This article is a reflective text by an art curator interested in exploring the boundaries between video activism, spectatorship, and pedagogy. It proposes new ways of critically understanding the terms “activist,” “participation,” and “militancy” in the context of an expanded notion of the image and the role of the spectator. Emerging from field notes, the article narrates and shares the experiences of engaging students at workshops for “Between Broadcast – a project around activist videos,” held at at fine art academies and universities in Leipzig, Düsseldorf, and Bergamo. The practical aim of the workshops was to introduce and engage students with the subject of so-called activist video clips on YouTube. The students were asked to find, select, and discuss militant videos and, subsequently, to create a montage from them. The conceptual aim of the workshop was to reflect upon video spectatorship online and what that means, the agency of the spectator, and the possibilities of their active participation in the process of viewing. The outcomes of the workshops were the development of critical thinking of the students concerning the subjects of online video, digital empathy, their engagement with videos as individual viewers and as a collective, and the power of montage as a narrative and activist tool.
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- Teacher Education x
This article provides a critical reflection on, and some key examples of Native American media activism, in particular film and video making. The aim of the article is to discuss the reasons why such activism is important, consider its strength and challenges, as underpinned by the work of critical media scholars, such as Stuart Hall and other prominent scholars. To do so, it provides relevant examples and cases which point at the role of and issues surrounding image, representation, (in) visibility, access, recognition, dissemination, censorship and identity, in relation to video activism.
The main findings are that video activism can be a helpful tool in the frame of Native Americans’ struggles for self-making and sovereignty, reversing the trend established historically first by the European settlers, and then by the American ‘mainstream’ population, whose aim was to erase and assimilate Indigenous peoples. However, although we pinpoint the fact that indigenous media, such as Fourth Cinema or video productions broadcast on platforms like Youtube, are used as political tools by Native Americans, the essay also means to highlight the limits of such tools, whether the latter are theoretical, or practical.
In summary, this article considers traditional indigenous media in self-making processes, mainly through the importance of filmmaking. Furthermore, it emphasizes how resistance, resurgence and sovereignty are pursued with the utilization of digital Indigenous media. It also tries to underline the limits of those methods which should be taken into account to strengthen Indigenous activism. Finally, even if these points are related here to Native American activism, they seem relevant to any kind of activism. It is hence key to highlight that the critical arguments and example provided here can support teachers’ work related to social justice. Teachers can use the examples and points made here as a reflection trigger with students in higher education across disciplines and high school, within and beyond the fields that tackle media, culture, sociology, and history.
Severin Sales Rödel and Malte Brinkmann
This paper introduces the methodological approach and the pedagogical-phenomenological practice of video analysis. In a first step, basic structures of phenomenological theories of experience, of embodiment as well as theories of responsivity and image will be introduced. In a second step, watching and perceiving video data is identified as a responsive and participatory experience. In a third step, the methodical ground of our research is introduced by giving an overview of epistemological and methodological aspects of the phenomenological approach. In this context, the individual steps of phenomenological video analysis and phenomenological analysis in general will be put to practice on an example. In doing so, teaching in the classroom is determined as an interattentional form of responsivity, in which showing as a specific pedagogical form of embodiment corresponds with becoming attentive. In a final step, research results on a typology of pedagogical gestures of showing and pointing will be introduced.
Lynley Tulloch and Paul Judge
In New Zealand one of the most significant animal rights issues is the systemic cruelty inherent in the dairy industry. This article presents a review of video activism as a strategy by activists in New Zealand to educate the public about the brutal and oppressive realities of dairy practices. To illustrate we offer a case study of an antidairy campaign in 2015 that was based on activist video work. This campaign was led by key animal rights groups SAFE and Farmwatch and was called The Dark Side of Dairy. In this case, video footage captured by activists was used to provide counter narratives to the dominant discourses of dairying and to educate the public about their consumption practices. We argue that dominant discourses of dairying are powerful shapers of public consciousness and based on welfarist ideology and myths of the rural Romantic Arcadia. To illustrate the strength of these dominant understandings we employ critical discourse analysis (CDA) and semiotic analysis. In teasing out the ways in which discourses of dairy farming have been constructed in New Zealand, we demonstrate the power of political forces in preserving the status quo around dairying. This paper concludes that the role of animal rights video activism lies primarily in educating the public to think more deeply and critically about human-animal relations and the depravations of dairy farming. It is the basis for a pedagogy of conscientization. We conclude that conscientization of the underpinning exploitative relations of animal agriculture can occur with the aid of witness to the animal’s suffering conveyed through the medium of video.
Erica B. Walker and D. Matthew Boyer
Background: Mixed methods research commonly uses video as a tool for collecting data and capturing reflections from participants, but it is less common to use video as a means for disseminating results. However, video can be a powerful way to share research findings with a broad audience especially when combining the traditions of ethnography, documentary filmmaking, and storytelling.
Results: Our literature review focused on aspects relating to video within mixed methods research that applied to the perspective presented within this paper: the history, affordances and constraints of using video in research, the application of video within mixed methods design, and the traditions of research as storytelling. We constructed a Mind Map of the current literature to reveal convergent and divergent themes and found that current research focuses on four main properties in regards to video: video as a tool for storytelling/research, properties of the camera/video itself, how video impacts the person/researcher, and methods by which the researcher/viewer consumes video. Through this process, we found that little has been written about how video could be used as a vehicle to present findings of a study.
From this contextual framework and through examples from our own research, we present current and potential roles of video storytelling in mixed methods research. With digital technologies, video can be used within the context of research not only as data and a tool for analysis, but also to present findings and results in an engaging way.
Conclusions: In conclusion, previous research has focused on using video as a tool for data collection and analysis, but there are emerging opportunities for video to play an increased role in mixed methods research as a tool for the presentation of findings. By leveraging storytelling techniques used in documentary film, while staying true to the analytical methods of the research design, researchers can use video to effectively communicate implications of their work to an audience beyond academics and use video storytelling to disseminate findings to the public.
Niina Rutanen, Kátia de Souza Amorim, Helen Marwick and Jayne White
This article and the four videos linked to this article are a result of the earliest experiences in establishing an international research collaboration among seven countries in the Project Social and emotional experiences in transition through the early years. We draw attention to the complex issues surrounding the many processes, beliefs and attitudes about infants in research that permeated our processes of gaining ethical approval for the international study and which posed many challenges for our project. Through a process of reflective analysis, we have identified a range of ethical tensions and issues which the different countries involved in this international study faced in gaining ethical approval from their institutional ethical committees for their collaborative participation. More specifically, we identify one persistent tension concerning the use of video data in research on young children. This tension is a result of diverse interpretations of international ethical codes, alongside local restrictions and ethics review processes. It illuminates various positions concerning the protection of infants’ privacy versus the benefits of using non-anonymous video data both in joint analysis, and even further, in open publishing. Such positions have been widely debated in research with adults, whereupon many of the ethically challenging questions have been dealt with through processes of acquiring informed consents from the participants. In case of infants, however, the role and nature of informed consents is different from research with adults, as is the role of the adult in using infant ‘data’ in research. For most cases, informed consents are acquired from the parents or the legal guardians that are not necessarily present on a day-to-day basis in the actual data collection process in early years educational settings. The question of children’s own assents for study is widely debated and this is no less so in the project we present in this paper. On the basis of the experiences in this international collaboration, and the challenges and tensions identified in between diverse cultural context and ethical review boards and practices, we propose that more dialogue in relation to research ethics on video research is needed within the diverse research communities and contexts, both locally and internationally. The dialogue is important to include also the representatives from the ethical committees, as the new (open) mediums for publishing are becoming more relevant and promising. Most important, ultimately, is the dialogue among the research participants, including where possible infants as contributors in their own right (as opposed to vulnerable subjects), and researchers in all phases of the research process.
This article introduces an “Inquiry Graphics” (IG) approach for multimodal, Peircean semiotic video analysis and coding. It builds on Charles Sanders Peirce’s core triadic interpretation of sign meaning-making. Multimodal methods offer analytical frameworks, templates and software to analyse video data. However, multimodal video analysis has been scarcely linked to semiotics in/of education (edusemiotics), for the purpose of exploring higher education teaching-learning and settings. This article addresses the mentioned gap by introducing the IG approach, which links multimodality and edusemiotics primarily via Peirce’s triadic sign. The article offers a step-by-step IG coding guide, examples and explanations. IG application can be expanded to video analysis across many fields, levels and subjects, within and beyond higher education research, nationally and internationally.
Michael Gaffney and E. Jayne White
The power of video as a route to activism is not new to education. Its efficacy in galvanizing political action and advocacy concerning important social issues plays an important role in raising public consciousness and a ‘call to arms’. In the early 1980’s Anne Smith understood this more than most. Her use of video as a mode of political advocacy was part of a larger intellectual and political quest to alter public perspective and policy concerning women and children in Aotearoa New Zealand at that time. Since her death in 2016 the videos she made in the 1980s to early 1990s have now been made freely available to the public and continue to be relevant today. Back then they were produced and disseminated through hours of labour with a group of supporters who shared an understanding of the importance of video to galvanise political consciousness and action. This paper explores the thinking behind the production of these videos and their impact in the public domain with the help of Anne’s life-long partner John Smith and then goes on to look at subsequent work. The paper then goes on to consider, with Professor Anne Meade, the strategic potential for video in the field that can learn much from Anne Smith’s legacy. Together they highlight the power and potential of video to mobilise policy and practice concerning children in the public realm as agentic citizens and to progress the important work Anne started through such modalities into the future.
Sara E. D. Wilmes, Roberto Gómez Fernández, Anna Gorges and Christina Siry
This article presents multiple episodes drawing from three distinct research projects conducted in multilingual classrooms in Luxembourg, to underscore the value of video analysis in culturally and linguistically diverse classroom contexts. We show how video analysis that valorizes the non-verbal in interaction has the ability to reveal communicative resources often masked by analysis rooted in the verbal. From the examples presented, that span teacher and student interactions in both elementary and secondary classrooms, we make a methodological argument based on analytical approaches utilized in all three research projects to demonstrate how we have come to an expanded notion of voice in our research that is revealed through multimodal video analysis. Specific analytical approaches that illuminate the embodied and multimodal aspects of voice are discussed. We conclude by underscoring the benefits of embodied and multimodal approaches to video analysis for research with all students, but most importantly for students often marginalized through analytical approaches that prioritize the verbal. Finally, we discuss the implications of video research that works to highlight resource-rich views of teaching and learning across learning contexts
Liv Kondrup Kristensen
This article proposes a methodological framework for analyzing video by adopting an embodied perspective. In order to deal with researching the complexity of human interaction that has been captured on video, structured ways for analysis are needed. In this article, the metaphor of an onion is used to conceptualize the process of unpacking the layers of observed interactions on video. Four different layers are identified: Foregrounding bodies, considering talk in combination with body, including the environment, and depth and adjustment through participant perspectives. To illustrate the process of analysis through this methodological approach, a worked example of video observations featuring classroom interaction is presented. While analysis of video through the step-by-step process in four layers is laborious, it is forcing the researcher to break with the habit of privileging talk as the base-line for analysis, sensitizing the analytical process towards non-verbal dimensions of interaction, while bringing in material dimensions, as well as the voices of participants in order to understand embodied interaction as situated activity.
Movement toward Equity in Education
Edited by Norvella P. Carter and Michael Vavrus
Georgina Stewart and Hēmi Dale
Washday at the Pā was an old school journal - a book designed for young readers, containing a photo-story of a typical day at home for a Māori mother and her children. Washday was published in 1964 by School Publications (the publishing arm of the Department of Education) on behalf of the government of Aotearoa New Zealand, as part of its educational publishing programme to support universal state schooling provision, in the post-WWII modernist era of national expansion and Māori urbanisation. A few months after its national distribution to primary schools, the book became the target of Māori protest, resulting in the mandatory return and destruction of all 38,000 copies. This outcome, in turn, generated a larger national controversy in the form of a flurry of opinions expressed over several months through the editorials and letter columns of newspapers throughout the country - the social media of the times. Many commentators objected to what they saw as unnecessary censorship, pandering to Māori ‘sensitivities’, and a senseless waste of valuable educational resources. The purpose of this video research article is to present bilingual (English and Māori) oral and written Kaupapa Māori discussions and readings of the book and its history, which incorporate critical Māori perspectives and Māori language and knowledge, and extend on from our previous investigations of the Washday controversy from Kaupapa Māori educational perspectives (Stewart, Educ Philos Theory 1–9, 2017b; Stewart and Dale, Waikato J Educ 21:5–15, 2016).
Avis Florence Ridgway
This article is backgrounded by researchers using of visual methodology for naturalistic research to document young children’s learning. Recent interest in the speed and immediacy of mobile phone video capture leads to new opportunities in educational research. This small study aims to find if mobile phone video is an appropriate research tool for the capture of fleeting moments of learning, in toddler initiated play. Inspired by participation in an ethically approved pilot project: ‘Studying Babies and Toddlers: Cultural Worlds and Transitory Relationships’, the study uses a cultural-historical Theoretical approach to analyse mobile phone video data of one toddler’s pontaneous play activity. It is argued that greater attention be paid by educators to transitory moments of toddler play in relation to their pedagogical significance. A fortuitous moment of toddler initiated symbolic play activity is video captured on mobile phone and used for discussion. Drawing on Vygotsky’s concepts of the social genesis of higher mental functions and perezhivanie, the toddler’s initiated symbolic play activity is analysed. Analysis is supported by visual methodology, where video image data are linked with transcript to create a narrative of the moment of toddler’s initated play. Data are found to exemplify the ontogenesis of higher mental functions being culturally mediated and supported in the toddler’s symbolic play activity. Futhermore, findings show how tactile and visual qualities of a cultural object attract a toddler’s sensory responses, which in turn, activate the creative moment of symbolic play. The toddler’s momentary playful action captured on mobile phone video, sheds light on how symbolic activity reflects thinking processes to offer insight into how toddler (Luci) can, in a passing moment, imbue a cultural object with new symbolic meaning. Findings imply that using mobile phone video for later review, makes it possible for educators to pay more immediate attention to toddler’s activity in frequently overlooked transitory moments of play. Potentially, the ubiquitous mobile phone can help educators discover the pedagogical significance of a toddler’s smallest moment of symbolic activity, and in practice, offer ethical and caring extension to support their learning.
E. Jayne White
This editorial starts an important discussion concerning the contemporary use of video that involves young children, including infants, in an age of visual culture within the open learned society that comprises the Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy. The author puts in motion an agenda for ethics committees and researchers to consider these issues carefully before determining the use of video involving young children in educational research.
Tony Reeves, Emre Caglayan and Ruth Torr
This paper explores the benefits and challenges of using video blogging to support reflection and assessment in acting and performance training. A video platform called Acclaim was integrated into the university’s virtual learning environment (Blackboard), enabling students to record and share their performances in an online setting. A key feature of the platform was the ability to add time-based comments on a video, making it possible for tutors and students to discuss and critique specific moments of each performance. Students were also required to record and upload regular video blogs during which they would reflect on their progress. At the end of the first year, a survey was designed to evaluate students’ experiences of the video blogging activity. The findings indicate mixed results: while many students viewed video blogging as a useful learning activity, they also identified a number of challenges that hampered its effectiveness. From this study we conclude that while video blogging presents several notable advantages for the facilitation of performance-based courses, the technology needs to be carefully introduced as part of a broader instructional strategy to maximise the potential benefits for student learning and engagement.
While online students may wish to see their teacher on video, there may be practical, pedagogical, affective or political reasons for hesitating. Drawing on my own experiences of online teaching both on a Masters programme and a MOOC (EDCMOOC), the paper raises questions about approaches to teaching, misrepresentation, surveillance and teacher agency. I conclude that though there are problems in these areas, they exist apart from the use of video technology and should not be conflated with it. Moreover, video use does not need to entail a monologic pedagogic stance but can be used to renew and create dialogic opportunities for teachers and students. The paper situates its questions within Bakhtinian ideas about the monologic and the dialogic, parody and addressivity.
Michael A. Peters and E. Jayne White
Introduction: Today, Video Based Analysis (VBA) is one of the teaching methods widely used in different fields that help in effective teaching and learning process.
Objective: To construct a self made video based analysing teaching and to focus on the importance of VBA teaching method in the field of Physical Education (PE)
Method: For the purpose, a self- made video (Length = 00:02:21) was constructed. A series of set shoot skill by one athlete who represented university in basketball was recorded using high speed camera. The materials included are one digital video camera and a laptop or computer with the software Windows Live Movie Maker, which allows frame-by-frame playback of the video.
Outcomes: The outcomes of the study was that a self made video model was constructed by used of WLMM, which can be used as teaching tool, feedback tool, visual perception of the skill, creating interest to the participants. The skill was divided into three (3) phases for analysing the body and leverage movements while executing the skill which is unnoticeable by the naked eye in a fraction of seconds.
Conclusion: Using this video model (VBA) will offer varied opportunities as it allows performance to be paused, repeated, played in slow motion and can be used in all types of model-based practices like sports education. The use of VBA in teaching along with any model-based practices will help in improving the motor educability, efficiency and performance of the students.
Sarah Pink, Helen Lingard and James Harley
In this article we examine the introduction of digital video pedagogy into dynamic workplaces with fast-changing social and material environments, and discuss its potential to participate in producing forms of positive change. The discussion brings together two strands: we investigate workplace learning theoretically as it emerges as part of a digital material world; and we consider how we might re-think workplace learning through possibilities of digital technologies. We develop this discussion through the example of how digital video has been used to engender new ways of learning and knowing about safety in one of the most dangerous workplaces globally - the construction industry.
Michael A. Peters, Tina Besley, Petar Jandrić and Milan Bajić
E. Jayne White
This paper summons Bakhtin's principle of visual excess to the field of video research. Bakhtin's dialogic approach emphasises the visual as an effort of the eye, as well as the subjective “I”. Seeing is thus re-caste as an event where subjective and cultural boundaries are encountered, lived, and offer insight to those involved. Video is therefore posited as a visual and axiologic encounter that allows one to perceive beyond one's own limits. Here the researcher does not come with a predetermined set of categories or criteria, but seeks to encounter the form of language and the meaning of those forms, from multiple (polyphonic) visual and ideological standpoints. I argue that taking this approach opens up possibilities for seeing as an opportunity for dialogic speculation and interrogation- one that forms the basis of my research orientation. By way of demonstration the paper will introduce an example of video filmed in an infant educational setting which highlights the additional insights offered through different visual fields and their interpreted meanings. Synchronising four visual fields of the same event - from the view of the infants, teacher and researcher - visual surplus is thus operationalized as a multi-voiced polyphonic event. Dialogues concerning their pedagogical significance - for the teacher and the researcher - are discussed alongside the footage itself. Together they highlight subtle, yet highly significant potentialities for video work that set out to engage with the experience of the eye as an encounter with ‘other’. I argue that such visually oriented engagement can act as a central source of understanding and insight that far exceeds traditional approaches in educational research that view participants as mere objects for amusement or manipulation. Moreover, this approach poses a new video methodology in which meanings take precedence over what is aesthetically received.
Avis Ridgway, Liang Li and Gloria Quiñones
This paper examines an experimental technique that uses visual narrative methodology and dialogue commentary to create an effective research methodology for a pilot project studying babies and toddlers in long day care centres and family contexts. Researchers from different cultural backgrounds using video technology, formed the team of chief investigators. One video clip was chosen to make independent descriptions, comments and interpretations of what was noticed. Later, initial visual narrative descriptions were shared and extended after reading one another’s responses. This process created a dialogue commentary that enabled data overview, interpretative analyses and synthesis supported by snapshot moments taken from video clip. One aim of the project was to visually capture the cultural worlds and transitory relationships of babies and toddlers. Researchers showed the selected video clip separately to babies’ room educator, centre director, and parents recording their responses. Using visual narrative methodology, dialogue commentary, and a shared cultural historical theoretical framework, revealed useful contradictions that raised social and cultural questions such as: How do educators recognize cultural worlds and transitory relationships of babies and toddlers? How are transitory moments related to pedagogically by educators? Integrating researchers’ personal, cultural and affective responses, affords new critical cultural perspectives. This paper draws on screen capture snapshot moments from one video clip, taken from babies’ pilot project data. These offer small windows into methodological approaches used to research the cultural world and transitory moments of three infants and their educator, located in the babies’ room of an Australian long day care (LDC) site.
This paper theorizes the concept of affective connection as a dimension of subjective sense. A methodological tool of ‘Visual Vivencias’ is used to analyse how young children create affective connections with adults and other young children. A cultural - historical approach is discussed to explain how young children develop significant and affective relations and connections with each other. Video observations were made of a baby and her family who live in Australia and with Mexican heritage. Two case examples are discussed, the first one involves a baby and her father and the second one is about two babies interacting. The analysis of the data includes moments of intensity, affective exchange and action and affective connections. This paper emphasises the importance of using visual methodologies to further understand babies’ subjectivity as they affectively make sense of their world. Pedagogical implications are discussed such as the importance of educators having close affective interactions with young children.
Empirie und Theorie von Zeitstrukturen in Lehr-Lernprozessen
In diesem Buch wird erstmals ein empirisch fundiertes Modell von Zeitstrukturen entwickelt. Ausgehend von der Operativen Pädagogik werden Formen der Synchronisation des Lehrens und Lernens identifiziert und analysiert. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt die Studie auch die Rückseite der Synchronisation, Asynchronisation, als zentrales Moment heraus. Indem aufgezeigt wird, dass in Lehr-Lernprozessen asynchrone Momente unverzichtbar sind, erscheint die Differenz von 'subjektiver' und 'objektiver' Zeit nicht länger als pädagogisches Problem. Vielmehr stellt sich eine Vielfalt divergierender Zeitstrukturen als strukturelle Voraussetzung für die Realisierung von Lehr-Lernprozessen dar. Diese sind durch eine relative zeitliche Koordination gekennzeichnet: durch das dynamische und flexible Oszillieren zwischen Synchronisation und Asynchronisation.
Theorizing Power as Assembling Subjectivity
Åsa Mäkitalo, Christer Carlsson and Roger Säljö
The research reported here has been funded by the Knowledge Foundation and by the Swedish Research Council. Mäkitalo and Säljö are members of LinCS – The Linnaeus Centre for Research on Learning, Interaction and Mediated Communication in Contemporary Society. The chapter was written while the third author was a Finland Distinguished Professor at the Centre for Learning Research, University of Turku.
Josephine P. van Meer, Gerard. J. Veldhuis, Martijn L. van Emmerik and Nicolet C. M. Theunissen
The purpose of this article is to introduce and validate AID (Assistant for Instructional Design), a tool that supports educational developers in selecting appropriate educational concepts. Due to periodical job rotation within the military, educational developers are not always experts in the educational field and are consequently unaware of the different types of educational concepts that are available to teach with. AID has been developed over the course of several years, as a support for educational developers. It incorporates both theoretical and practical criteria related to selecting a suitable concept for an educational program. Subsequently, it provides support in the actual concretization of the educational program. In continuance of two pilots, AID has been tested by 29 instructors in training. The results show that AID is an effective tool for advising educational developers. It can be concluded that AID can provide valuable support for the development of new educational programs.
Frank Achtenhagen, Fritz K. Oser and Ursula Renold
Qian-Ting Wong, Ngai-Ying Wong, Chi-Chung Lam and Qiao-Ping Zhang
Matthias Baer, Günter Dörr, Urban Fraefel, Mirjam Kocher, Oliver Küster, Susanna Larcher, Peter Müller, Waltraud Sempert and Corinne Wyss
The article presents aims, methods and first results of a project involving three educational universities in Switzerland and Germany. Our focus of interest is the longitudinal analysis of teaching competences from the beginning up to the end of teacher training. We test the teaching competences of a sample of student teachers at the beginning of the training and trace the development of their competences over the three-year period of their study. Methodologically, our study is based on Oser’s professional standards, as well as on the four dimensions ‘subject knowledge’, ‘diagnostic knowledge’, ‘didactical knowledge’, and ‘classroom management knowledge’, which have been framed as crucial competences for teachers. A combination of the following different instruments was used to investigate how teaching competences develop during teacher training: (1) questionnaires for teacher students and expert teachers, (2) vignettes, (3) a so-called «video test», and (4) video analyses of school lessons. According to this goal, the relationship between students’ subjective ratings of their competences and standardized data from observations and tests are compared to investigate the relationship between subjective rating data from students and standardized data from observations and tests. Our study aims at the development of complex teacher knowledge in order to foster the acquisition of professional teacher competences in pre-service teacher training.
A cross-national calibration of programs of vocational education and training rests on the prodigious intellectual effort necessary to abstract from practice those instances or features that capture the essence of competency and then embody these features in assessment tools that provide an appropriate metric. This complex chain of analysis and interpretation that moves from work performance to standards is certainly fraught with difficulties, especially as one attempts to capture a 21st Century emphasis on collaboration, problem-solving, self-direction, and creativity in the workplace (see Baethge, Achtenhagen, Arends, Babic, Baethge- Kinsky, and Weber, 2006).
In the present analysis, I would like to focus on the equally formidable issues that are confronted as one turns toward the education and training side of competency, to the bringing of competencies to life in educative activity. The contrast I see is between, on the one hand, the macro world of universalities that frequently anchor discussions of assessment and international comparison and, on the other, the micro world of educative activity which is local and particular and in which effectiveness is a situated accomplishment.
Modern curriculum theory provides a rich set of tools to inform the chain of analysis and interpretation required to move from competency standards to types of educative activity that purport to foster competency. To do this, I will first address the nature of curriculum work as I see it and then turn to the task of tracing the complex processes involved in transforming competencies as content into curriculum and enacting curriculum as educative activity in preparatory contexts.
I would like to frame my remarks around two themes. The first is the gap I see between, on the one hand, the crystal clear and compelling logic of standards and assessment schemes which promise to rationalize and improve educational opportunity and quality and, on the other, the often reported failures of these schemes in whole or in part to fulfill their expectations. In other words, there often seems to be a disconnection between the rhetoric and reality and, since the rhetoric promises utopia, reality is often disappointing. What I hope to suggest is that we would be far better off in education and training to focus on understanding reality and inventing ways to make that reality rich and rewarding.
The second theme is suggested in a recent paper by D’Agostino, Welsch, and Corson (2007). They investigated the connection between scores on the Arizona standards-based assessment (Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards—AIMS) in 5th grade mathematics and the ways in which a sample of teachers brought the standards to life in the classroom. To do this, they asked teachers to describe and give examples of how they enacted key standards and had these teacher descriptions judged by mathematicians in terms of the quality of the mathematics presented. The investigators discovered three broad categories of standards enactment by the teachers. One was enactments that did not adequately reflect the standard. A second was enactments that matched exactly or mimicked the way in which the standards were brought to life on the test. Of course, students in the classes of the second group of teachers had higher scores on the assessment than those in the first group. But there was a third group that was of particular interest. In this group, the teachers brought the standards to life in the classroom in mathematically legitimate ways but these ways did not match exactly the ways in which the test brought the standards to life. In these classes, the students scored better than those in classes in which an inaccurate enactment occurred, but lower than those in classes in which the enactment mimicked the test.
D’Agostino and his colleagues concluded that the assessment was instructionally sensitive, but in a very narrow sense that undermines the very idea of standards-based reform. It produced, in other words, the very narrowing of educational potential that David Berliner addresses so eloquently. We must be cautious, I think, about the power of assessments alone to revolutionize the quality of educational experiences for students.
Rina Zazkis and Peter Liljedahl
Robyn M. Gillies
M. Reenalda, W. J. Nijhof, R. J. Veldkamp-De Jong and B. P. Veldkamp
Workplace Learning is seen by policy-makers as an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. In dualized learning environments, learning at school and learning at work is integrated. The focus on learning competencies is a central issue of recent innovations in higher professional colleges. In this paper we explore the effects of the dual learning environments in higher professional colleges in the Netherlands. The central question is whether the characteristics of dual learning environments influence competency development. To realize this goal, we have measured competency development in relation to personal characteristics and the characteristics of the learning environments by conducting an electronic survey. This paper shows the results of the Technical sector in the Netherlands. In general, the findings show that students’ results are influenced by the characteristics of the learning environment, especially ‘achieving learning goals’, ‘the content’ and ‘cooperation between school and training company’.
Jean-Marc Falter, Yves Flückiger and José Ramirez
Jinfa Cai, Gabriele Kaiser, Bob Perry and Ngai-Ying Wong
Conversations on Teaching and Learning Drawing
as it allows for the complex unfolding of relational transformation, alongside the artistic renditions of each person exploring their understandings of drawing. The products and processes of this book provide alternative approaches for the design of future pre-service and in-service programs that aim to serve teachers as learners rather than teachers as teachers. In this vein, the book offers worthy insights into how the arts and collaborative action research groups assist participants in finding other ways of seeing, imaging, and knowing the world. The book will appeal to practitioners, teacher educators, educational researchers, as well as those interested in professional development, complexity thinking, curriculum studies, collaborative action research, and arts-based educational research methodologies.
National and Cross-National Studies
Edited by Jinfa Cai, Gabriele Kaiser, Bob Perry and Ngai-Ying Wong
The book will provide readers and scholars with the stimulus to take the ideas presented and expand on them in ways that help improve mathematics education for children, teachers and researchers in both the East and the West.
Strategies that Promote Learning
Robyn M. Gillies
Evidence-based teaching: Strategies that promote learning is designed to provide teachers with an overview of the types of evidence that can be used to enhance their teaching practices. It does this by documenting those practices that have been used effectively in classrooms to facilitate how teachers teach and how students learn. This text is designed to make teachers aware of how to critically evaluate different types of evidence that can be used to inform their teaching practice. It achieves this by making explicit the link between theory, research and practice.
Established genres and discourses are exclusionary. The vast migration of people and ideas is producing a new set of presuppositions. The manner in which we decode other discourses and fuse them into meanings, both personal and shared, is the root of both teaching and learning, giving us a window into the way that each form of thought is connected, both historically and experientially. Look around you, your school is becoming the United Nations, but it’s not so united. Don’t aim for truth, aim for understanding. Today’s students construct and deconstruct in a multitude of ways on an as-needed, just-in-time basis. Since ideas of difference are often nudged but unacknowledged, we are in danger of becoming pedagogical dinosaurs, not heeding change until it is too late.
Teaching and learning are construction zones, so get out your hard hat. These constructions are possibilities that need to be discussed and negotiated, allowing us to sidestep the traps of grand narratives and a hierarchy of discplinarity and research methodology. Our possibilities need to be forged on an anvil of diversity. These are the spaces, the interstices, where our voices become innovative and our silence offers a safe harbor. Spaces to listen, collaborate, and craft cautionary tales about our lives and the possibilities for a shared future.
An Asia-Pacific Perspective
Edited by Cher Ping Lim, Kenneth Cock, Graeme Lock and Christopher Brook
—Examining Pre-Service Teacher Education
—Engaging Partners in Pre-Service Teacher Education
—Emerging Practices in Pre-Service Teacher Education
Civics Education for the 21st Century
Edited by Mordechai Gordon
Edited by Cynthia A. Lassonde and Sally Galman
P. Taylor Webb
Aims, Modules, Evaluation
Edited by Frank Achtenhagen, Fritz K. Oser and Ursula Renold
The contributions to this book focus on central problems of the conversion process: In the first part the goal dimension is treated: Maiello & Oser emphasize the relationship of central variables of teacher behaviour as identity, professional satisfaction or self-efficacy to teachers’ professional behaviour; Blömeke, Felbrich & Müller discuss the role of future teachers’ beliefs on the nature of mathematics; Stevenson uses cultural historical activity theory to work out cognitive schemas that can be targeted in vocational teacher education; Gruber tackles the problem of how vocational teachers can be supported to become experts by discussing especially four major possible research strategies.
The second part of this book is dedicated to possible intervention approaches by which the gap of theory and practice shall be bridged. Steiner & Steiner report on critical learning incidents which heavily influence the micro-processes which characterize teachers’ instructional measures; Winther differentiates the trait and state perspective of motivation with regard to their consequences for the learning process; Boekaerts focuses on aspects of collaborative learning; Weber sharpens her deliberations explicitly to a design experiment on the problem of initiating intercultural learning.
The third part of this book is a report of the use and the consequences of Oser’s model of teaching standards. Baer, Dörr, Fraefel, Kocher, Kiester, Larcher, Müller, Sempert & Wyss show results of a large study on the development of teacher competences run in Switzerland and Germany. The study observes the competence development of prospective teachers from the beginning of their teaching training up to the job entry phase. This book is published under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology.
Rina Zazkis and Peter Liljedahl
Edited by Bill Green
The contributors to this book, drawn from fields such as education, allied health, psychology and business, explore different aspects of practice in the professions, professionalism, and research. This includes engaging with the burgeoning literature on practice theory and philosophy, including the increasingly influential neo-Aristotelian tradition, and taking account of growing interest in practice thinking across contemporary scholarship. It considers issues such as the primacy of practice, the nature of professional judgement, the role of ‘experience’, ethics, context, and the practitioner standpoint. As such, it raises important and timely questions about practice ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies, and also praxis and politics. This is especially needed in a context otherwise increasingly organised by neoliberalism, economic rationality, anxious managerialism, and what some see as a general drive towards de-professionalisation and new nuances and intensities of regulation.
Essays in Honor of Frank Achtenhagen
Edited by Fritz K. Oser, Ursula Renold, Ernst G. John, Esther Winther and Susanne Weber
Edited by Joy Higgs, Debbie Horsfall and Sandra Grace
Raimo Kaasila and Erkki Pehkonen
We analysed the effectiveness of learning environments using different instructional supports. In an experimental study, the effects were investigated with two conditions: coaching guidance in different learning settings to compare the specificity of coaching in concrete teaching and learning settings on the one hand; on the other hand the effectiveness of complex learning environments compared to traditional classroom settings was of interest. We found significant differences in the quality of performance, students’ situational perception, and regulation.
Robyn M. Gillies
Rongjin Huang and Yeping Li
Eugenia M. W. Ng
Information technology is a convenient and powerful tool to stimulate and support learning at any time and place, and the special features of online communication foster collaborative learning. However, a number of studies have indicated that teacher education institutions do not adequately prepare the student teachers to teach with technology. In view of this, the author attempted to integrate technology with content and pedagogy in her postgraduate student teacher class. She engaged the students in several face-to-face and online individual and group activities so that they could experience and appreciate blended learning and teaching approaches. A model of investigation was then developed by the author to examine if there was any relationship between the students’ learning processes, learning products and learning outcomes. Data was collected through a questionnaire, a focus-group meeting and from the grades that they obtained. It was found that the student teachers embraced the different face-to-face and online collaborative activities, though the collaborative effort was not reflected in their grades.