Christiane Gebhardt

Urban innovation policies reintroduce the role of social entrepreneurs and civil society into innovation studies with regard to the governance of regional innovation and the emergence of new innovation pathways. The research approach integrates the concepts of urban and regional transformation, participatory governance and works with an actor-centered approach that employs the enactment of innovation models by actor constellations such as the smart city concept and the Triple Helix model. We illustrate the pathway of a citizen-driven approach in innovation for the case of Brainport smart district in the city of Helmond, in the metropolitan high-tech region Eindhoven in The Netherlands. The empirical data is obtained in a real-world laboratory (rwl) in a multi-stakeholder co-creation process. The case contributes to the categorization of citizen-driven innovation pathways within an extended approach of Economic Evolutionary Geography (eeg) and thus to the frame of reference for structural dynamics in social theory.

Eduardo Cadorin, Magnus Klofsten, Alberto Albahari and Henry Etzkowitz

This paper explores activities undertaken by Science Parks to attract talent for their tenants. Despite the importance of accessing talent, there are very few studies focusing on this research area. The data in this investigation comes from seven cases studies on talent attraction activities carried out by three Science Parks in Sweden. We show that the parks conduct many different activities to attract talent including headhunting key personnel for start-ups, organising establishment platforms for foreign companies, and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and talent with higher education institutions. Science Parks house companies of different sizes, ages, and business orientations and therefore, park managers should be sensitive to the real needs of tenant firms when performing talent attraction activities.

Tove Brink

This research shows how port authorities in a triple helix context can contribute to strategic innovation with reduction of Levelized Cost of Energy in nearshore wind park ecosystems. The empirical qualitative case study was conducted from September 2017 to June 2018 with a port and a nearshore wind park owner and a logistic business actor operating on land and one operating at sea. Individual interviews and three joint network meetings provided data for the research.

The findings reveal that port authorities in triple helix contexts can contribute to strategic innovation through use of the cross-disciplinary trinity of ‘organization’, ‘business model innovation’ and ‘financial cash flow’ to address value creation on project ecosystem level. The findings are summarized in a model for overview on the shift in interest and the basic understanding of flow. It is shown that the triple helix discussions provide a meaningful frame to achieve strategic innovation for competitive advantage of renewable wind energy ecosystem.Keywordsstrategic innovation – ecosystems – renewable energy – offshore wind parks

Volker Ladenthin

Abstract

Education and Democracy

Science is open and endless. But we have to act just in time. Democracy solves the problem by replacing substantial but endless discourses with a formal decision. Democracy can succeed only if the individual citizen is educated (›gebildet‹). A democratic society thus presupposes the objectivity and morality of all citizens. But how are citizens willing to act morally?

Bildung, Unterricht und Respekt

Zur Begründung einer nicht-affirmativen Allgemeinen Didaktik

Thomas Rucker

Abstract

›Bildung‹, Teaching and Respect. On the Justification of a Non-Affirmative General Didactics

In this article, I will first show that non-affirmative didactics offer a specific account of teaching. From this point of view, teaching is described with regard to the purpose of ›Bildung‹, i.e. the development of the ability to judge for oneself in the relationship with resistant objects. I will then develop a justication of non-affirmative general didactics with regard to the notion of pedagogical respect which can be specified by the principles of self-determination, ›Bildsamkeit‹ and dialog.

Das normale Kind

Zur Emergenz eines pädagogischen Deutungsmusters am Beispiel von Locke’s »Gedanken über Erziehung« (1693/2011)

Friederike Schmidt

Abstract

The Normal Child. Reflections on »Some Thoughts Concerning Education« (Locke 1693/2011) and the Emergence of a Pedagogical Pattern of Interpretation

When perceiving children and supporting them, constructions of normality play an important role in various pedagogical contexts. Taking this in reference, the paper discusses the emergence of normality as a pedagogical pattern of interpretation. Thereby, the paper refers to Locke’s »Thoughts Concerning Education« as a concept of education, in which specific elements of normality are developed and are linked to pedagogical meanings.

Sabine Seichter

Dieter Nittel and Nikolaus Meyer

Abstract

Formation of the Pedagogically Organised System of Lifelong Learning: From the Disbandment of Normative Systems to the New Normality?

The authors link the thesis of the successive disbandment of normative systems in the educational system to a very specific perspective. More precisely: to a specific notion of unity and wholeness. The argumentation begins with Habermas’ critique of the communication-theoretical concept of systems. This social philosopher is indirectly recognised as the ›godfather‹ of the presented theoretical understanding of the system. The concept of a pedagogically organised system of lifelong learning will then be defined, and the real historical consequences will be indicated.

»Gender, Class, Race Matter.«

Wie soziale Differenzkategorien Biographien strukturieren. Eine Fallstudie

Angela Janssen

Abstract

»Gender, Class, Race Matter.« How Social Differences/Categories Structure Biographies. A Case Study

Biographies are structured by norms, conventions and social categories such as class, gender or race. This article is about the relationship between biographies, social structures and norms. It describes the constitution of differences and subjects and discusses the possibility of resistance against the limitation by norms. Since norms are incorporated and naturalised this is a difficult request. That is illustrated by the novel »The End of Eddy« by Édouard Louis.

Präzision und Kontingenz

Ein Spannungsfeld der Begriffsbestimmung

Stefan Müller and Christian Nerowski

Abstract

Precision and Contingency. An Area of Tension in the Assignment of Scientific Concepts

Given the fact that the scientific discourse on education is based on educational- scientific concepts, it is surprising that the methodology of the assignment of these concepts is hardly addressed and reflected. This article raises a tension of the requirements of concepts in educational science between precision, accuracy and exactness on the one hand; and contingency, openness, and dynamics on the other hand. In this article we reject attempts to resolve the tension to only one side, which would mean to give preference to either precision or contingency and neglect the other side. In contrast we sketch a model for the assignment of educational-scientific concepts that unites both sides of the tension: If precision is understood as a requirement for the concept as a product, and the consideration of contingency is understood as a requirement for the process of the assignment, it is possible to assign concepts that both are precise and consider their contingency.

Dietrich Benner

Abstract

A Concept of a self-logical Normativity of Education and their Relations to other Normativity Claims

The essay develops the concept of a self-logical normativity of education. It identifies pedagogical action as a transformational practice with its own forms of action and causality. The theoretical and practical significance of this concept is finally explained in the film »Elternschule« by distinguishing between pedagogical and therapeutical action and practice.

Was sollen und was müssen Familien?

Erziehungswissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf gesellschaftliche Normierungen und auf immanente normative Strukturen der Familie

Dominik Krinninger

Abstract

Pedagogical Perspectives on Societal Normalizations and on Immanent Normative Structures of the Family

This paper examines normative aspects of the family as an educational sphere from two perspectives. With regard to discourse-analytical studies, it discusses the social normative of a family responsibility for the academic success of children. In contrast, along systematic concepts of recognition, the differentiated internal logic of the family is emphasized, in which social recognition and caring love are intertwined. In the relation of both perspectives it becomes clear that current expectations forced by education policy ignore important characteristics of families.

Xudong Zhu and Jian Li

This study explores how to be a teacher of holistic profession from a perspective of transformative learning. Cultivating holistic profession in transformative learning involves the process of changes in communicative and instructional learning, the process of learning practical experience, and the process of critical reflection. These transformative learning processes contribute to the construction of teachers’ holistic profession contextually. The rationales of applying a perspective of transformative learning concentrate on three major reasons. Cultivating teachers’ profession as one type of adult learning is the core subject of transformative learning. Development serves as core idea of teachers’ holistic professional consciousness. The learning transformation occurred from semi-profession to holistic profession. In this sense, the transformative learning model for teachers’ profession is initially proposed to identify a special lens to shape an explicit pathway of being a teacher of holistic profession. In this model, transformative learning involves identifying “learning being professional”. Transformative relationship focuses on “teaching being professional”. Transformative context view concentrates on contenting being professional. Transformative context view involves contenting being professional. The conclusion and remarks are offered to summarize the rewards of being a teacher of holistic profession.

Ke Lin

This paper reviews British experience of inspiring and educating teachers in Citizenship Education. It is based on a case study undertaken at ucl-ioe where provides diverse and distinctive teacher training programmes. The study firstly provides an overview on the National Curriculum for Citizenship and teacher education in England. Then it introduces three types of programmes related to citizenship education at ucl-ioe, in which the author used to work as both a teaching assistant and participant researcher. By reviewing relevant documents (e.g. curriculum frameworks with teacher’s guide, programme handbooks, academic literature, and participants’ evaluation), the study analyses a multi-levelled structure of teacher education for citizenship at ucl-ioe, which consists of fundamental programme for concept and theory learning, specialised programme for subject and pedagogy learning both at the institute and schools, and practical programme for project-based learning cooperating with social organisations. The study further discusses how the university-led programmes could encourage and prepare teachers for their devotion into citizenship education, and argues for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and participatory model to be implemented. The paper concludes that a high-quality teacher education for citizenship must help both pre-service and in-service teachers to develop subject-based, pedagogical and transferable competence.

Zheng Zhang

This ethnographic case study documents students’ lived experience at a Canadian offshore school in Macau through students’ multimodal artifacts, interviews, and teacher-student interactions in English and Mandarin literacy classes. Undergirded by the theory of cosmopolitan literacies, this study revealed the opportunities at mcs for difference negotiation and fluid identity formation that were enabled by mcs’s curricular emphasis on celebrating multiculturalism and multimodality. However, interview and observation data showed that literacy practices in the English literacy classes also centered around pen to paper meaning-making. This study identified human and non-human actors that enabled and constrained students’ literacy and identity options in the unique cross-border education context in Macau, such as mcs’s multicultural reality, school’s curricular emphasis on celebrating multiculturalism and multimodality, individual teachers’ preferences in literacy practices, and the expectations of the standardized Alberta test. The paper discusses the pedagogical potentials of cosmopolitan literacies to expand transnational education students’ literacy and identity options.

Xinyun Hu and Nicola Yelland

This review examines the design cycles of innovation in response to changing policy, technological and practical imperatives. It begins with the initial creation of an information and communication technology course in an early childhood teacher education program and describes its evolution into a contemporary topic. Program changes occur because of policy-driven trends, including the expansion of the definition of what constitutes technology and the incorporation of innovations into curricula and pedagogical practices. We characterize these changes in three design cycles. In the first cycle, courses to prepare preservice teachers for early childhood centers focused primarily on computer-based skills. In the second cycle, new technologies were integrated into the curricula and teaching programs and incorporated into the practicum. In the third cycle, the principles and practices inherent to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (stem) education were adopted to extend the role of new technologies in contemporary curricula and pedagogies. These new learning ecologies were characterized by the application of inter-disciplinary knowledge in authentic learning contexts. The reviewed case studies included students in three new technologies course projects in an early childhood teacher education program. The findings revealed that early childhood preservice teachers expected more opportunities to practice and apply new technologies in innovative learning spaces focused on stem learning. Furthermore, they believed that university teacher education courses should be applicable to practice-based contexts. The implications of this review inform the process of change in the design of teacher education programs from technology-based learning to the pedagogical innovations needed to prepare future teachers. It illustrates that new technologies for learning should consider changing learning ecologies in their design and implementation, and should support early childhood teachers in understanding and using child-centered pedagogical approaches.

Roxanne T. Bongco and Rodrigo D. Abenes

Feminisation in the teaching profession is a global issue. It has been said this problem implies gender inequality in relation to their male counterpart for it results in the lack of male models in the basic education and, thus promote social exclusion. This social reality is also the case in the Philippines. Data in 2008–2009 from the Philippine Commission on Women reveals that about 89.58% of the teachers in public elementary and 77.06% in the public secondary schools are female (pcw, 2014). In this regard, this paper argues that feminisation of education in the Philippines, all the more result to uncompromising situations of female teachers for as women, they need to work in shifts as part of their changing roles both in school and at home. Further, this paper presents an analysis of the narratives of ten female teachers in basic education which reveals that in spite of the feminisation of teaching from a purely statistical perspective, they still remain disadvantaged in the career that had always been believed to be their domain, especially in the area of career promotion. Limiting factors to the promotion of women still point to their social conditions as women, where the multiplicity of social expectations and duties in their diverse spheres clash to the detriment of their careers.

Wenjie Pei

In January 2017, the Chinese Ministry of Education issued the Curricular Standards of Science in Elementary Schools, aiming at developing students’ scientific literacy and a foundation for their learning and development as competent citizens. To achieve its overall goal, the reform reflects four main strategies: extending the learning time of science education, integrating engineering and technological contents into science subject, phased design based on the idea of learning progressions, and using big concepts to guide teaching contents. The Curricular Standards of Science in Elementary Schools has been implemented in major provinces and cities across the country and achieved initial outcomes in stimulating students’ enthusiasm for learning science. To better implement these standards, increasing capital investment, improving experiments, and upgrading equipment become urgent to be considered.

Horst Zeinz

Digitalization as a key issue of society is increasingly a topic in school. Authorities like the recently deceased scientist Stephen Hawking and the founder and ceo of Tesla, Elon Musk, see both challenges and chances in the developing artificial intelligence (A.I.). Musk remarked: “A.I. will be the best or worst thing ever for humanity” (cnbc 1 2017). The solution, Musk said, is to increase regulatory oversight of the development and implementation of A.I. immediately: “AI is a rare case where I think we need to be proactive in regulation than be reactive.” (cnbc 2 2017). Stephen Hawking emphasizes the same point: “The emergence of A.I. could be the “worst event in the history of our civilization” unless society finds a way to control its development (…). Success in creating effective A.I. could be the biggest event in the history of our civilization. Or the worst. We just don’t know.” Hawking said during a talk at the Web Summit technology conference in Lisbon, Portugal, in 2017. (cnbc 3 2017). In view of these considerations and in regard to the meaning for education in school the question arises: Which topics and competencies should be presented to pupils against the background of the rapid processing in the field of digitalization and the corresponding uncertainty of topics and competencies that could be of importance in some years and decades? Verbalized differently: What does sustainable education for our future include? The answer will be aimed at the teaching and acquirement of basic competencies in general and in the field of digitalization. What should this “basic education” include? Another question is: How is it possible to combine learning processes in a “virtual reality” with learning processes in a “natural reality”? Further considerations are given in this article.

Jun

Jeff Stickney

Writing from the perspective of both an instructor in a teacher education program at University of Toronto and more importantly as a mentor for teacher candidates in the classroom, hosting for over twenty years student teachers from six universities in Ontario and New York, the paper explores the master-apprentice relationship within the practicum placement in schools – drawing philosophically on Martin Heidegger’s reflections on apprenticeship, Donald Schön’s pragmatic emphasis on studio work and Lee Shulman’s focus for training on developing subject related pedagogical-content-knowledge, to resituate the significance of what many educators and student-teachers say forms the core of teacher education. Subtle changes in teacher education over the last thirty years, set against dominant themes of professional autonomy and agency within sweeping educational and economic reforms such as the neo-liberal accountability and austerity movements, are sketched in order to follow their arc or trajectory into possible futures. Using a Foucauldian genealogical approach, the author aims to show how we could think and act differently in our practices and governance of teacher education.

The Future of Teaching in 500 Words or More

The Confucian Perspective of Education on “Self-Cultivation”

Yusef Waghid

Much of the pedagogical work with which I have been involved over the last three decades in higher education directly concerns my relations with students and vice a versa. More recently (Waghid, 2019), I have given some thought to my pedagogical relations vis-à-vis the virtue of caring in an attempt to make sense of my encounters with students in higher education. This article reflects a closer look at pedagogical encounters between students and myself (as a university educator). In a way, I firstly reflect on my teaching and learning in a university context by making a connection between what it means to engage in pedagogical encounters through the act of caring. Secondly, I show how pedagogical encounters constituted by care could enhance both teacher and student autonomy, before, thirdly, tackling the notion that caring in pedagogical encounters cannot be remiss of deliberative iterations. Finally, I argue why caring pedagogical encounters are inextricably connected to an enactment of play which, in my view, corroborates the future of teaching.

Marianna Papastephanou

Inclusion is nowadays a most cherished notion in educational discourses and policies around the globe. Discourses of inclusion appear as the most humane, politically sensitive and praiseworthy heights that political thought and educational practice can reach. At the same time, a kind of inclusion in the public sphere is enacted whenever people freely join debates on matters of general interest, educational or other. For, participation in debates on education and on teacher education is not limited to educational researchers, teacher organizations and all those involved in educational theory and practice. The present article begins with the operations of inclusion in educational theory and discusses some complicities and risks lurking in the unqualified valorization of inclusion that is noticeable in educational discourses and in public debates on education and teachers’ performance. Such valorization operates inter alia at the expense of thoughtful withdrawal and pertinent self-exclusion. In societal debates on education, inclusion as unconditional prerogative of a narcissist I (eye) or as social interpellation to participate legitimizes just everybody’s having investigative relevance to issues of education. The article ends with some suggestions concerning the positioning of inclusion within a broader set of concepts required for a desirable redirection of educational discourses and policies.

Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić

Since 2011 Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić have written a dozen of dialogic articles focused to critical pedagogy in the age of information technology and liberation theology. These articles are packed with Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx in various contexts, yet they never focused explicitly to McLaren’s Marxist thought. In this article we present a collection of Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx written during 8 years of working together. Developed and published in various contexts, insights in this article do not present a complete overview of Peter McLaren’s understanding of Marxism. Yet, focusing to extremely radically different themes of information technology and liberation theology, Peter McLaren’s views present a rich source for understanding Marxist theory in the 21st century.

Yanyan Ji and Yanjun Zhang

China has embarked on a new wave of curriculum reform since 2018. New Curricular Standards attempts to reposition high schools with the aim of improving the quality of citizens nationwide. It repositions basic education for the public which shall not only prepare students for university, but also for students to adapt to social life and career development, thus laying a foundation for their whole-life development. Emphasizing the key competence that students are expected to possess and formulating the academic quality standards are the two major innovations in this reform.

Gert Biesta

Many policy makers and educational researchers seem to be convinced that teaching matters. Unfortunately, such a case for teaching and teachers tends to rely on a rather one-dimensional view of what counts in education – namely the production of measurable learning outcomes – and a rather mechanistic view of what counts as education – namely teaching as an intervention that is aimed at producing particular effects. Such views about teaching and education more generally are also affecting programmes of teacher education. In this paper I raise some questions about such views about the significance of teaching, on the assumption that the future of teacher education needs to be informed by a different understanding of what teaching is and what it is for. I make a case for a multi-dimensional view of the purposes of education and for teaching as an act of communication and interpretation that always requires judgement about that ‘what’ and the ‘what for.’ Placing such judgement at the centre of teacher education suggests that the structure of the curriculum for teacher education should be spiral rather than linear-cumulative.

Marita Cronqvist

In teacher education, it is problematic to intertwine theory and practice. It is also problematic that student teachers lack self-awareness about what values they express in their meetings with pupils. They need to reflect and verbalize their teaching experiences. In this article, results from a study in teacher education are presented from a development work where a combination of a didactic tool that visualizes ethics in teaching and a digital tool, video paper is tried. The purpose is to investigate how this combination can stimulate student teachers´ reflections on their teaching during their internship and through follow-up in the campus course. Findings indicate that the tools in themselves are not enough to bridge theory and practice. However, the tools can be helpful to teacher educators. Reflections presented in video papers are quite different in content, range and depth which are visualized through the questions of the didactic tool and by different typologies for reflection. The reflections show that there are many ways to verbalize ethics which raises questions about what it really means to visualize ethics.

“The Students Have Been Spoilt Previously”

A Case Study on the Professional Development of Chinese Language Teachers in Hamburg

Ping Ren and Meinert Meyer

The professional development of Chinese teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (cfl) in Europe is confronted with various complex educational challenges and problems. Traditional Chinese educational schemata and cultural values have great impact on these teachers’ professional beliefs and their perceptions. My case studies of six cfl teachers show that their professional challenges are connected with the cultural differences of Chinese and German educational contexts. Open-ended questions, in-depth interviews and classroom observation were employed. And multiple data sources, such as the transcripts of teacher interviews, field notes were included. Cross-case analysis indicated that the cfl teachers have to deal with some conflicts of their previous biographies and new requirements of local educational context, such as teacher-centered didactics versus student-centered didactics, traditional Chinese language approaches versus intercultural communicative didactics; strict classroom discipline versus acknowledgement of students’ individuality etc. I depict their professional development by employing a theoretic framework of developmental task theory, i.e. professional competence, mediation, acknowledgment and institution. My study may help to shed light on understanding the individual difficulties that cfl teachers face in overseas teaching environments. The study’s findings and recommendations therefore are of significance for the future design of teacher training for cfl teachers in Germany and in other European countries.

Teaching in the Age of Digital Reason

From Teaching as a Moral Pursuit to Teaching as a Technological Practice

Michael A. Peters and Xudong Zhu

Teaching, born of the period of the ancient sages, developed as the moral art of living that introduced humanity to teaching as a moral pursuit, to the formation of value, to a moral and religious mode of being, and to a set of moral principles that have survived into the modern day. The idea that the ‘future of teaching’ represents a technological disruption of moral traditions of teaching and what teaching might become has become a serious concern for the current generation of philosophers in both China and the West. This editorial examines these issues and introduces this special issue.

Andreas Schleicher

Top school systems select and educate their teaching staff carefully, they provide an environment in which teachers work together to frame good practice, they encourage teachers to grow in their careers; and they have moved on from administrative control and accountability to professional forms of work organisation.

Still, the laws, regulations, structures and institutions on which education policy tends to focus are just like the small visible tip of an iceberg. The reason why it is so hard to move school systems is that there is a much larger invisible part under the waterline. This invisible part is about the interests, beliefs, motivations and fears of the people who are involved in education, parents and teachers included. This is where unexpected collisions occur, because this part of educational reform tends to evade the radar screen of public policy. That is why educational leaders are rarely successful with reform unless they build a shared understanding and collective ownership for change, and unless they build teacher capacity and create the right policy climate, with accountability measures designed to encourage innovation rather than compliance.

The most essential reason why teachers’ ownership of the profession is a must-have rather than an optional extra lies in the pace of change in 21st century school systems. Even the most effective attempts to translate a central curriculum into local classroom practice will drag out over a decade, because it takes so much time to communicate the goals and methods through the different layers of the system and to build them into traditional methods of teacher education. In a fast-changing world, when what and how students need to learn changes so rapidly, such a slow process leads to a widening gap between what students need to learn and what and how teachers teach. The only way to shorten that pipeline is to professionalise teaching, that is to ensure that teachers not only have a deep understanding of the curriculum as a product, but equally with the process of curriculum and instructional design and the pedagogies to enact and enable the ideas behind the curriculum. The challenge is to build on the expertise of the teachers and school leaders and to enlist them in the design of superior policies and practices. Where systems fail to engage teachers in the design of change, teachers will rarely help systems in the implementation of change.

De-Finition

Poststrukturalistische Einwände gegen die Limitierung des Anderen

Erik Ode

Abstract

De-Finition. Poststructuralist Objections to the Limitation of the Other

The metaphysic tradition always tried to structure the world by definitions and scientific terms. Since poststructuralist authors like Derrida, Foucault and Deleuze have claimed the ›death of the subject‹ educational research cannot ignore the critical objections to its own methods. Definitions and identifications may be a violation of the other’s right to stay different and undefined. This article tries to discuss the scientific limitations of the other in a pedagogical, ethical and political perspective.

Definitionen als pragmatische Erläuterungen

Eine analytische Perspektive

Christian Nerowski

Abstract

Definitions as Pragmatic Explanations. An Analytical Perspective

This article takes an analytical perspective on ›definitions‹ in educational science. After a delineation of the analytical perspective as a pragmatic practice of explanation, two common types of definition are described and illustrated using the concept ›instruction‹ [›Unterricht‹]: the concept analysis, which aims at naming the individually necessary and jointly sufficient properties of a concept; and the concept explication, which aims at the formulation of a precise term that is fruitful for further research but only similar to everyday language. Finally, it will be discussed in which respect explication and analysis can be considered a pragmatic explanation. For this purpose, explanation is understood as a social process: not definitions explain a term, but a person uses definitions in order to explain a term to a group of addressees for a specific purpose. For this aim, conceptual analysis and concept explication may serve as possible orientations.

Sabine Seichter

Einschränkung oder Erweiterung?

Reflexive Perspektiven auf Definitionen

Stefan Müller

Abstract

Challenges or Chances? Reflexive Perspectives on Definitions

The paper neither supports nor rejects definitions as such. Rather, it combines both perspectives, stemming on two arguments. The first argument is based on Luhmann who discusses inclusion as exclusion inherent to every form of definition. The second argument is related to Adorno’s and Horkheimer’s Critical Theory. They analyze how definitions contain social relations of power and inequality. Developing these two approaches, the paper argues that definitions allow both an extension and a limitation of perspectives. Both effects of definitions are entangled and mutually constitutive. The crucial point for a reflexive discussion of definitions is the form of their relation and their weighting.

Gefühlte Geschichte?

Emotionen, Geschichte und historisches Lernen

Juliane Brauer

Abstract

Felt History? Emotions, History and Learning History

Emotions are part of the process of learning history as individuality-felt emotions of the pupils and historical objectives. This paper argues, from a historical perspective, that emotions and their expression are culturally and temporally specific. Therefore, it is not possible to feel or relive the emotions felt by historical agent. To learn (from) history is to experience the temporal, cultural and geographical other. Thus, this paper calls for an emotionally sensible process of learning history, in which it is possible to think and feel openly, and speaks out against the emotional choreographies of contemporary adventure histories.

Lothar Wigger

Abstract

Cosmopolitism – Comments on an Ideal of Historical and Political Education

In regard to the crisis of supranational institutions and tendencies of renationalization in the present, the article discusses traditional and current concepts of cosmopolitism. Starting with the opposite theories of world peace and state sovereignty in the philosophies of Kant and Hegel and the confirmation of these theories by the reality of the states, concepts of updating Kant and Hegel are discussed. Contrary to a morally based education towards cosmopolitanism, the importance of historical knowledge in a world of conflicts is finally pointed out.

Volker Ladenthin

Abstract

Use and Uselessness of Defining

Is it possible to define terms? The author distinguishes between word, term and concept. Words change historically; their meaning is deduced from the context. Terms are defined by convention of arbitrariness. Ultimately, concepts cannot be defined because the defining concepts would have to be redefined. That, however, is a regression to infinity.

Zum Einsatz von Definitionen in Pädagogik und Erziehungswissenschaft

Ein historischer Streifzug in systematischer Absicht

Thomas Mikhail

Abstract

On the Use of Definitions in Pedagogy and Educational Science. A Historical Journey with Systematic Intent

In the academic genre of pedagogy and educational science, definitions were used from the very beginning. The question is if it is possible to differentiate between types of definitions within the history of these sciences. To answer this question the paper revives two different types of traditional definitions in order to generate a typology of definition usage. The typology can be used as a heuristic instrument for further systematic and historical research.

Zur Funktion unscharfer Begriffe

Ein Plädoyer für einen reflexiven Blick auf Explikationen

Annette Scheunpflug and Martin Affolderbach

Abstract

On the Function of Fuzzy Terms. A Plea for a Reflexive Look at Explications

Concepts are commonly used to describe words which are, beyond a singular object, connected with an idea. This paper argues that concepts should not only be understood by a precise definition, but also with a reflexive view of their implications. Thus, the blurriness of terms fulfils important functions, including the role of communicative connectivity. This observation is discussed in regard to its meaning for educational research.

Zwischen Definition und Empirie

Theoretische Probleme der Fragebogenkonstruktion

Matthias Borgstede

Abstract

Between Definition and Empirical Research. Theoretical Problems of Questionnaire Design

Within the field of quantitative educational science, theoretical terms are often defined operationally by scales or questionnaires, which have been constructed using the formal background of Classical Test Theory. This article takes a critical perspective on the current modus operandi of scale construction.

It is argued that classical quality criteria (reliability, validity, and objectivity) are usually represented by empirical correlations between scales or items of a scale. Apart from some theoretical inconsistencies, using these criteria (e.g. Chronbach’s Alpha) to optimize a scale results in a set of items with high intercorrelations, regardless of their content or meaning.

Because high inter-item correlations are neither necessary nor sufficient for an adequate operational definition, the utility of the classical approach to scale construction is questioned on a fundamental level. It is further argued that operational definitions do not pose a statistical problem in the first place, but a theoretical problem. Hence, we do not need a method to optimize scales for high inter-item-correlations, but rather a way to translate theoretical terms (which may be inherently vague) to empirically observable phenomena. This is accomplished by the semantic approach to psychological tests by Buntins, Buntins and Eggert (2016), which provides a formal alternative to classical quality criteria.

Michael A. Peters

This paper uses the centenary of Dewey’ two years in China as an opportunity to reassess John Dewey’s views on China, based mainly on his Letters and his Lectures in Social and Political Philosophy, 1919–21 given on invitation at the University of Peking. In particular, the paper makes some criticisms of Dewey’s pragmatism (his lack of contextualism in not mentioning the significance of the May 4th Movement) and raises the question of the relationship of his thought with Chinese Marxism. The essay is given a critical reading by three scholars Jessica Ching-Sze Wang, Kang Zhao and, Zhang Huajun, all Dewey scholars.

Michael A. Peters

Carl Mika

Discussions about indigenous philosophy are always difficult because of identities, chief among these being: what is the primary assumption that coalesces the varied philosophies of indigenous groups that then entitles me to talk about a single “indigenous” philosophy? Although I don’t make this the focus of my paper, I take as a uniting thought the holism which defines metaphysics for several indigenous groups (see e.g. Deloria, 2001; Mika, 2017; Smith, 2012). For this article, I centre on the implications of indigenous holism for both indigenous and non-indigenous students and the indigenous teacher of metaphysics in the academy. This paper often takes a turn for the anecdotal as I consider my experiences in the New Zealand context as a Maori lecturer in philosophy of education who teaches Maori metaphysics to Maori and non-indigenous students. There are difficulties that exist for me as an educator in this area and also for the students, although I have observed that non-indigenous and Maori students encounter Maori metaphysics in quite unique ways. A common feature in both cases, though, is that there is a lack of appropriate language to draw on to describe Maori metaphysics. I conclude this article by suggesting ways that philosophising can take place in correspondence with a Maori metaphysics of things as world-constituted.

Kang Zhao

In this essay, firstly I agree with Peters on his point that Dewey’s political democracy reveals his idea of education as a public good suggested in the newly discovered Dewey’s Lectures, and I highlight Dewey’s idea of relationship between political democracy and education. Secondly, for Peters’ puzzle about Dewey’s lack of discussion in this lecture concerning the students’ action in the May 4th Movement, I present Dewey’s such kind of discussion from another lecture series given at Beijing. Finally, with the notion of “narrative learning”, I echo Peters’ comment regarding Deweyan mode of thinking as the only way of understanding about thinking.

Qiang Liu, David Turner and Xiaoli Jing

The construction of world-class universities and first-class disciplines (Double First-Class Initiative) is a major commitment made by the Chinese government to adapt to changes in the educational environment at home and abroad. It is also an innovative strategy for the development and practice of international higher education. As part of the Double First-Class Initiative, China’s higher education institutions have formulated plans for their development and for developing their disciplinary specializations. They have instituted special measures for developing subject areas, staff development, building teams of teachers and researchers, and enhancing their disciplinary characteristics. However, there are some potential problems with the implementation of the Double First-Class Initiative, not least of which are the imprecision in the definition of “world-class”, the narrow focus on the range of institutions, and the lack of future-oriented development methods. These problems have attracted the attention of the government and the universities, and stimulated some discussion in society more widely.

Jun Li and Jian Li

Recently China has miraculously transformed itself from a learner in the 20th century to a re-rising leader of educational excellence. The enduring policy endeavors over the past few decades have largely enabled China as the largest educational system in the world move to a recently emerging status as a global leader of educational improvement, recognized and appreciated with admiration by many traditionally advanced countries. The two authors intend to offer a snapshot of the China miracle of educational development in terms of public policies since the turn of the 21st century. With a Multi-Flows Approach constructed from Csikszentmihalyi’s idea of “flow”, this paper investigates the complexity and dynamism of three policy streams, i.e., basic education, teacher education and higher education. It is concluded from the literature review that central to China’s key policy actions in recent decades are four core themes, i.e., equality in terms of a democratic mission of education for every citizen, quality in terms of individual and social productivity, efficiency as a national priority based on practicality, and rejuvenation of the state for nation-building and global status. Educational policy development in China since the new century is thus examined with economic, political, cultural and international flows, each presenting a colorful jigsaw puzzle that is not easily tessellated by other flows. The authors argue that the different focus of flows and beyond can benefit policy communities in the world with varied directions for educational change resulting in significant improvement while none of them should be seen as a single force in solely shaping educational policy development without the convergence of other forces. This implies that for any public policy in education policymakers, implementers and other stakeholders must ensure a comprehensive consideration of the interdependent, converging effects of these forces to prioritize and maximize their outcomes, which may be easily missed by any single force of them. The implications from this paper sheds new light on policy studies in education in China and globally, and the learner-provider dynamism of educational development in a post-colonial context.

Liz Jackson

Philosophies of civilisation, nation, globalisation, and localisation manifest in educational structuring, school hidden curricula, and subject areas like social studies or citizenship education. Additionally, media play a vital role in young people’s development of their identities and civic allegiances, apart from what takes place in schools. Media may complement or contradict messages about human living together and one’s place in living together provided in educational contexts. Given media’s impact, within and outside educational spaces, it would be counterproductive to not examine this impact if one wants to understand how students learn to live together in society. Appreciating the role of media in developing civic ideas can help to enhance strategies of civic education. It can also help to identify skills related to literacy, information processing, and social networking that align with effective development of critical thinking capacities in civic education. This article first explores theoretically how people learn through and engage with media. Next, it considers ways in which media can impact civic identities. It explores how media is impacted by and reflects messages related to civilisation, nationalism, globalization and localism. The article then discusses common ways of responding to media in education. Here, critical media literacy education is examined and reflected upon. Broader educational implications of the exploration are discussed in the conclusion.

Julie Rowlands and Trevor Gale

In this paper we consider relationships between national research assessment and publication output targets within academic workload models, theorising their potential impact on research practices and the academic habitus. Thinking with Bourdieu’s theory of practice, we draw on examples from higher education systems within the United Kingdom and Australia to argue that what an agent has done in the past plays a potentially significant role in the reformation of their own habitus. In relation to academics complying with publication output targets, whatever form those targets may take, we posit that this has implications for what research is done, how, by whom and where, and also for how researchers are disposed, or not, towards what research is perceived to be possible or desirable.

Henry A. Giroux

In this paper Henry Giroux, the US theorist of critical pedagogy, examines the treatment of immigrants in America likening it to fascism’s extreme nationalism. He draws a parallel between neoliberal capitalism and fascism to explain the suppression of freedom, anti-democratic sentiments and the growth of racism leading to a demonisation of the other. Giroux speaks to the formation of a form of “neoliberal fascism” under Trump and considers the horrors of the perpetration of state violence against children. He documents the way that Trump mobilises “fascist passions” to set up immigration detention camps that involves the separation of children from their parents. [Ed.]

Peter Roberts

In his classic work, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, Jean-Françios Lyotard prophesised the death of the age of the Professor. Writing at the end of the 1970s, Lyotard could see that in contexts where knowledge was regarded as a commodity, and where the question of truth was becoming subservient to the question of what sells, the importance of university teachers would increasingly be questioned. In the decades that followed the publication of The Postmodern Condition, many of the trends observed by Lyotard have become cemented in policy and practice. This paper argues that while the age of the Professor is not yet dead, it is dying – slowly but steadily, in a manner that is more evident in some fields than others. Given the dominance of economic goals in shaping educational agendas, the triumph of the performativity principle, and the obsession with measuring and marketing almost everything, support for scholars in the humanities in particular has been progressively eroded. This process of dying is, however, by no means complete, and a rebirth of the age of the Professor, perhaps in a slightly different form, remains a possibility that should not be ruled out.

Some Dialogue Not Yet Happened

A Response to Michael A. Peters, “100 Years of Dewey in China, 1919–1921: A Reassessment”

Huajun Zhang

Michael Peters’ article “100 Years of Dewey in China, 1919–1921: A Reassessment” mainly focused on the political and ideological position of Dewey and concluded that Dewey did little to Chinese modern transition. To respond to Peters’ article, I pointed out that Dewey’s religious and aesthetic aspects of experience in his later works were largely ignored and how this idea of experience could have possible dialogue with the rich heritage of Chinese Confucianism tradition. I further made an example from the Chinese Confucian scholar Liang Shuming’s review article on Dewey’s book Democracy and Education, to indicate these two schools of thoughts could more contribution to thinking about the modern challenge from each society.

Peng Liu and Qi Xiu

Fostering higher-order thinking skills of students is important aim for 21st century education. Teachers, as important elements in a positive learning environment, are the key to high quality education. As for the importance of teacher professional collaboration in teacher development, Hargreaves and Fullan (2012) pointed out that teachers’ professional collaboration will benefit not only students but also the whole school community, and even society at large. In Chinese context, the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China (2010) issued a policy in 2010 promoting teacher professional collaboration and development as a background of this study, implying that teachers must be collaborating actively with colleagues in daily professional life to achieve collective growth for the purpose of improving student learning.

Based on the policy reality, this study explored teacher professional collaboration in the Chinese education context. It looked in particular at practices and issues in teacher professional collaboration. This article begins with the definitions of teacher professional collaboration, followed by a detailed exploration of this type of collaboration in Chinese education and issues related to its implementation. This study will provide holistic picture of teacher collaboration in China for contributing to theoretical development and educational practice.

Tina Besley

This article explores concepts of teacher responsibility, accountability, being in loco parentis, and responsibilization as many advanced capitalist societies have dropped policies and practices that were set up in the mid 19th century after the Great Depression in the welfare state under Keynesian economics. Since the early 1980s most of these states have adopted neoliberal policies and market rationality for all aspects of social policy including education. Under neoliberalism, the subject theorised by Homo economicus, is one that is theorised as a rational autonomous individual, with its responsibilized behavior underpinning much of how not only teachers but students now are compleed to behace and perform. These have resulted in major shifts in attitudes to professionalism of teachers, in responsibilising individuals and so have impacted on subjectivity as the state has pulled back from all manner of social provision and has responsibilized the individual to be a consumer-citizen, a prudential and entrepreneurial self even in terms of education. The upshot is increasing use of audits, checklists and accountability regimes for teachers who are becoming increasingly a de-professionalised in a low-trust managerialist environment with students as consumers.

Ronald A. Barnett

Philosophers have long made allegations of a thoughtlessness in the world and, in the wake of their charges, critiques of thoughtlessness on the part of the university have also been made. Explanations for such thoughtlessness are rooted in both exogenous and endogenous sources. Thinking has not been vanquished entirely from the university but rather a malign thoughtlessness has descended on it. Drawing especially on Bhaskar’s Critical Realism, a conception of the thinking university is proffered here that both recognizes the deep structures at work and opens a sense of the university as an agent. Four criteria of university thoughtfulness are proposed. The prospects for such a cognitive culture emerging are explored, two phenomena being identified; first, that the social ontology of the university is widening and second, that contra postmodernism, universals associated with the university are increasing. Further, the constellation of reason has been displaced by the constellation of utility but a new constellation is struggling to emerge, which is calling for thought on the part of the university, namely the constellation of otherness. The thinking university is, therefore, a feasible utopia, its legitimacy standing up to the rigorous scrutiny of six conditions of adequacy. The thinking university is already living in the real world.

Jessica Ching-Sze Wang

As a response to Michael Peters’ essay, “100 years of Dewey in China,” the article takes up Peter’s question about Dewey’s lack of responses to “Chinese problems.” It asks a new question about what can be done differently—particularly in important intercultural exchanges, such as that between Dewey and his Chinese disciples. It points to the importance of seeing both self and other as intellectual equals in order to make the exchange experience most educationally worthwhile for both parties.

Bildungsphilosophie im Kampf mit und um Theorie

Ein Bericht von der Kommissionstagung der Bildungs- und Erziehungsphilosophie

Charlotte Spellenberg

Diana Lohwasser

Abstract

The Regime of the Aesthetic

As a preliminary, the text deals with the question of what can be understood by a regime of the aesthetic. The aesthetic regime generates patterns of perception that guide people in their behavior and actions. The regime of the aesthetic oscillates between social regression and emancipation. The regression of the individual aesthetic perception of the world and of the self is evident in all areas of social life. Through the mass media, the aesthetic regime has the ability to manipulate people and influence perceptions and judgment. The ability of the self to defend itself against manipulation regresses. The adoption of given perception, explanation and assessment systems makes life easier than having to question contexts. The difficult task is to emancipate oneself from the regressive aesthetic regime. Referred to Rancière, it requires an ›emancipated viewer‹ capable of emancipating itself from the assigned structures of an aesthetic regime. This endeavor represents an infinite task.

Winfried Böhm

Abstract

German Philosophy of Education between Preparation for War and Desire for Peace

From both a historical and critical perspective, the article reconstructs the problematic transition of German Philosophy of Education from an enlightened to a romantic thinking as well as from the state’s political concept of orientation to that of the people in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This reveals a strange fluctuation of pedagogy in theory and practice between a latent preparation for war on the one hand and a vague longing for peace on the other hand.

Sabine Seichter

Michael Obermaier and Erik Ode

Abstract

How Concepts of an Enemy are Constructed in Popular Pedagogical Literature

Since the time of enlightenment, gradually a popular educational advisory literature has established itself and has become a gigantic market which – beyond pedagogically reflective theory – has by now achieved an enormous power of pedagogical interpretation. Against this setting, the present contribution examines the reasons, mechanisms and enemy concepts which lead to an undermining of educational and to an enhancement of popular narratives. It shows that pedagogic concepts of the enemy constitute a very worthwhile area of pedagogic research, hitherto taken into consideration far too little.

Lernprozesse beim Übergang in neue berufliche Kontexte

Empirische Rekonstruktionen und theoretische Überlegungen am Beispiel der Berufspolitik

Steffen Amling

Abstract

Learning during the Transition to a new Professional Context. Empirical Analyses and Theoretical Considerations using the Example of Professional Politics

The article presents empirical analyses and theoretical considerations on the learning processes that occur during the transition to a new professional context. The research is based upon narrative interviews with German politicians who became member of the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag) for the first time. Following a reconstructive perspective, the analyses show that there are considerable differences either with regard to what aspects of their new professional environments the politicians perceive as an irritation to their occupational routines that initiate a learning process, as with regard to the forms of knowledge that are subsequently subject to changes; not least, the analyses indicate differences in their modes or ways of learning, too. It is argued that reflecting on these different levels of analysis is helpful to shape further research into workplace learning.

Noch einmal: »Was tun?«

Pädagogisches Denken in wenig friedvollen Zeiten

María do Mar Castro Varela

Abstract

Once Again: »What to do?« Educational Thinking in Less Peaceful Times

In times of increasingly normalized right-wing violence, pedagogy must once again ask itself the question: »What to do?« The text tries to make postcolonial perspectives in the revision of general educational ideas productive.

The goal hereby is to design an ethical pedagogy that can think of responsibility vis-à-vis radical alterity. For this, Adorno’s writings on Pedagogy after Auschwitz and postcolonial ideas on pedagogy unfolded by Spivak are combined without falling in to the trap to simply equate them.

Jürgen Oelkers

Abstract

Education for Wholeness, War and Peace

›Wholeness‹ is a topic in educational theory since the Baroque age. In 19th century political concepts of ›wholeness‹ came into being. The article asks what happened to educational theories that were bound to concepts like ›volk‹, ›race‹, ›nation‹ or ›the world‹. Those theories appeared before, during and after World War I. The topics were ›war‹ and ›peace‹ and the rhetorics of wholeness were used on both sides. Because of that, educational theory should abandon the suggestive language of wholeness.

Politische Bildung in Zeiten des Rechtspopulismus

Pädagogische und fachdidaktische Ansätze zum Umgang mit einer gegenwärtigen Bedrohung für den Frieden

Michael Görtler

Abstract

Political Education in Times of right-wing Populism. Pedagogical and Didactical Approaches to Deal with a current Threat to Peace

Right-wing populism challenges the societies in Europe. The rise of such movements and parties are a threat to peace and democracy in Germany. This article focuses the possibilities as well as the boundaries of political education under the current circumstances. To this end, it discusses theoretical explanations based on approaches in peace education, political didactics and social sciences to deal with right-wing populism in practice.

Han Zhang, Yuzhuo Cai and Zhengfeng Li

This paper argues that failure to deeply understand various existing organizations of university-industry technology transfer in China impedes the progress of both practice and research on technology transfer between university and industry in that country. In response, it attempts to categorize different types of university technology transfer organizations in China in over a 30-year time span and analyze the relations between these organizations. In so doing, Tsinghua University is taken as an example for analysis, because technology transfer at Tsinghua University can be seen as a microcosm of university-industry technology transfer in China with pioneer practices and successful experience to be followed by other universities in China. The analysis is guided by an analytical framework, constructed by integrating the insights from relevant literature. The framework distinguishes between different forms of university technology transfer organizations by focusing on six dimensions of the organizational characteristics. After identifying eight types of university technology transfer organizations in Tsinghua University with detailed descriptions of their respective organizational characteristics, the paper further groups them into a four-category typology. Besides its contribution in constructing a framework to understand university technology transfer organizations in the Chinese context, the paper also solicits suggestions for Chinese and international stakeholders who may potentially cooperate with Chinese research universities in research, development, and innovation.

Siri Brorstad Borlaug and Magnus Gulbrandsen

Many science support mechanisms aim to combine excellent research with explicit expectations of societal impact. Temporary research centres such as ‘Centres of Excellence’ and ‘Centre of Excellence in Research and Innovation’ have become widespread. These centres are expected to produce research that creates future economic benefits and contributes to solving society’s challenges, but little is known about the researchers that inhabit such centres. In this paper, we ask how and to what extent centres affect individual researchers’ identity and scientific practice. Based on interviews with 33 researchers affiliated with 8 centres in Sweden and Norway, and on institutional logics as the analytical framework, we find 4 broad types of identities with corresponding practices. The extent to which individuals experience tensions depend upon the compatibility and centrality of the two institutional logics of excellence and innovation within the centre context. Engagement in innovation seems unproblematic and common in research-oriented centres where the centrality of the innovation logic is low, while individuals in centres devoted to both science and innovation in emerging fields of research or with weak social ties to their partners more frequently expressed tension and dissatisfaction.

Liudvika Leišytė and Lisa Sigl

In this article, we aim to explore the agency of scientific entrepreneurs and research managers in shaping their Triple Helix contexts. Drawing on institutional documents and in-depth interviews with research managers and scientists in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the study shows that trust in scientific entrepreneurs from research managers, their scientific standing and leadership, and type of academic entrepreneurship are central in shaping the Triple Helix relationships. Research managers frame themselves as passive service-providers for scientists’ commercialization activities while scientists see them as facilitating creative employment arrangements. Research managers perceive scientists as self-motivated highly creative risk-takers. The studied scientific entrepreneurs negotiate their institutional arrangements and find flexible solutions for the structural barriers within their research organisations. At the same time, they tend to avoid taking personal risks when it comes to contractual arrangements and their careers.

The study identifies two types of agency exerted to shape the Triple Helix context—bricolage and institutional entrepreneurship. Bricolage activities and the trust of research managers in the leadership and autonomy of scientific entrepreneurs prepare the basis for institutional change. This can be the ground for institutional entrepreneurship to take place and reshape the Triple Helix relationships in the particular context.

Edited by Dongping Yang

This collection of articles selected from Blue Book of Chinese Education 2015 published in Chinese reviews the condition of China’s education development in 2014. The wide range of topics covered in this volume fall under two major themes: reform and equity. Chapters on reform focus on the college entrance exam (“ Gaokao”), secondary vocational education, senior high school education, provincially and locally-funded colleges, private universities and junior high school admissions policies. Chapters in the second half of the book provide readers with an in-depth account of efforts made to improve equity in special and early childhood education, study-abroad preparation classes, and rural education. The appendix includes a report of budgetary expenditure on education and chronology of major events.

Wei Yao, Heng Li and Mosi Weng

Extant research shows that universities do not usually foster an inclusive innovation system. This paper examines an innovation program at Zhejiang University that targeted rural areas in China, and that sought to promote an inclusive innovation system. This case illuminates how universities could play a critical role in configuring inclusive regional innovation systems by means of selection, improvement and diffusion of technology, dissemination and absorption of knowledge, access to science and technology, intermediation between the actors of innovation, training skilled labor, and cultivating talent. We underscore how the inclusive innovation program of Zhejiang University allowed this university to help realize the enormous consumption, production, and entrepreneurial potential of low-income households in rural China.

Josep M. Pique, Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent and Henry Etzkowitz

Silicon Valley’s innovation ecosystem has evolved in the last decade. In this study we aim to understand how and why Silicon Valley evolves by identifying changes on the role played by the Triple Helix Agents. We also aim at identifying if changes in one of the agents trigger evolution of the others. Taking the startup as the unit of analysis and applying a multiple case-study approach, the results are analyzed on the bases of the Triple Helix Model and interpreted in the light of the periods of development of an entrepreneurial venture. Our findings suggest that the role of the Triple Helix agents evolves over time and therefore, so does an innovative ecosystem. Main changes refer to the (1) rise of accelerator programs as a new player in the ecosystem; (2) an early engagement of corporations with startups; (3) the geographical expansion of Silicon Valley, now including San Francisco; (4) an increasing commitment of universities with capital funds; and (5) the rise of micromultinationals due to talent shortage and fierce competition in the area.

Florian Poppen and Reinhold Decker

This paper aims to illustrate how the triple-helix concept can be implemented on a city level by establishing an intermediary among the scientific, economic, and public administration spheres and civil society. By using the example of Bielefeld 2000plus, an initiative founded for this particular purpose, this paper shows that in today’s knowledge society, certain inter-organizational conflicts and challenges regarding cooperation may arise that an intermediary actor can channel efficiently. Furthermore, Bielefeld 2000plus serves as a prototypical example and is used to derive a theoretical model of such an intermediary actor as both the product of and platform for institutional entrepreneurs who try to elicit institutional change. Drawing on extant literature that examines intermediaries with the triple-helix concept, as well as institutional entrepreneurs, this paper discusses how an intermediary can act as an institutional entrepreneur by adopting a bifunctional framework, with all the advantages and disadvantages that this entails. This framework is condensed into the Bifunctional Intermediary (BFI) Model, which may benefit researchers studying triplehelix processes and practitioners seeking to establish an intermediary.

Gordan Varelija

The Object-Oriented Dialogue

Object-orientation in instruction and dialogue as a pedagogical action are systematically analyzed as foundations for formative instruction by examining the statements of Alfred Petzelt, Marian Heitger and Alfred Schirlbauer, which are essential to this subject. The questions that are dealt with thereby are how to conceptualize the object-oriented dialogue and whether there is an alternative scenario.

Der Ruf nach Vertrauen

Zum (Un-)Verhältnis von Politik, Inszenierung und Pädagogisierung des Vertrauens

Kerstin Jergus

The Call for Trust

On Interferences between Politics, Staging and Pedagogization of Trust

This contribution examines the systematic aspects and their ambivalences of trust relationships. After a modernization-theoretical consideration, political, ethical and pedagogical implications of trust are explored and finally discussed with regard to the relationality of trust to the limits of the pedagogization of trust.

Salzburg, Sabine Seichter

Glück als das höchste Ziel der Selbstbildung

Zu L. A. Senecas ›Ad Lucilium. Epistulae morales‹

Norbert Hilgenheger

Happines as the Ultimate Aim of Self-Education

With Reference to L. A. Seneca’s ›Ad Lucilium. Epistulae morales‹

It is not difficult to get a gist of Seneca’s theory of education from studying his collected letters ›Ad Lucilium. Epistulae morales‹. The collection focuses on the idea based on stoic philosophy that the good man (vir bonus) is a happy one and that only a good person can be permanently happy. Seneca advises his friend Lucilius on the question how to educate oneself to be good and happy.

Krise der Imagination?

Bemerkungen zur politischen und ästhetischen Bildung

Roland Reichenbach

A Crisis of Imagination?

Remarks on Civic and Aesthetic Education

Immanuel Kant’s notion of reflective judgments and Hannah Arendt’s reinterpretation of its value for the understanding of the public domain and the crucial role of common sense are the starting points of the contribution in which central aspects of Jean-Claude Michéa’s recent critique of liberalism are presented. From this perspective it is neither convincing to strictly separate cultural (political) liberalism from economic liberalism nor to share their »negative« anthropology and/or the quasi sacred axiom of moral neutrality (of the state) in both liberal views. The crisis of (political) imagination rests on the crisis of common sense.

Revision ästhetischer Bildung

Neue Perspektiven über Siegerkunst

Phillip D. Th. Knobloch

Aesthetic Education revisited

New Perspectives via Victor’s Art

Contemporary art, which is sold for extremely high prizes, is called ›victor’s art‹ by Wolfgang Ullrich, because it is art from victorious artists, produced for victorious clients. Therefore, the specific aesthetic potentials only come clear, if such artworks are understood both as art and as consumer products. This article focuses on the phenomenon of victor’s art in order to discus, if this aesthetic concept leads also to a revision of concepts of aesthetic education.

Über Diskurse, Macht und Molotowcocktails

Eine Tagung zur ›French Theory‹

Daniel Deplazes

Verdinglichende Denkweisen von Lehrkräften als Hinweise der Deprofessionalisierung?

Zur Auswirkung ökonomischer Rationalisierungsprozesse im Bildungssystem

André Epp

Reifying Ways of Thinking of Teachers as Indications of Deprofessionalization?

The Impact of Economic Rationalization Processes in the Education System

The phenomenon of reification was dealt with intensively in the 1920s and 1930s. However, this phenomenon cannot be seen just as a principle of capitalist societies but also as mental thought patterns and structures of consciousness. Responsible for the reification are foremost economic processes of rationalization. According to Lukács (1975) the structure of commodities extends to structures of consciousness and thought patterns which then lead to a damage of the innermost thinking. The article explores the problem of reification in the course of growing economization of education and educational institutions. With the help of empirical data, it is illustrated that signs of reification can be identified in thought patterns and structures of consciousness of teachers.

Zur Anthropologie Ästhetischer Bildung

Ein historisch-systematischer Vorschlag

Juliane Noack Napoles and Jörg Zirfas

On the Anthropology of Aesthetic Education

A Historical-Systematic Proposition

In this article we propose a systematization of Aesthetic Education from an anthropological perspective. Aesthetic Education is centred on anthropology in its dimensions of perception and thought, praxis and formation as well as emotion and relation. For each of them we present two very different authors and their conceptions of Aesthetic Education: with Baumgarten and Hegel we discuss perception and thought, with Locke and Nietzsche we focus praxis and formation, and with Lessing and Wagner we analyse forms of emotion and relation of Aesthetic Education. Aesthetic Education is realized as an anthropological ›interplay‹ of these dimensions, in which it gains its power.