of the early works painted in the 1580s and 90s are no longer in the church, and some do not even survive; even a major monument like Girolamo Muziano’s Circumcision, the original high altarpiece, is neglected in scholarship on Jesuit art. This paper turns to the early altarpieces painted for the Gesù by Muziano and Scipione Pulzone, to discuss the pictorial and intellectual concerns that seem to have guided the painters, and also to some extent to speculate on why their works are no longer at the Gesù, and why these artists are so unfamiliar today.

Alison C. Fleming

The visual arts are a powerful tool of communication, a fact recognized and utilized by the Jesuits from the foundation of the order. The Society of Jesus has long used imagery, works of art and architecture, and other aspects of visual and material culture for varied purposes, and the five articles in this issue of the Journal of Jesuit Studies explore how the art they commissioned exemplifies the ideals, goals, desires, and accomplishments of the Society. In particular, these five scholars examine a wide array of images and ideas to consider myriad relationships between the Society and works of art in the early modern period, and the implications of their increasingly global footprint.

Katherine Moore McAllen

This article presents new research on Jesuit visual culture in northern New Spain, situating Santa María de las Parras (founded 1598) as an important site where the Jesuits and secular landowners became involved in the lucrative business of winemaking. Viticulture in Parras helped transform this mission settlement into a thriving center of consumption. The Jesuits fostered alliances with Spanish and Tlaxcalan Indians to serve their religious and temporal interests, as these patrons donated funds to decorate chapels in the Jesuit church of San Ignacio. This financial support allowed the Society to purchase paintings by prominent artists in Mexico City and import them to Parras. The Jesuits arranged their chapels in a carefully ordered sequencing of images that promoted Ignatian spirituality and echoed iconographic decoration programs in Mexico City and Rome.

Peter Sjökvist

Uppsala University Library received several literary spoils of war that had been taken by Swedish armies from Jesuit colleges and other Catholic institutions in the seventeenth century. This article argues that the first university library building in Uppsala, which was built in two floors, kept good and useful literature on the upper floor, where the books were arranged according to faculties, and literature of less use on the lower, where the books were arranged according to a system similar to those in Jesuit libraries. In Lutheran Uppsala, most Catholic literature was therefore located in the lower library. In previous research on this library, its structure has not been fully acknowledged. Hence, several misleading conclusions have been drawn.