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Aufgeklärte Schulreformen

Ein interkultureller Vergleich zwischen dem Philanthropinum in Dessau und dem Colegio de las Vizcaínas in Mexiko-Stadt

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Eva Rautenberg

Aufklärung und Schule, Männer und Frauen in Dessau und in Mexiko. Eine kulturhistorische Betrachtung und Darstellung einer facettenreichen und vielfältigen Wirklichkeit.
Thematisiert werden Szenen des Alltags und des Schullebens, die in zwei verschiedenen westlichen Kontexten zur Zeit der Aufklärung stattfanden: Dessau und Neuspanien bzw. das koloniale Mexiko. In dieser Ausführung zeigen sich die Macht- und Herrschaftsverhältnisse, die sowohl innerhalb der politischen Kontrolle als auch im Bereich des Akademischen ausgeübt wurden. Das Werk versteht sich als ein alternativer methodologischer Ansatz für die Vergleichende Pädagogik.

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Edited by Philip G. Altbach, Edward Choi, Mathew R. Allen and Hans de Wit

Although an entirely unknown part of higher education worldwide, there are literally hundreds of universities that are owned/managed by families around the world. These institutions are an important subset of private universities—the fastest growing segment of higher education worldwide. Family-owned or managed higher education institutions (FOMHEI) are concentrated in developing and emerging economies, but also exist in Europe and North America. This book is the first to shed light on these institutions—there is currently no other source on this topic.

Who owns a university? Who is in charge of its management and leadership? How are decisions made? The answers to these key questions would normally be governments or non-profit boards of trustees, or recently, for-profit corporations. There is another category of post-secondary institutions that has emerged in the past half-century challenging the time-honored paradigm of university ownership. Largely unknown, as well as undocumented, is the phenomenon of family-owned or managed higher education institutions. In Asia and Latin America, for example, FOMHEIs have come to comprise a significant segment of a number of higher education systems, as seen in the cases of Thailand, South Korea, India, Brazil and Colombia. We have identified FOMHEIs on all continents—ranging from well-regarded comprehensive universities and top-level specialized institutions to marginal schools. They exist both in the non-profit and for-profit sectors.

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Edited by Najeeba Syeed and Heidi Hadsell

The editors of Experiments in Empathy: Critical Reflections on Interreligious Education have assembled a volume that spans multiple religious traditions and offers innovative methods for teaching and designing interreligious learning. This groundbreaking text includes established interreligious educators and emerging scholars who expand the vision of this field to include critical studies, decolonial approaches and exciting pedagogical developments.

The book includes voices that are often left out of other comparative theology or interreligious education texts. Scholars from evangelical, Muslim, Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, religiously hybrid and other background enrich the existing models for interreligious classrooms. The book is particularly relevant at a time when religion is so often harnessed for division and hatred. By examining the roots of racism, xenophobia, sexism and their interaction with religion that contribute to inequity the volume offers real world educational interventions. The content is in high demand as are the authors who contributed to the volume.

Contributors are: Scott Alexander, Judith A. Berling, Monica A. Coleman, Reuven Firestone, Christine Hong, Jennifer Howe Peace, Munir Jiwa, Nancy Fuchs Kreimer, Tony Ritchie, Rachel Mikva, John Thatanamil, Timur Yuskaev.

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Kyle A. Long

The American public is losing trust in its higher education institutions. Americans are increasingly divided about the purposes of a college education, with opinions split along partisan lines. The country’s higher education leaders have responded with a litany of conferences, op-eds, and commissions aimed at regaining the public trust. While these efforts are necessary and important, they are more likely to be successful if supplemented with a view from abroad. The independent American university abroad is the oldest and most successful expression of U.S. higher education outside the United States. First established by Protestant missionaries in the Ottoman Empire during the U.S. Civil War, American universities abroad have since spread across the globe. Many enjoy widespread popularity in their communities and bipartisan support in the U.S.

The Emergence of the American University Abroad explores the development of this model as a distinctive institutional form in the U.S. higher education landscape. It traces the long history of support by American private citizens, the U.S. government, and stateside colleges and universities for these overseas institutions, and shows how leaders of American universities abroad have periodically come together to make sense of their changing environments and strategically align their messaging with potential supporters.

The author demonstrates that what is most valuable about American higher education emerges clearly when it is practiced outside the United States. While discourse about higher education in the United States and around the world has shifted unequivocally toward its conceptualization as a private good, leaders of, and advocates for, American universities abroad have been remarkably consistent in promoting their public benefits. As such, study of these institutions represents a unique opportunity to reflect on underappreciated, yet essential features of American higher education.

Relationality and Learning in Oceania

Contextualizing Education for Development

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Edited by Seu'ula Johansson-Fua, Rebecca Jesson, Rebecca Spratt and Eve Coxon

This multi-authored volume draws on the collective experiences of a team of researcher-practitioners, from three Oceanic universities, in an aid-funded intervention program for enhancing literacy learning in Pacific Islands primary education schools. The interventions explored here - in Solomon Islands and Tonga—were implemented via a four-year collaboration which adopted a design-based research approach to bringing about sustainable improvements in teacher and student learning, and in the delivery and evaluation of educational aid. This approach demanded that learning from the context of practice should be determining of both content and process; that all involved in the interventions should see themselves as learners. Essential to the trusting and respectful relationships required for this approach was the program’s acknowledgement of relationality as central to indigenous Oceanic societies, and of education as a relational activity.

Relationality and Learning in Oceania: Contextualizing Education for Development addresses debates current in both comparative education and international aid. Argued strongly is that relational research-practice approaches (south-south, south-north) which center the importance of context and culture, and the significance of indigenous epistemologies, are required to strengthen education within the post-colonial relational space of Oceania, and to inform the various agencies and actors involved in ‘education for development’ in Oceania and globally. Maintained is that the development of education structures and processes within the contexts explored through the chapters comprising this volume, continues to be a negotiation between the complexity of historically developed local 'traditions' and understandings and the ‘global’ imperatives shaped by dominant development discourses.

Universities as Political Institutions

Higher Education Institutions in the Middle of Academic, Economic and Social Pressures

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Edited by Leasa Weimer and Terhi Nokkala

Universities can be viewed and studied as political institutions, especially considering that they sit at the crossroads of social, cultural, and economic pressures. The internal and external environment of higher education brings with it multiple and complex relationships as well as power struggles. Within these contested political spaces, there are phenomena to be studied.

While the field of higher education draws from a multitude of disciplines, some scholars argue that only recently has scholarship focused on the political perspectives of higher education. To better understand the politics and policies of higher education, Universities as Political Institutions illuminates a variety of ways that researchers view and study universities as a political institution, from considering the national and international political pressures shaping higher education to the analysis of responses and political action from within the ivory tower.

The 2017 annual CHER conference in Jyväskylä (Finland) brought together 213 scholars from 30 countries. This book includes a selection of papers and keynote presentations from this conference. The thematic approach of the book reflects the 2017 conference theme: "Universities as Political Institutions – HEIs in the Middle of Academic, Economic, and Social Pressures". The theme focused on multiple and often complex relations and relationships, internal and external, to higher education institutions. In this context, "political" refers not only to definitions, uses, and users of power but more broadly to a variety of relationships among different actors and agencies responsible for making, executing, or resisting decisions concerning higher education institutions.

Migrants and Comparative Education

Call to Re/Engagement

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Edited by Zehavit Gross

Migration is one of the major phenomena that characterizes the modern world and even more post-modernity. Improved transportation and advanced technology have facilitated transition from place to place and this phenomenon of greater mobility has changed the world and humanity. Given the fact that many countries in both the developed and underdeveloped world face similar challenges due to the current mass migration, comparative research in terms of the responses of government and non-government organizations (NGOs), both local and international, allows for a deeper understanding of ways of approaching the many challenges relating to immigration and education. The comparative dimension enables both scholars and policy makers to compare and contrast different approaches and to weigh up what approach is most suitable for their circumstances.

The aim of Migrants and Comparative Education: Call to Re/Engagement is to bring together new research and conceptualizations on education’s complex and evolving role in the immigration process in different contexts around the world, at different levels of education, and from different theoretical perspectives. It is hoped that by so doing a better understanding will emerge of the issues and challenges associated with immigration that can assist policy makers and practitioners.

Toward Community-Based Learning

Experiences from the U.S.A., India, and China

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Edited by Eija Kimonen and Raimo Nevalainen

Toward Community-Based Learning contends that the ideal school offers the opportunity to understand reality in a way that connects teaching and education with conditions in the surrounding community and the student’s life and concerns. This view holds that problem solving requires an understanding and awareness of the whole, which can be achieved through direct activities. In this manner, learning is linked to its natural context, with ideal instruction being actively problem-oriented, holistic, and life-centered.

This thought-provoking volume offers an essential and comprehensive picture of community-based learning in the field of education. The book deals with the history of community-based learning as well as its present applications, including its global successes and difficulties. The authors provide numerous pedagogical approaches that are designed to meet the challenges of contemporary education. They show how learning is connected with authentic community environments in which students can gain new understandings through solving emerging problems. They also demonstrate how teachers can make learning more functional and holistic so that students have the ability to work in new situations within the complex world around them. School-specific descriptions reveal how teachers and their students have implemented community-based projects in the U.S.A., India, and China at different times.

Contributors are: Thomas L. Alsbury, Mary Ewans, Linda Hargreaves, Susan K. Johnsen, Eija Kimonen, Susan Kobashigawa, Karon N. LeCompte, Suzanne M. Nesmith, Raimo Nevalainen, and Lakia M. Scott.

Bringing Forth a World

Engaged Pedagogy in the Japanese University

Edited by Joff P.N. Bradley and David Kennedy

Offering a critical yet constructive response to the perceived crises in tertiary foreign language education in the Japanese university, the contributors to Bringing Forth a World provide theoretical and practical solutions which together act as a prolegomena to bringing forth a world. Theirs is an ecology of contribution in liberal arts education which takes responsibility for the care for youth, and contests intellectual passivity and indifference in foreign language instruction.

The editors proffer a transformative, engaged and multidisciplinary liberal arts pedagogy, one at odds with forms of lowest common denominator, one-size-fits-all, and standardized provision. In response to the prevalent business-dominated model, they demonstrate an applied format of multiliteracy theory—one with semiotic, multimodal, feminist dimensions—which is regionally specific and better accounts for divergent forms of human expression and perception. The writers not only take account of the intellectual and mental issues in the student demographic but also in the teaching profession which suffers from widespread anxiety, job insecurity and a lack of autonomy, experimentation and innovation.

Philosophically, the contributors to this book demand a form of meaning-making which is fundamentally social and creative, and which celebrates processes of ‘becoming-other’ in-between the student and teacher that seldom, if ever, follow a predictable trajectory. It is hoped that readers will embrace the spirit of the book, pick up its philosophical gauntlet to think otherwise than prevalent standardized models of teaching and learning, and therefore will use its core tenets to experiment with different ways of educating the youth of today.

Globalization and the Neoliberal Schoolhouse

Education in a World of Trouble

John L. Lyons

Critical questions of purpose, quality, choice, and access in public education have been key in processes of neoliberal globalization spanning the last four decades. The growing privatization of schools around the world has resulted in fundamental changes regarding the ways in which local systems of education are imagined and re-constructed. Schools and schooling are now increasingly (re)fashioned in alignment with global neoliberal imaginaries for the purpose of (re)producing human capital in the service of private interests. As a result, education for social betterment and democratic engagement, two pillars of public school policies throughout the 20th century, are compromised, even undermined.

Employing models and research findings from critical international political economy and progressive education, Globalization and the Neoliberal Schoolhouse: Education in a World of Trouble explores the corrosive influences of commodification and privatization on public education worldwide, within the context of crisis-ridden neoliberal globalization and expanding global capitalist governance. The consequences are nation-state de-evolution, social and cultural decay, and the forfeiture of public schools as engines of progress.

Understanding how the historical emergence, political economic processes, and governing institutions of neoliberal globalization are adversely impacting local systems of education – and what to do about it – is important to free education advocates, civic-minded educators, student teachers, social activists, and education development specialists everywhere!

Intelligent Internationalization

The Shape of Things to Come

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Edited by Kara A. Godwin and Hans de Wit

In 2015, Laura Rumbley put forward the notion that higher education—in a highly complex, globally interdependent world—would be wise to commit to an agenda of "intelligent internationalization" (I2). I2 turns on the notion that "the development of a thoughtful alliance between the research, practitioner, and policy communities," in tandem with key decision makers in leadership roles, is essential for institutions and systems of higher education seeking sustained relevance and vitality through their internationalization efforts. Does "intelligent internationalization" make sense? What is faulty, misguided, or missing from this analysis that could be strengthened through further consideration? On the other hand, what speaks to its value as an idea or agenda to advance the way that internationalization is understood and enacted in the world? These issues will be addressed in this book which builds on a 2018 Symposium on Intelligent Internationalization.

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Edited by Caroline Manion, Emily Anderson, Supriya Baily, Meagan Call-Cummings, Radhika Iyengar, Payal P. Shah and Matthew, A. Witenstein

Conversations related to epistemology and methodology have been present in comparative and international education (CIE) since the field’s inception. How CIE phenomena are studied, the questions asked, the tools used, and ideas about knowledge and reality that they reflect, shape the nature of the knowledge produced, the valuing of that knowledge, and the implications for practice in diverse societies. This book is part of a growing conversation in which the ways that standardized practices in CIE research have functioned to reproduce problematic hierarchies, silences and exclusions of diverse peoples, societies, knowledges, and realities. Argued is that there must be recognition and understanding of the negative consequences of hegemonic onto-epistemologies and methodologies in CIE, dominantly sourced in European social science traditions, that continue to shape and influence the design, implementation and dissemination/application of CIE research knowledge. Yet, while critical reflection is necessary, it alone is insufficient to realize the transformative change called for: as students, researchers, practitioners and policymakers, we must hear and heed calls for concrete action to challenge, resist and transform the status quo in the field and work to further realize a more ethical and inclusive CIE.

Interrogating and Innovating Comparative and International Research presents a series of conceptual and empirically-based essays that critically explore and problematize the dominance of Eurocentric epistemological and methodological traditions in CIE research. As an action-oriented volume, the contributions do not end with critique, rather suggestions are made and orientations modelled from different perspectives about the possibilities for change in CIE.

Contributors are: Emily Anderson, Supriya Baily, Gerardo L. Blanco, Alisha Braun, Erik Jon Byker, Meagan Call-Cummings, Brendan J. DeCoster, D. Brent Edwards Jr., Sothy Eng, Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher, Jeremy Gombin-Sperling, Kelly Grace, Radhika Iyengar, Huma Kidwai, Lê Minh Hằng, Caroline Manion, Patricia S. Parker, Leigh Patel, Timothy D. Reedy, Karen Ross, Betsy Scotto-Lavino, Payal P. Shah, Derrick Tu, and Matthew A. Witenstein.

Edited by Gang Ding

Selected Essays on China’s Education: Research and Review (4 volumes) consists of 22 most influential theses on the history and tradition of Chinese Education. These essays, selected and translated from China’s Education: Research and Review, a serial publication in Chinese, reflect the progress of qualitative research on Chinese education both within and outside China.

Volume 1 focuses on Written and Oral Narratives, including six articles; Volume 2 focuses on History and Current Reality, including five articles; Volume 3 focuses on Knowledge and Tradition, including six articles; and Volume 4 focuses on Gender and Education, including five articles. Aiming to promote academic dialogues on Chinese culture and education, these essays explore important educational and cultural issues in China with a transcultural perspective.

Edited by Gang Ding

Selected Essays on China’s Education: Research and Review (4 volumes) consists of 22 most influential theses on the history and tradition of Chinese Education. These essays, selected and translated from China’s Education: Research and Review, a serial publication in Chinese, reflect the progress of qualitative research on Chinese education both within and outside China.

Volume 1 focuses on Written and Oral Narratives, including six articles; Volume 2 focuses on History and Current Reality, including five articles; Volume 3 focuses on Knowledge and Tradition, including six articles; and Volume 4 focuses on Gender and Education, including five articles. Aiming to promote academic dialogues on Chinese culture and education, these essays explore important educational and cultural issues in China with a transcultural perspective.

Edited by Gang Ding

Selected Essays on China’s Education: Research and Review (4 volumes) consists of 22 most influential theses on the history and tradition of Chinese Education. These essays, selected and translated from China’s Education: Research and Review, a serial publication in Chinese, reflect the progress of qualitative research on Chinese education both within and outside China.

Volume 1 focuses on Written and Oral Narratives, including six articles; Volume 2 focuses on History and Current Reality, including five articles; Volume 3 focuses on Knowledge and Tradition, including six articles; and Volume 4 focuses on Gender and Education, including five articles. Aiming to promote academic dialogues on Chinese culture and education, these essays explore important educational and cultural issues in China with a transcultural perspective.

Edited by Gang Ding

Selected Essays on China’s Education: Research and Review (4 volumes) consists of 22 most influential theses on the history and tradition of Chinese Education. These essays, selected and translated from China’s Education: Research and Review, a serial publication in Chinese, reflect the progress of qualitative research on Chinese education both within and outside China.

Volume 1 focuses on Written and Oral Narratives, including six articles; Volume 2 focuses on History and Current Reality, including five articles; Volume 3 focuses on Knowledge and Tradition, including six articles; and Volume 4 focuses on Gender and Education, including five articles. Aiming to promote academic dialogues on Chinese culture and education, these essays explore important educational and cultural issues in China with a transcultural perspective.

Lessons Learned from Novice Teachers

An International Perspective

Kari Smith, Marit Ulvik and Ingrid Helleve

The transition from being a student teacher to taking on the full responsibility as a teacher is experienced as challenging for many novice teachers. In this book, ten newly qualified teachers from five countries, Australia, England, Finland, Israel and Norway, tell their stories as they came through in individual interviews. The narratives, written by the authors, were all approved by the teachers as 'their' stories. What can we learn from listening to the narratives? What can we bring to decision-makers about how to support new teachers? Do new teachers face similar challenges around the world, or do experiences depend on their respective contexts? There are more similarities than differences.

Relevant research literature is used in discussing the cases. Much of the literature on novice teachers focuses on difficulties, and the stories presented in this book confirm that the first year is tough. However, the resilience, motivation and enthusiasm reflected in the stories provide reasons for optimism as regards teachers’ satisfaction with their career choice.

A major reason for deciding to stay in the profession is in the relations they created with the students. Satisfaction or stress related to the curriculum or achievements in their respective teaching subjects was not mentioned. The lessons learned from the ten novice teachers are useful when discussing the teaching profession and, not least, the induction phase of a teaching career.

Partnership in Higher Education

Trends between African and European Institutions

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Edited by Emnet Tadesse Woldegiorgis and Christine Scherer

Trends in institutional partnership in higher education have shown tremendous growth in the past three decades. These trends are manifested through the growing initiatives of joint programs that promote collaborative research, academic mobility, joint curriculum development and course delivery, joint bidding for development projects and benchmarking. Partnerships in higher education have been used not only as an instrument for institutional development through a wide range of strategic alliances but also as an essential way of introducing new voices to the operations of the universities by initiating new paradigms that bring new perspectives and bear competitive advantage on the partners. As the trend of partnership in higher education grew, scholars in higher education studies have also engaged in conceptualizing higher education partnership from academic perspectives, analyzing trends and developing models of higher education collaborations.

Partnership in Higher Education: Trends between African and European Institutions is a pioneer in bringing together a comprehensive perspective on matters of higher education partnership among African and European institutions. It discusses the ongoing debates on higher education partnership and internationalization strategies by providing empirical insights from various case studies.

Kolawole Samuel Adeyemo

Globalisation has brought a number of regional cooperation, collaboration, partnership and networking initiatives among different countries. The regionalisation of higher education or its initiators have used different terms to define their objectives. For Asian higher education, this relationship has extended beyond the broader idea of higher education cooperation for instance, to include different networks and agreements within region and outside region on matters related to research, student mobility and quality assurance among Asian countries and between Asia and other countries that share a similar vision on education.

This book examines and analyses the status of education policy in the Philippines and, more particularly, focuses on the issue of the integration of higher education in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It further examines ASEAN integration policies and what the Philippines could do to underpin these policies. The objective is to better understand the problems of global policy in the context of regionalisation, harmonisation and integration from both an ASEAN and a Philippine perspective. Prospective mechanisms of ASEAN for upgrading the quality of education provision through student mobility, staff exchange, regional accreditation and articulation are succinctly argued in this book. Methodologically, various research designs and methods, including a literature review, as a well as an empirical data and secondary data analysis were used. ASEAN leaders, higher education researchers and policymakers may find the results discussed in this book useful.

Politics of Education in Latin America

Reforms, Resistance and Persistence

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Edited by Carlos Ornelas

Politics of Education in Latin America: Reforms, Resistance and Persistence portrays complex situations of education change policies in Latin America from Argentina and Chile, the southernmost part of the continent, to Mexico, the northernmost. The analyses tour through Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Cuba to conclude with a chapter that scrutinizes why the big teacher unions reject most attempts at education reforms. In these, teachers are the target of criticism and, at the same time, the focus of the expectations for progress and better educational quality.

Readers will find a variety of contentious issues such as inclusion, equity, privatization, uses of power, and dialectics between the indications of intergovernmental organizations and the rejection of their recommendations by local political actors. They will also find narratives to raise public education participation, improve the quality of life of teachers, and put local education systems to dialogue with the global world. The politics of education in Latin America is a territory that groups and institutions continue to dispute since the establishment of their education systems.

Children and Mother Nature

Storytelling for a Glocalized Environmental Pedagogy

Edited by Rouhollah Aghasaleh

It is an old, yet relevant, argument that education needs to focus more on real-world issues in students’ lives and communities. Nevertheless, conventional school curricula in many countries create superficial boundaries to separate natural and social worlds. A call for science learning approaches that acknowledge societal standpoints accumulate that human activities are driving environmental and evolutionary change which has lead scholars to investigate how different societies respond to environmental change.
Children and Mother Nature is a multilingual volume that represents indigenous knowledges from various ethnic, linguistic, geographical, and national groups of educators and students through storytelling. Authors have identified indigenous stories, fables, and folk tales with a theme of human-nature interaction and facilitated storytelling sessions with groups of students in K–8 grade (5–14 years old) in Turkey, Greece, US, Jamaica, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, and Chinese and Korean language speaking communities in the US. Students have discussed and rewritten/retold the stories collaboratively and illustrated their own stories. All student-told stories are presented in the original language along with an English translation. This volume provides authentic materials for teachers to use in their classrooms and could also be of interest to educational, literary, and environmental researchers to conduct comparative and international studies.

PISA and Global Education Policy

Understanding Finland’s Success and Influence

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Jennifer Chung

PISA and Global Education Policy: Understanding Finland's Success and Influence provides an in-depth investigation for the reasons behind Finland’s success in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Finland’s high performances in every administration of PISA since 2000 have captured worldwide attention. This volume offers a comprehensive exploration into the context of Finland, uncovering its historical, cultural, political, and societal nuances. Furthermore, it delves into the history of Finnish education, providing a strong foundation from which to view the system that produced so much success in PISA. The book analyses empirical data from Finnish professors of education, ministers of education, head teachers, and teachers for the reasons behind Finland’s consistently high outcomes in the survey. It includes viewpoints from OECD officers with direct responsibility for PISA. In addition, it uncovers the impact of Finnish influence on education policy worldwide. Thus, the text presents an analysis of the growing politicisation of international achievement studies such as PISA. The increasingly globalised educational context surrounding PISA calls for an analysis of policy transfer and the already-apparent uncritical policy borrowing of Finnish education policy within the UK context.

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Edited by Wiel Veugelers

Education for Democratic Intercultural Citizenship (EDIC) is very relevant in contemporary societies. All citizens, but in particular teachers, curriculum developers, educational policy makers, and educational professionals in civil society (NGOs) have a crucial role in this. Seven European universities are working together in developing a curriculum to prepare their students for this important academic, societal and political task. As part of an Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership they each develop a module in the area of moral, intercultural and citizenship education. All modules are international and inquiry oriented, and make links with society.

In this book the leading scholars write the theoretical background of their module, their curriculum guidelines and goals, the concrete programmes, and the experiences of students. The universities had an annual intensive programme in which students and teachers of all universities came together to have try-outs of parts of the modules. These programmes contributed strongly to the network building of researchers, teachers and students.

The activities have given a strong stimulus to the implementation of Education for Democratic Intercultural Citizenship in the participating universities and in educational organisations worldwide. The experiences show both the necessity and the relevance of this topic and this kind of collaboration.

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Edited by Jody L. McBrien

Since 2014, the international community has felt overwhelmed by refugees and asylum seekers searching for opportunities in which to rebuild their lives. Indeed, large numbers can result in turmoil and concern in resettlement countries and with national citizens. A climate of fear can result, especially if perpetuated by politicians and media that suggest negative effects resulting from immigration.

Caught in the crossfire of social and political disagreements about migration are children, most of whom are not included in decisions to leave their homelands. This edited book examines their academic challenges from the perspective of the six English-speaking refugee resettlement countries. Our hope is not only to compare challenges, but also to describe successes by which teachers and policymakers can consider new approaches to help refugee and asylum-seeking children.

Educational Policies and Practices of English-Speaking Refugee Resettlement Countries offers perspectives from established and new scholars examining educational situations for refugees and asylum seekers. The top three resettlement countries are the United States, Canada, and Australia. For its size, New Zealand is also proportionately a country of high resettlement. New to resettlement are the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Thus, this collection includes wisdom from countries that began resettlement during World War Two as well as newcomers to the process. In 2018, UNHCR numbers of displaced people reached a record high of 68.5 million. Policymakers, teachers, social service providers, and the general public need to understand ways to help resettled refugees become productive members in their new countries of residence.

Contributors are: Samantha Arnold, Asih Asikin-Garmager, Melanie Baak, Sally Baker, Zhiyan Basharati, Briana Byers, Merike Darmody, Lucia Dore, Ain A. Grooms, Maria Hayward, Asher Hirsch, Amanda Hiorth, Caroline Lenette, Leslie Ann Locke, Duhita Mahatmya, Jody L. McBrien, Rory Mc Daid, Helen Murphy, Tara Ross, Jan Stewart, and Elizabeth P. Tonogbanua.
The field of education in the 21st century is broad in scope and is multidisciplinary. To help scholars and students understand the various disciplines that comprise the field of education, the editors view the various fields as texts to be historicized and explicated. Each field is a discipline with its own scholars, language, and research.

The various reference works will present comprehensive and accurate portraits of the various disciplines. What readers will encounter in these reference works is what the various fields are saying, and/or have been saying during their various histories. This can open up conversations among current established scholars and future, next generation scholars nationally and internationally. These complicated conversations would further expand the various fields and lead to possibilities for praxis. Praxis emphasizes the increase of critical knowledge and understandings both for self-development and social reconstruction.

There is a uniqueness in Critical Understanding in Education in the commitment to the focus on the historical development and comprehensive critical presentation of a particular discipline.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts by e-mail to Assistant Editor Evelien van der Veer.

Under Pressure

Higher Education Institutions Coping with Multiple Challenges

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Edited by Pedro N. Teixeira, Amélia Veiga, Maria João Machado Pires da Rosa and António Magalhães

A core position in the knowledge economy policies has been ascribed to higher education. This has enhanced the complexity of the environment in which higher education institutions operate. These deal with a wide range of pressures stemming from the State, the corporate world, the society at large and political interests, let alone those arising from the constituencies of higher education institutions (academics, students and non-academics). Institutions are expected to cope with these pressures by developing strategies involving quality management, performance and assessment, innovation, while reconfiguring the relationships between research, teaching and learning.

The core business of higher education is being reshaped, challenging institutions’ internal life to strategically respond to the reconfiguration of their role and missions. Topics such as governance and management, strategies and strategizing, budget control, performance and assessment, quality management, local and regional innovation come to the fore front. Under Pressure: Higher Education Institutions Coping with Multiple Challenges addresses these topics by convening approaches to the understanding of the interactions between policy drivers and institutional practices in governance, funding, performance indicators, regional innovation, strategy and strategizing, quality and management, and professionals.

Improving Early Literacy Outcomes

Curriculum, Teaching, and Assessment

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Edited by Nic Spaull and John Comings

Learning to read and write for meaning and pleasure are arguably the two most important competences that children acquire in primary school. Yet, in 2019 more than one half of children worldwide do not reach this first rung on the literacy ladder. Improving Early Literacy Outcomes aims to address this head-on, by foregrounding the work of more than 40 researchers, most of them living in, and working on, developing countries.
Their contributions illuminate, magnify, and discover anew the importance of improving early reading, through precise alignment of curriculum, teaching, and assessment, and with a special focus on some of the most under-studied countries in the world (e.g., Burkina Faso, Niger, and Senegal).
Through probing analyses of research, policy, and practice, the book highlights the common experiences of high aspirations repeatedly confronting harsh realities. Sixteen interconnected chapters cast an ever-vigilant and deflationary eye on the temptation to take an unrealistic approach to early literacy, and also caution against lumping all languages, contexts, and policy-challenges into a single heap.
This book provides an indispensable guide to policymakers, practitioners, educators, and academics working towards the realisation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Improving the teaching, learning, and assessment of early grade literacy is key not only to expanding the quality, access, and equity of education, but also to unlocking all the other SDGs, and ultimately to driving development.

Another Way

Decentralization, Democratization and the Global Politics of Community-Based Schooling

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Edited by Rebecca Clothey and Kai Heidemann

Drawing on a variety of methodological and theoretical perspectives, the case studies compiled in Another Way: Decentralization, Democratization and the Global Politics of Community-Based Schooling offer a comparative look at how global processes of educational decentralization have both helped and hindered the development of community-based schools in local-level settings across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. On the one hand, the book shows how increased decentralization is often perceived as essential to assuring robust levels of democratization, community participation and social justice in education. On the other hand, it is also shown how processes of educational decentralization are often experienced in local communities as a mechanism of increased austerity, privatization and segregation.

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Edited by Sulochini Pather and Roger Slee

It is a fundamental right for all children to be given access to quality education to ensure they reach their full potential as individuals; a right which is reflected in international law in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and supported by the Education for All Agenda (1990) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities and Optional Protocol (2006). Nation states across Africa have signed up to these protocols and remain committed to ensuring education for all children. The progress globally however in the past 25 years, including in Africa, has been slow (UNESCO, 2015). Questions remain on why this is so and what can be done about it. This book brings together researchers, education policy makers and academics from the African community. What is unique about this text is that it includes local insights narrated and critiqued by local professionals. This book presents a wide range of African countries across the continent, to provide a critical overview of the key issues affecting developments. It questions the origins of ideas and definitions around inclusive education and the impact it has made on policy and ultimately practice, within local socio-cultural and economic communities, both urban and rural. It highlights positive developments as well as challenges and provides a deep understanding of why the process of implementing inclusive education is so complex in the African continent. It provides an understanding of what is needed to develop a more sustainable model of inclusive education across the continent and within specific countries.

Navigating the Aspirational City

Urban Educational Culture and the Revolutionary Path to Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

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Lorin G. Yochim

The re-emergence of China as a world power promises to be the signal economic, political, cultural, and social development of the 21st century. In the face of its rise, fine grained accounts of the shape and texture of this new China are both timely and necessary.
Navigating the Aspirational City forwards a theory of contemporary Chinese urban educational culture that focusses on the influence of dominant conceptions of “the good citizen” and the material environment upon parents as they pursue their childrearing projects. The book provides a description of the beliefs and practices of urban Chinese parents as they “educate” their children. These beliefs and practices are placed in relation to a historical chain of ideas about how to best educate children, as well as within the urban context in which they are produced and reproduced, renovated, and transformed.
Beginning with a history of revolutionary “orders of worth” culminating in the “aspirational cité,” the book details the shifting standards that define the “human capital” conditions of possibility of a developed modern economy. It goes on to describe a set of policies and practices known as san nian da bianyang by which the whole of one particular city, Shijiazhuang, has been demolished, re-built, and re-ordered. Contemporary China is, the author contends, no less revolutionary than Mao’s, noting that parents’ beliefs and practices articulate with the present ideational and material context to produce what appears, at times, to be radical transformation and, at others, remarkable stability.

Who’s In? Who’s Out?

What to Do about Inclusive Education

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Edited by Marnie Best, Tim Corcoran and Roger Slee

Who’s in? Who’s out? Who decides? What are we going to do about inclusive education? What kind of world do we want our children to live in? How might education help us to achieve that vision for our children?

In Who’s In? Who’s Out? What to Do about Inclusive Education, a group of respected international scholars come together to think about education at a momentous time in global history, where the world has fractured, people are displaced and we search for new research, education programmes and political leadership to restore social cohesion and rebuild school systems that may claim to be an apprenticeship in democracy.

This book highlights the challenges inclusive education researchers take on in working to dismantle barriers involving access, presence, participation and success in education.

Contributors include: Elga Andriana, Michael Apple, Ann Cheryl Armstrong, Marnie Best, Roseanna Bourke, Jenni Carter, Kathy Cologon, Tim Corcoran, Deborah Crossing, Simona D’Alessio, Rosemary Ann du Plessis, David Evans, Lani Florian, Cameron Forrest, Christine Grima-Farrell, Bjørn F. Hamre, Leechin Heng, Amitya Kumara, Bindi MacGill, Laisiasa Merumeru, John Munro, Patricia O’Brien, John O’Neill, Sulochini Pather, Deborah Price, Merelesita Qeleni, Kathleen Quinlivan, Puti Ayu Setiani, Peta Skujins, Roger Slee, John Stanwick, and Peter Walker.

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Edited by George J. Sefa Dei and Mandeep Jajj

Knowledge and Decolonial Politics: A Critical Reader offers the perspectives of educators and learners within current developmental settings, highlighting the systemic barriers faced whilst trying to implement decolonial pedagogies and practices. In the hope to challenge the dominance of Western Eurocentric thought in education and international development, the authors of this book offer counter narratives to promote the use of embodied cultural knowledges and histories, along with Indigenous perspectives, in order to subvert Western knowledge systems which are inherently colonial in nature. Changing education as we know it today requires creating spaces in which multiple knowledges can co-exist and benefit from one another. These spaces will ensure the continuity of decolonial practices and shape the intellectual politics of future generations.

Contributors are: Olivia Aiello, Nana Bediako-Amoah, Shirleen Datt, George J. Sefa Dei, Chisani Doyle-Wood, Candice Griffith, Mandeep Jajj, Wambui Karanja and Lwanga G. Musisi.

Identity and Internationalization in Catholic Universities

Exploring Institutional Pathways in Context

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Edited by Hans de Wit, Andrés Bernasconi, Visnja Car, Fiona Hunter, Michael James and Daniela Véliz

Identity and Internationalization in Catholic Universities explores the relationship between Catholic identity, mission, and internationalization in Catholic universities of different types and located in different contexts. Internationalization is a key concern for universities working to achieve their goals in different regions of the world but without neglecting their identity. There are many universities that consider themselves related to the Roman Catholic faith and many other universities with Christian affiliations. It is well known that Catholic universities have unique missions, such as the formation of individuals inspired by a religious conviction to serve society and the church. That is why it is imperative to have empirical knowledge to help develop practical and effective policies on central themes such as internationalization, a fundamental part of many universities’ developmental strategies, while paying special attention to each university’s specific context. This book includes sixteen case studies from Latin America, the United States, the Asia Pacific, and Europe, and also includes chapters on regional perspectives on Catholic higher education as well as more specifically Jesuit higher education, the global network of La Salle universities, and internationalization in the United States, Latin America, the Asia Pacific region, and Europe.

Internationalizing Education

Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century

Cameron White

In Internationalizing Education: Local to Global Connections for the 21st Century, the author offers a unique perspective in addressing issues in global, international, and comparative education. Specific case studies addressing such topics as globalization, teacher education, global citizenship, study abroad, and specific regions are included in the text. Additionally, educational themes such as culturally responsive pedagogy, social justice education, critical pedagogy, curriculum and instruction, and constructivism are also addressed.

Equity in and through Education

Changing Contexts, Consequences and Contestations

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Edited by Stephen Carney and Michele Schweisfurth

Equity in and through Education

Changing Contexts, Consequences and Contestations

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Edited by Stephen Carney and Michele Schweisfurth

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Edited by Shibao Guo and Lloyd Wong

Canada’s history, since its birth as a nation one hundred and fifty years ago, is one of immigration, nation-building, and contested racial and ethnic relations. In Immigration, Racial and Ethnic Studies in 150 Years of Canada: Retrospects and Prospects scholars provide a wide-ranging overview of this history with a core theme being one of enduring racial and ethnic conflict and inequality. The volume is organized around four themes where in each theme selected racial and ethnic issues are examined critically. Part 1 focuses on the history of Canadian immigration and nation-building while Part 2 looks at situating contemporary Canada in terms of the debates in the literature on ethnicity and race. Part 3 revisits specific racial and ethnic studies in Canada and finally in Part 4 a state-of-the-art is provided on immigration and racial and ethnic studies while providing prospects for the future.

Contributors are: Victor Armony, David Este, Augie Fleras, Peter R. Grant, Shibao Guo, Abdolmohammad Kazemipur, Anne-Marie Livingstone, Adina Madularea, Ayesha Mian Akram, Nilum Panesar, Yolande Pottie-Sherman, Paul Pritchard, Howard Ramos, Daniel W. Robertson, Vic Satzewich, Morton Weinfeld, Rima Wilkes, Lori Wilkinson, Elke Winter, Nelson Wiseman, Lloyd Wong, and Henry Yu.

Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning across the Mediterranean

Challenging Transitions in South Europe and the MENA Region

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Edited by Ronald G. Sultana

Perhaps no other challenge preoccupies governments and citizens in the Mediterranean region than the mass unemployment of young people, many of who have invested in higher education in the hope that ability and effort lead to fulfilling lives. Transitions to independent adulthood are, however, frustratingly long drawn-out, and often jeopardised by labour markets that are neither youth-friendly nor meritocratic. While such challenges require structural responses at the macro-economic level, career education and guidance have an important role to play in addressing both the public and private good, and in furthering the social justice agenda. This volume provides a state-of-the-art review of career education and guidance in Southern Europe and the Middle East and North Africa Region, presenting a multi-faceted portrayal of the situation in each country as well as overviews of cross-cutting themes that are especially relevant to context, such as women’s career development in the Arab states, job placement support for refugees, and the impact of faith on livelihood planning.

From Exclusion to Excellence

Building Restorative Relationships to Create Inclusive Schools

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Michal Razer and Victor J. Friedman

Dotted with lively dialogues that illustrate concrete issues, From Exclusion to Excellence: Building Restorative Relationships to Create Inclusive Schools is a practical guide to creating inclusive schools. The authors draw on their 30 years of action-research activities helping educators provide a meaningful education to at-risk/excluded students. They explain how teacher well-being is a precondition for building the sorts of relationships that enable excluded students to learn. They present in detail four concrete skills (non-abandonment, reframing, connecting conversation, and emphatic limit-setting) for reaching children and at the same time strengthening educators’ emotional resilience and professional pride. They address how schools can rethink and reshape the way they relate to parents of excluded children, so as to allow both sides to trust and empower each other. If you are a teacher, this book will help you make sense of the difficulties you face daily and provide you with reliable methods for working more effectively. If you are a principal or policymaker, it will show how the road to excellence begins with inclusion, and with providing teachers the kind of support that enables them to succeed.

Learning to Educate

Proposals for the Reconstruction of Education in Developing Countries

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Ernesto Schiefelbein and Noel F. McGinn

Learning to Educate: Proposals for the Reconstruction of Education in Developing Countries is a practical and strategic guide for education leaders and others who want to do more to improve the quality of curriculum, learning, teaching, and assessment. The book is also a philosophical guide that articulates and affirms the fundamental values and purposes of education in a rapidly changing world. It confronts us with the opportunity and the necessity to unravel bedrock assumptions and stimulate further discussion about the nature of teaching and learning.
What does it take to change mindsets? And how do we bring about “reconstruction” without losing our groundings and bearings? The authors, Ernesto Schiefelbein and Noel McGinn, use the full weight of their extensive knowledge in education research, teaching, policy, and action, to argue that, in order to reconstruct quality education, we must begin by improving its foundation. The result is a seasoned and superbly articulated examination of the principles and practices of teaching and learning, which focuses on the crucial need of all children to learn how to learn.
Innovative, cultured, and consistently captivating, this book is bold and, in the field of comparative and international education, unprecedented.

Nelson Mandela

Comparative Perspectives of his Significance for Education

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Edited by Crain Soudien

The death of Nelson Mandela, the great South African fighter for freedom, in December 2013 prompted several colleagues within the World Council of Comparative Education Societies community to come together to think about the significance of his life and his for work education. This book is the result of that coming together. The contributing authors reflect on what his life, the commitments he made and principally the values he took into the struggle for freedom in South Africa mean for education. The point of departure for the book is that of honouring the man. It begins with the argument that the values for which he stood, namely, the unconditional dignity of all human beings, respect for difference and principally his lifelong commitment to justice, have a special significance for how we as inhabitants of an increasingly connected and interdependent world conduct our personal lives, our relationships with one another and with the material and living space which surrounds us. It is an ecological approach. As the world moves into a twenty-first century where, paradoxically, we know so much and yet appear to understand so little, and so find ourselves struggling to create social lives in which all of us can feel respected, can offer respect to others and live lives free of fear and anxiety, the values for which he stood have specific relevance for how we do the important job of teaching and what we put into it. Mandela poses deeply provocative questions about the kinds of lives we seek for ourselves and for everybody else around us.

Edited by Edward Shizha and Ngoni Makuvaza

What have postcolonial Sub-Saharan African countries achieved in their education policies and programmes? How far have they contributed to successful attainment of the targeted 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on education? What were the constraints and barriers for developing an education system that appeals to the needs of the sub-region? Re-thinking Postcolonial Education in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 21stCentury: Post-Millennium Development Goals is an attempt to demonstrate that Sub-Saharan Africa has the potential and capability to provide solutions to challenges facing its desire and ability to provide sustainable education to its people. To that end, the contributors are academics with an African vision attempting to come up with African home-grown perspectives to fill the gap created by the lapse of the MDGs as the guiding vision and framework for educational provision in Africa and beyond. The book seeks to articulate and address African issues from an informed as well as objective African perspective. The book is also intended to provide insights to scholars who are interested in studying and understanding the nature of postcolonial education in the Sub-Saharan African region. Given the objectives and themes of this book, it is intended for academic scholars, undergraduate and graduate students, human rights scholars, curriculum developers, college and university academics, teachers, education policy makers, international organisations, and local and international non-governmental organisations that are interested in African education policies and programmes.

Reimagining Utopias

Theory and Method for Educational Research in Post-Socialist Contexts

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Edited by Iveta Silova, Noah W. Sobe, Alla Korzh and Serhiy Kovalchuk

Reimagining Utopias explores the shifting social imaginaries of post-socialist transformations to understand what happens when the new and old utopias of post-socialism confront the new and old utopias of social science. This peer-reviewed volume addresses the theoretical, methodological, and ethical dilemmas encountered by researchers in the social sciences as they plan and conduct education research in post-socialist settings, as well as disseminate their research findings. Through an interdisciplinary inquiry that spans the fields of education, political science, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book explores three broad questions: How can we (re)imagine research to articulate new theoretical insights about post-socialist education transformations in the context of globalization? How can we (re)imagine methods to pursue alternative ways of producing knowledge? And how can we navigate various ethical dilemmas in light of academic expectations and fieldwork realities? Drawing on case studies, conceptual and theoretical essays, autoethnographic accounts, as well as synthetic introductory and conclusion chapters by the editors, this book advances an important conversation about these complicated questions in geopolitical settings ranging from post-socialist Africa to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The contributors not only expose the limits of Western conceptual frameworks and research methods for understanding post-socialist transformations, but also engage creatively in addressing the persisting problems of knowledge hierarchies created by abstract universals, epistemic difference, and geographical distance inherent in comparative and international education research. This book challenges the readers to question the existing education narratives and rethink taken-for-granted beliefs, theoretical paradigms, and methodological frameworks in order to reimagine the world in more complex and pluriversal ways.

Rethinking Public Education Systems in the 21st Century Scenario

New and Renovated Challenges between Policies and Practices

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Edited by Felicitas Acosta and Sonia Nogueira

This book emanated from presentations at the World Congress of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES), held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in June 2013. The Congress theme of “New Times, New Voices” provided the broad frame of the post-Buenos Aires series of volumes including this one containing research contributions focusing on the situation of public education systems. The chapters in this volume are selected for quality of research and relevance to the theme, and for representation across global regions. They examine the new and renovated challenges faced by public education systems at present for which different paths are suggested. In particular, this book puts together studies from authors from Latin American countries, especially from the Southern Cone, as a way of giving voice to particular educational problems and perspectives in a globalized world. Getting into educational systems in Argentina, Brazil and Chile and analysing some of its current particularities through the lenses of regional and international comparison, contributes to a better understanding of the processes of circulation, reception, appropriation and translation that historically characterizes educational systems development. This is why the volume also includes studies regarding the impact on contemporary educational reforms in the public sector, their links to past reforms and their cumulative impact on educational systems.

Science Education

An International Course Companion

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Edited by Keith S. Taber and Ben Ben Akpan

This book comprises a wide range of scholarly essays introducing readers to key topics and issues in science education. Science education has become a well established field in its own right, with a vast literature, and many active areas of scholarship. Science Education: An International Course Companion offers an entry point for students seeking a sound but introductory understanding of the key perspectives and areas of thinking in science education. Each account is self-contained and offers a scholarly and research-informed introduction to a particular topic, theme, or perspective, with both citations to key literature and recommendations for more advanced reading.
Science Education: An International Course Companion allows readers (such as those preparing for school science teaching, or seeking more advanced specialist qualifications) to obtain a broad familiarity with key issues across the field as well as guiding wider reading about particular topics of interest. The book therefore acts as a reader to support learning across courses in science education internationally. The broad coverage of topics is such that that the book will support students following a diverse range of courses and qualifications. The comprehensive nature of the book will allow course leaders and departments to nominate the book as the key reader to support students—their core ‘course companion’ in science education.
This series of research-based monographs and edited volumes provides comparative and international perspectives on key current issues in curriculum, learning and assessment. The principal features of the series are the innovative and critical insights it offers into the equitable provision of quality and relevant education for all; and the cross-disciplinary perspectives it engages, drawing on a range of domains that include peace, ethics, sociology, economics, politics, culture, gender, sustainability, inclusion, development and education. IBE on Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment aims to influence a wide range of actors in the field of education and development, whether academics, policy-makers, curriculum-developers, assessors, teachers or students. The series thus comprises innovative empirical research, case studies of policy and practice, conceptual analyses and policy evaluations, as well as critical analyses of published research and existing policy. With this series, IBE UNESCO builds on a long tradition of publishing research on relevant education topics, within an international perspective. Its predecessor, Studies in Comparative Education, initiated by the IBE in 1971, was among the most well-established series in the field.

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Edited by Susana Gonçalves and Suzanne Majhanovich

How can art act as an intercultural mediator for dialogue? In order to scrutinize this question, relevant theoretical ideas are discussed and artistic intervention projects examined so as to highlight its cultural, political, economic, social, and transformational impacts. This thought-provoking work reveals why art is needed to help multicultural neighbourhoods and societies be sustainable, as well as united by diversity. This edited collection underlines the significance of arts and media as a tool of understanding, mediation, and communication across and beyond cultures. The chapters with a variety of conceptual and methodological approaches from particular contexts demonstrate the complexity in the dynamics of (inter)cultural communication, culture, identity, arts, and media. Overall, the collection encourages readers to consider themselves as agents of the communication process promoting dialogue.

Commodifying Education

Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Financialization of Education Policies in Brazil

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Edited by Roberto Leher and Inny Accioly

The texts in this book do not compose a mere selection: the questions that guide the chapters form a cohesively and coherently structured totality which expresses the movement of construction of what the authors understand to be a new problematic in the education field in Brazil and in the world.

The book addresses basic, professional and undergraduate education from perspectives that highlight different aspects of privatization, commercialization and commodification, as well as the presence of the business community in the definition of educational policies. These levels and modalities of teaching are analysed in articulation both with science, technology and so-called technological innovation policies and with the modus operandi of the state.

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Edited by Clea Schmidt and Jens Schneider

Diversifying the teaching force has become a priority in many migrant-receiving jurisdictions worldwide with the growing mismatch between the ethnic backgrounds, cultures, languages, and religions of teachers and those of students and families. Arguments for diversification tend to be couched in terms of disproportionate representation and students from minority backgrounds needing positive role models, yet research identifies other compelling reasons for diversification, including the fact that teachers of migrant backgrounds often possess outstanding qualifications when multilingualism and internationally obtained education and experience are taken into account, and the fact that all students, including majority-background students, benefit from a diversity of role models in schools. Nevertheless, the process of diversification is fraught with complexity. Depending on the context, systemic discrimination, an oversupply of teachers in the profession generally, and outdated hiring policies and practices can all impede efforts to diversify the teaching force.
This volume comprises original research from Canada, the U. S., Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and England that problematizes issues of diversifying the teaching force and identifies promising practices. A foreword written by Charlene Bearhead of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation questions the very purpose of education in and for diverse societies. An introduction written by the editors defines key concepts and establishes a rationale for diversifying the teaching force in migrant-receiving contexts. Following this, key international scholars offer empirical perspectives using a range of methodologies and theories rooted in critical social science paradigms. The volume informs future research, programming, and policy development in this area.

Dreaming of a Place Called Home

Local and International Perspectives on Teacher Education and School Diversity

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Edited by Greg Wiggan

This book auto-ethnographically explores the experiences of students and teachers both locally and globally, while addressing the critical intersection of race, class, and gender in education. It explores diversity perspectives on schools and society in Japan, the United States, Bahamas, and Jamaica in regards to living and attending schools in a foreign country; being an international minority student in the U. S.; and being a minority teacher in U. S. public schools. In doing so, the book addresses minority experiences as it seeks to promote agency and advocacy for the underserved both locally and globally, and making the world more humane and inclusive through education. It acknowledges that we live in a global society, and as such, we must become global citizens and ambassadors of the world in which we live.
Greg Wiggan is an Associate Professor of Urban Education, Adjunct Associate Professor of Sociology, and Affiliate Faculty Member of Africana Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. His research addresses urban education and urban sociology in the context of school processes that promote high achievement among African American students and other underserved minority student populations. In doing so, his research also examines the broader connections between the history of urbanization, globalization processes and the internationalization of education in urban schools.
His books include: Global Issues in Education: Pedagogy, Policy, Practice, and the Minority Experience; Education in a Strange Land: Globalization, Urbanization, and Urban Schools—The Social and Educational Implications of the Geopolitical Economy; Curriculum Violence: America’s new Civil Rights Issue; Education for the New Frontier: Race, Education and Triumph in Jim Crow America (1867—1945); Following the Northern Star: Caribbean Identities and Education in North American Schools; Unshackled: Education for Freedom, Student Achievement and Personal Emancipation; In Search of a Canon: European History and the Imperialist State; and Last of the Black Titans: The Role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the 21st Century.

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Edited by MacLeans A. Geo-JaJa and Suzanne Majhanovich

With its comprehensive coverage and quality this provocative book is concerned with the future of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. By providing in-depth analysis of the economic, social and educational challenges of emerging states it offers an alternative roadmap to development. The authors in this collection substantiate the notion that emerging states often do not participate in policy choices related to their development when faced with universalization of curriculum and internationalization of education. The authors make explicit the direct and indirect effects of globalization on educational systems, social equity, and the path of development. In demonstrating the impact of neoliberalism or market-based reforms on the developing world, the authors show that education without human rights is vulnerable to negative forces of globalization and internationalization. The message of the book is quite pessimistic about possibilities to widen the economic space or increase freedom, unless development cooperation is made possible by “Helping People Help Themselves” as suggested by David Ellerman. The authors note that in the past, the issue of emerging states as an appendage to the world economy was a fundamental question related to colonialism, but now has become a question of imperialism which needs to be examined when considering the current patterns of development.

The Global and the Local

Diverse Perspectives in Comparative Education

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Edited by M. Fernanda Astiz and Motoko Akiba

The book examines how the understanding of the global and the local has changed in response to ongoing reconfigurations between the state and society. It also emphasizes the importance of schooling as an institution both within and across national contexts, a holistic approach that helps us move beyond a conglomeration of isolated local events to pay attention to global trends. In this regard, the book underscores the richness of contextual factors that may create opportunities for innovation, or may serve as constraints in the implementation process. As a whole, the book brings new questions about globalization and the imperatives of education policy and implementation.

Multidisciplinary Research Perspectives in Education

Shared Experiences from Australia and China

Edited by Indika Liyanage and Badeng Nima

“The editors of this extraordinary book, Indika Liyanage and Badeng Nima, have brought together a wonderfully wide-ranging collection of chapters. The breadth and depth of the studies of education issues in China and Australia are impressive. The topics encompass important questions concerning education policies, curricula, pedagogy, equality, parental engagement, cultural heritage, and anti-drug education. The scope of the book includes Chinese and Australian settings that range from kindergartens to higher education, and from rural to urban environments. The diversity of the book strengthens rather than weakens its coherence, because the golden thread running through all the chapters is a portrayal of the complexity of education provision when global, national and local forces interact. Written by academics with hands-on experience, the chapters provide evidence-based discussions of practical conundrums, enriched by the sophisticated use of interdisciplinary approaches. As a result, this book is powerful, challenging and ground-breaking.”— Bob Adamson, UNESCO Chairholder in TVET and Lifelong Learning, Education University of Hong Kong

Edited by Emmanuel Jean Francois, Mejai B.M. Avoseh and Wendy Griswold

This volume brought together scholars from various parts of the world to provide the readers with the latest research in transnational higher education and transcultural learning and teaching theories, as well as findings, best practices, and emerging trends. Practitioners will find best practice cases that they can cross-culturally adapt to develop, implement, and assess their own courses and programs. This book can serve as a good companion for faculty, administrators, and leaders in postsecondary institutions to plan, develop, implement, and evaluate programs and courses related to transnational higher education and learning. The book includes conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can inform studies to provide leaders and administrators in colleges and universities with research-based support to make decisions related to transnational education in a systemic way. Topics include, but are not limited to:
Definitions of transnational higher education
Theories on transnational higher education
Delivery models
Transcultural learning
Critical pedagogy for transnational education and learning
Transcultural consciousness in transnational education
Inter-institutional/joint degree curriculum experiences
Issues and topics in transnational higher education requiring further research

Spotlight on China

Changes in Education under China's Market Economy

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Edited by Shibao Guo and Yan Guo

Fuelled by forces of globalization, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to a socialist market economy. Under the market economy China has experienced a massive and protracted economic boom. It is not clear however whether recent economic changes have brought the same miracle to education in China. Spotlight on China brings together established and emerging scholars from China and internationally in a dialogue about the profound social and economic transformation that has resulted from the market economy and its concomitant impact on education in China. The book covers a wide range of topics, including:
Market economy and curriculum reform
Teaching under China’s market economy
Changes in higher education
Transitions from education to work
Market economy and social inequality

Spotlight on China

Chinese Education in the Globalized World

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Edited by Shibao Guo and Yan Guo

Economic globalization and advanced communication and transportation technologies have greatly increased interconnectivity and integration of China with the rest of the world. This book explores the impact of globalization on China and the interactions of Chinese education with the globalized world. It consists of twenty chapters which collectively examine how globalization unfolds on the ground in Chinese education through global flows of talents, information, and knowledge. The authors, established and emerging scholars from China and internationally, analyze patterns and trends of China’s engagement with the globalized world as well as tensions between the global and local concerning national education sovereignty and the widening gap between brain gain and brain drain. The book covers a wide range of topics, including:
Internationalization of Chinese education
Student mobility and intercultural adaptation
Cross-cultural teaching and learning
Transnational talent mobility

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Edited by Suzanne Majhanovich and Régis Malet

In our globalized world, the many facets of diversity are ever more in evidence. Issues of race, class, ethnicity, religion, language, gender, sexual orientation and physical disability are manifestations of diversity that have often evoked negative or even violent reactions in society. And yet, any society that deems itself democratic needs to come to terms with diversity in open, informed and accepting ways. Education has an important role to play in developing socially aware, democratic citizens. The ten chapters in this volume contributed by authors from around the world address some of the tensions inherent in a diverse society and provide examples and recommendations for addressing the challenges of diversity in an equitable and democratic way. Three major themes are considered: developing a pedagogy for diversity; issues of gender and race in democratic education; and the transformative role of the arts in democratic education on diversity.
The chapters in the collection present case studies, reports and pedagogical approaches supporting education for diversity. While acknowledging problems posed by local customs, neo-colonialism, and neo-liberalism among others to the development of equitable, accessible and democratic education, the authors provide concrete suggestions for an education that will promote intercultural understanding and democratic citizenship.

Community Engagement in Higher Education

Policy Reforms and Practice

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Edited by W. James Jacob, Stewart E. Sutin, John C. Weidman and John L. Yeager

There seems to be renewed interest in having universities and other higher education institutions engage with their communities at the local, national, and international levels. But what is community engagement? Even if this interest is genuine and widespread, there are many different concepts of community service, outreach, and engagement. The wide range of activity encompassed by community engagement suggests that a precise definition of the “community mission” is difficult and organizing and coordinating such activities is a complex task. This edited volume includes 18 chapters that explore conceptual understandings of community engagement and higher education reforms and initiatives intended to foster it. Contributors provide empirical research findings, including several case study examples that respond to the following higher education community engagement issues. What is “the community” and what does it need and expect from higher education institutions? Is community engagement a mission of all types of higher education institutions or should it be the mission of specific institutions such as regional or metropolitan universities, technical universities, community colleges, or indigenous institutions while other institutions such as major research universities should concentrate on national and global research agendas and on educating internationally-competent researchers and professionals? How can a university be global and at the same time locally relevant? Is it, or should it be, left to the institutions to determine the scope and mode of their community engagement, or is a state mandate preferable and feasible? If community engagement or “community service” are mandatory, what are the consequences of not complying with the mandate? How effective are policy mandates and university engagement for regional and local economic development? What are the principal features and relationships of regionally-engaged universities? Is community engagement to be left to faculty members and students who are particularly socially engaged and locally embedded or is it, or should it be, made mandatory for both faculty and students? How can community engagement be (better) integrated with the (other) two traditional missions of the university—research and teaching?
Cover design: The Towering Four-fold Mission of Higher Education, by Natalie Jacob

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Edited by Keiichi Ogawa and Mikiko Nishimura

Achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE) has received considerable attention since the early 1950s. The concept of universal education is, however, not well defined and is used to mean many different things to different people. This book contains a five-year research work conducted by a group of African and Japanese researchers who have developed an equal partnership and network to review the expansion of primary education, some policies prompting the free primary education intervention, and the challenges of implementation based on the case study of two districts in four countries, namely, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda. The first part discusses issues related to administrative, financial, and perceptive issues related to UPE policies in each country case, followed by the second part that focuses on quality of education and UPE policies. The book contains various lessons learnt and implications for future education policies in developing countries.

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Edited by Zehavit Gross and Lynn Davies

This book brings together new thinking on education’s complex and evolving role in conflict and fragility. The changing nature of conflict, from inter- to intra-state, and with shifting geopolitical power balances, demands a reconceptualization of where education is positioned. Claims that education on its own can be an agent of conflict transformation are disputed. Deliberate attempts at peace education are not without critics and controversies. This collection aims to generate new realism from empirical and reflective accounts in a variety of countries and political contexts, as well as provide innovative methodological approaches to the study of education and conflict. The particular distinctiveness of the volume is the emphasis on ‘contested’—it includes the debates and disagreements on the many faces of education in conflict, as well as material on teaching controversial issues in fragile contexts. Crucially, it underscores how education itself exists within highly contested projects of state, nation and region building.
As well as overview comparative chapters, the collection encompasses a range of specific contexts, geographically and educationally—Algeria, Canada, El Salvador, Israel, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Tunisia, UK and US, with settings that include schools, higher education and refugee camps. Focuses range from analyses of education in historical conflicts to contemporary issues such as post Arab Spring transformations. Perennial concerns about religion, colonialism, protest, integration, cohesion, emergencies, globalization and narrative are given new slants.Yet in spite of the debates, a cross-cutting consensus emerges as the crucial need for critical pedagogy and critical theory if education is to make any mark at all on conflict and fragility.

Contrasting Dynamics in Education Politics of Extremes

School Choice in Chile and Finland

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Edited by Piia Seppänen, Alejandro Carrasco, Mira Kalalahti, Risto Rinne and Hannu Simola

This book aims to enhance understanding of school choice as a supra-national travelling policy, explored in two strikingly different societies: Latin American Chile and North European Finland. Chile was among the first countries to implement school choice as a policy, which it did comprehensively in the early 1980s through the creation of a market environment. Finland introduced parental choice of a school on a very moderate scale and without the market elements in the mid-1990s. Predominant aspects of Chilean basic schooling include provision by for-profit and non-profit private and municipal organisations, voucher system, parental co-payment and ranking lists. Finland persists in keeping education under public-authority governance and free-of-charge, and in prohibiting profit making and rankings.
The wide range of sociologists of education contributing to this book offer novel analyses and perspectives on the operation of school choice in Chile, the trailblazer, and Finland, the ‘European PISA leader’. Agnès van Zanten’s description of how school choice operates as a major dimension of social reproduction sets the scene. After that, Chilean and Finnish authors explore how the policy is displayed and used explicitly for very different societal purposes, although implicitly following similar patterns in the two countries with their histories, politics and cultures. Empirically the focus is on how families view and act on school choice. The research material includes large surveys, interviews and ethnographic data gathered in urban Chile and Finland. Capitalising on the concept of dynamics, the book concludes with some insights into how this globally travelling education policy has materialised in two apparently dissimilar societies and their localities.

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Edited by Murray Print and Chuanbao Tan

What is needed to be a “good” citizen for the twenty-first century? And how can schools and curricula address this question? This book addresses these questions and what it means to be a “good citizen” in the twenty-first century by exploring this concept in two different, but linked, countries. China is a major international power whose citizens are in the midst of a major social and economic transformation. Australia is transforming itself into an Asian entity in multiple ways and is influenced by its major trading partner—China. Yet both rely on their education systems to facilitate and guide this transformation as both countries search for “good” citizens.
The book explores the issue of what it means to be a “good citizen” for the 21st century at the intersection between citizenship education and moral education. The issue of what constitutes a “good citizen” is problematic in many countries and how both countries address this issue is vitally important to understanding how societies can function effectively in an increasingly interconnected world.
The book contends that citizenship education and moral education in both countries overlap on the task of how to educate for a “good citizen”. Three key questions are the focus of this book:
1. What is a “good citizen” in a globalizing world? 2. How can “good citizenship” be nurtured in schools? 3. What are the implications of the concept of “good citizen” in education, particularly the school curriculum?
Murray Print (PhD) and Chuanbao Tan (PhD) are professors from the University of Sydney, Australia and Beijing Normal University, China respectively. Both are national leaders within their respective countries and they have brought together a group of leading Australian and Chinese citizenship educators to explore these key questions.

Education and Society in Comparative Context

The Essence of Outdoor-Oriented Education in the USA and India

Eija Kimonen

What was the interrelationship between education and society during the twentieth century in the United States and India? What is the essence of the historical development of educational policies and social systems in these two countries? What philosophical views and developmental courses underlie their outdoor-oriented education? What are their aims of outdoor-oriented education? What procedures are connected with their outdoor-oriented education? These questions are examined in this unique volume.

This book is divided into three parts. The first part creates a context for the comparison of the issues concerning education and society. The second part analyzes the social systems and educational policies of the United States and India following their developmental trends and patterns. The third part is an analysis and comparison of the phenomena previously presented that are related to education and society through the lenses suggested by sociological theories. It compares the dimensions of the interrelationship between education and society from the standpoint of outdoor-oriented education in the two countries during the twentieth century.

This thought-provoking volume is intended for anybody interested in the interplay between education and society in all its complexity. It offers a fascinating journey into the past and present of the issues that have defined the development of education and society in the United States and India.

Educational Internationalisation

Academic Voices and Public Policy

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Edited by Jennifer Olson, Heidi Biseth and Guillermo Ruiz

This book is part of the Sense Publishers series emerging from the 2013 WCCES XV World Congress in Buenos Aires (Series Editors Suzanne Majhanovich and Allan Pitman). The Congress Theme of New Times, New Voices provided the broad frame for the conference and the series of volumes, including this one, which contains research contributions focusing on educational internationalisation. Ever since the early days of international and comparative inquiry in education, the idea that policy and practice might be borrowed or transferred from one location to another has been a continuing theme. Several studies included in this volume focus on the activities of governments, the interactions between supranational organisations and states and the role of private and civil society actors in educational internationalisation.
The chapters in this volume explore how internationalisation is carried out in various educational levels and through new or expanding policies and practices. Moreover, the chapters represent diverse research perspectives and geographical regions. More specifically, they examine issues pertaining to: (1) changes in the academic profession, (2) responses to the European Bologna Process and European perspectives on internationalisation, (3) political and institutional interventions that shape educational policy agendas, (4) children’s rights and teacher education in Latin America, and (5) the voices of Roma interest groups. Taken together, these chapters explore the relationships between academic voices and those of international organisations, as well as how national policy makers interpret contrasting international discourses, and political and social factors that influence educational internationalisation processes.

Governing Educational Spaces

Knowledge, Teaching, and Learning in Transition

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Edited by Hans-Georg Kotthoff and Eleftherios Klerides

The governance of education in many countries and regions of the world is currently in transition, challenging histories, remaking subjectivities and shaping possible futures. This book provides an up to date analysis and discussion of the cutting edge theme of educational governance from an international comparative perspective. The volume explores the landscape of ‘educational governance’ in its broadest sense; considering new forms of steering, leadership and management, assessment and evaluation, teaching and learning, knowledge creation and the realities and possibilities for different forms of political engagement. The new spatial dynamics of education are explored in institutional settings such as schools and universities and via professional groupings such as teachers, administrators and leaders.

The chapters in this book are based on the best peer reviewed papers and keynote speeches, which were delivered at the XXVI Conference of the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE) in June 2014 in Freiburg, Germany. Comparative Education is uniquely situated to explore the emerging dynamics of educational governance within changing and newly emerging educational spaces because it provides the opportunity to learn more about different local, national or regional educational processes and trajectories and to share knowledge about the logics, ideologies and impacts of different techniques and regimes of governance across Europe and beyond.

Hans-Georg Kotthoff is Professor of Comparative Education and School Pedagogy at the University of Education Freiburg, Germany, and President of the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE) since 2012.

Eleftherios Klerides is Lecturer in Comparative Education and History of Education at the University of Cyprus and the Secretary-Treasurer of the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE).

Revitalizing Minority Voices

Language Issues in the New Millennium

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Edited by Renée DePalma, Diane Brook Napier and Willibroad Dze-Ngwa

Whose voices are taken into account in language policy and planning and whose have been ignored or more actively silenced? This is the central question addressed in this book. What are the political and social factors that have helped to create these historical exclusions, in terms of endangerment and loss of traditional languages? What are the global influences on the local landscape of languages and linguistic rights? What are the implications for cultural heritage and identity? In analyzing these questions and reporting on research in an array of countries, the chapter authors also suggest ways forward toward designing more inclusive policies and practices in educational contexts, whether in the context of obligatory schooling or in less formal educational contexts.
UNESCO estimates that at least 43% of the estimated 6000 languages spoken in the world are endangered. Such statistics remind us that the linguistic diversity that characterizes the human condition is a fragile thing, and that certain languages need to be cultivated if they are to survive into the 21st century and beyond. The chapters in this volume originated as presentations at the XV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2013). They represent several global regions, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. They provide analyses of language policy and politics at the local, regional, national and transnational levels, grass-roots linguistic revitalization initiatives, and the attitudes of minority and majority speakers toward minoritized languages and cultures and towards intercultural and multilingual education programs.

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Jude Butcher, Peter Bastian, Margie Beck, Tony d'Arbon and Youssef Taouk

This book argues that development aid in small post-conflict states, particularly in the educational field, benefits from a commitment to a shared vision, fostering co-operative relationships and working within local capacity, credibility, and attentiveness to immediate and longer-term development goals.

It uses Timor-Leste as its case study of a faith-based partnership in the development of the Instituto Católico para a Formação de Professores (ICFP) at Baucau. The people of what was then East Timor voted overwhelmingly for independence in 1999 and the nation building, including reforming education, in this post-conflict small state began. The book reports how, through the commitment of the partners to capacity building and transforming education, East Timorese staff have assumed positions of responsibility in the Institute. ICFP has received very positive accreditation reports from the national authority in terms of its vision, courses, staff and student quality, and infrastructure.

The significance of the challenge and what has been achieved in this teacher education institute is studied against the history of the East Timorese people and the educational policies of their former colonial powers. The history, scope and responsibilities of the partnership reveal how the partners were of one mind in terms of foundational values, institutional deliverables, infrastructure and sustainability for the Institute.

This educational capacity building and its outcomes are testimony to the relevance of the development principles of the Paris Declaration and the Accra Accord as well as to the partners’shared vision as faith-based people and organisations and their commitment to Catholic social teaching.

A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Systems

Issues, Challenges and Dilemmas

Edited by Michael Kariwo, Tatiana Gounko and Musembi Nungu

"This is a well crafted, timely book that comes at a time when so much is happening in higher education contexts across the world. Clearly, it is in response to these global (and selectively local) trends that Kariwo, Gounko and Nungu bring together an impressive lineup of both established and emerging scholars who achieve a comprehensive and critically constructed perspective on tertiary education systems. Collectively, the chapters in this work shall expand the epistemic boundaries of the area and its affiliated disciplines, and the book as a whole will greatly benefit interested scholars, students, education policy makers and the public at large. " - Ali A. Abdi, Professor, University of Alberta
"This book is a valuable contribution to knowledge on higher education and provides an international perspective on issues, challenges and dilemmas resulting from the rapid expansion of higher education. The volume is an excellent text that integrates theoretical and analytical studies as well as empirical regional studies. It gives some insights on how different countries and regions have been responding to massification and accessing of higher education. It will appeal to researchers, graduate students and faculty in Higher or Post-Secondary Education as well as International and Comparative Education. " - Edward Shizha, Associate Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University (Brantford Campus)

Empires, Post-Coloniality and Interculturality

New Challenges for Comparative Education

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Edited by Leoncio Vega

Empires, Post-Coloniality and Interculturality: New Challenges for Comparative Education, presents some outcomes of the 25th Conference of the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE), held in Salamanca, in June 2012. The central aim proposed for the debates of the Conference revolves around an intellectual effort to re-think and re-direct the scientific discipline of Comparative Education based on the broad cultural trends that influence the internationalization and/or globalization of education. Reconsidering and/or re-thinking our discipline involves studying the influence exerted on it by three major international forces.

First, empires, not so much in terms of discipline or governance but more related to cultural, technological and knowledge perspectives. This area addresses both historical process and contemporary circumstances and is expressed through networks, research programs, academic reform in universities supported by criteria of governance and efficiency, transnational mobility, and linguistic monopolies. Second, it is necessary to re-think the influence of post-colonialism in educational models and models of citizens’ education not only from the perspective of their impact on the curricular reorganization of education systems but also of their educational and sociocultural expression. Both forms were acclaimed both in the 19th century and the 20th century within different international geographic contexts. The third component of the discourse triangle is the reconsideration (not only historical) of the impact of migratory fluxes, or better said, of “cultural migrations”, and their relationship with the reordering of curricular and educational processes in both education systems and in the social framework. Education is now in a transition from “monoculture” to multiple cultures in the classroom.

This publication is structured along four themes that illustrate the academic contributions to the Conference. The themes are as follows: I. From Empires, History and Memory: Comparative Studies of Education, II. Learning and Assessment Processes: an International Perspective, III. Transnational Education and Colonial Approach, IV. International Education: Comparative Dimensions.

Giving Space to African Voices

Rights in Local Languages and Local Curriculum

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Edited by Zehlia Babaci-Wilhite

This book sets out to bring voices of the South to the debate on localization of education and makes the case that it should be considered a right in education. Despite all the scientifically-based evidence on the improved quality of education through the use of a local language and local knowledge, English as a language of instruction and “Western” knowledge based curriculum continue to be used at all educational levels in many developing nations. This means that in many African countries, the goal of rights to education is becoming increasingly remote, let alone that of rights in education. With this understanding and with the awareness of the education challenges of millions of children throughout Africa, the authors argue that local curriculum through local languages needs to be valued and to be preserved, and that children need to be prepared for the world in a language that promotes understanding. The authors make a clear case that policy makers are in a position to work towards a quality education for all as part of a more comprehensive right-based approach. We owe it to the children of the South to offer the best quality education possible in order to achieve social justice.

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Edited by Diane Brook Napier

In a growing revisionist tradition, comparative educational scholars challenge conventional assumptions about quality education as a singular undertaking dominated by standardised assessments and globalisation influences. The contributors to this volume illustrate the complexities and global dimensions of educational quality that emerged in their research. Several chapters critique educational reforms employing assessments aligned to global standards and large scale assessments, revealing how considerations of contextual factors, internal needs and local traditions are essential for developing a quality curriculum or for overhauling a national education system. Most chapters interrogate the uses and misuses of standardised assessment results. The contributors reveal the importance of asking critical questions about quality education: how to access it and for what purposes; what contextual and cultural factors are important; what implementation issues and local-level realities must be considered for true understanding of standardized assessment results; what content, skills and values are necessary and desirable ingredients; what roles teachers and administrators play; and what benefits accrue in terms of outcomes for employment and labor market needs or for achieving autonomy and stakeholder participation. Critiques of narrow interpretations of standardised assessment data contrast with research-based evidence that participation in large scale assessments such as PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS can indeed be beneficial to identify needed reform refinements and implementation shortcomings. Specific country cases include Brazil, Canada, the United States, Spain, Portugal, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, and the Philippines. Other chapters provide insights on quality education issues worldwide. The volume offers readers a panorama of views on the diversity of paths to quality education.

The SSCI Syndrome in Higher Education

A Local or Global Phenomenon

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Edited by Chuing Prudence Chou

As a result of the world class university rankings, many governments adopt public incentives and sanctions to push universities to excel. Above all, the better faculty research publication in SSCI and SCI journals, the more resources and social prestige universities will obtain. This timely book attempts to relate these dilemmas in Taiwan to many non-English speaking counterparts which also struggle with the worldwide SSCI syndrome.
A spectre is haunting almost all universities in the world, including Taiwan—the spectre of “indexization.” Academics, particularly social scientists are panting from the pressure of globally spread neoliberal ideology and market-based principles. Collegiality on campus in the good old days has declined, and managerialism gained power instead. Competitive funding and university rankings are excessively emphasized, and research results are required to be internationalized, i.e., published in English. Although this book is a case study of so-called SSCI syndrome in Taiwan, the problems and challenges as well as prescription contained here are common to all academics, especially those in the non-English speaking countries positioned as “peripheral.”

Series:

Edited by Yvonne Hébert and Ali A. Abdi

In rapidly globalizing spaces of life, any research project on international education would necessarily have multi-directional emphases, with the quality of observations and analyses reflecting the expanding political, economic and cultural intersections which characterize this potentially promising century. To respond to these emerging learning and living contexts of our world, this book brings together some of the most active and established scholars in the field. As such, the book represents important epistemic interventions that analyze and critique the institutional, socio-economic, linguistic and pedagogical platforms of international education. As the locus of international education cannot be detached from the pragmatics of social development, the specific recommendations embedded in this book expand the debates and broaden the boundaries of learning projects that should enhance the lives of people, especially those who are continually marginalized by the regimes of globalization. Thus, the book actively advocates for possibilities of human well-beings via different formats of education in diverse locations of life.

Curriculum Innovations in Changing Societies

Chinese Perspectives from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China

Edited by Edmond Hau-Fai Law and Chenzhi Li

Over the last ten years, in response to social and economic challenges, curriculum reforms have been initiated in major countries and regions in East Asia, such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. The majority of these reforms focused on moving from a teacher-centered curriculum toward a curriculum that engages students actively in intellectually stimulating tasks and activities inside and outside classrooms. The goal is to enhance student generic skills, such as critical thinking, communications, problem-solving, and self-studying for life-long purposes. Reforms have raised issues with the examination traditions of these countries and regions. Attempts have been made to reorient the school curriculum and its assessment methods to suit individual needs of the students and the changing diverse learning outcomes. This book is a collection of 30 chapters written by over 52 educators and researchers from faculties of education in major universities from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. The chapters include their research studies and observations on what has been happening in the school curriculum and the changing curriculum policies in these countries and regions. Readers may also find some tentative answers to the reasons why the performances of the students in these countries and regions remain high in international assessments in recent years.
Cover image by Anna Sung-yan Law, Faculty of Architecture Nottingham University, UK

Economics, Aid and Education

Implications for Development

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Suzanne Majhanovich and MacLeans A. Geo-JaJa

It is impossible to discuss economics, development or education in a world-wide context without considering the effects of markets or globalization on these issues that have such an impact on humanity. Neoliberalism has had profound consequences for education worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The chapters in this volume include both case studies for specific countries as well as reflections on economic and educational priorities in a globalized world. How development aid is delivered, provisioned and under what conditions is debated in several chapters. Similarly, development as well as poverty are conceived in multi-dimensionalities depending on the context. In addition, the issue of what quality education has come to mean in a globalized age is also addressed. The contrast between discourses of humanistic approaches to education and those of neoliberalism as propounded by the World Bank informs discussions throughout the volume.
The collection of papers in Economics, Aid and Education: Implications for Development provides a roadmap for policy makers in developing countries as well as for comparativists to the key issues and challenges of globalization, marketization and internationalization of education in a period of economic crisis. This book explores the contributions of globalization and the roadmaps developed as vehicles for societal transformation. Contributors from all parts of the globe discuss the expanding role of the World Bank’s market reforms in education in developing countries. In a detailed and practical way, the authors question false assumptions of education aid and underline the challenges of funding gaps related to development in education.

Education and the Political

New Theoretical Articulations

Series:

Edited by Tomasz Szkudlarek

The essays in this collection address the relation between education and politics in new ways. Rather than understanding education simply as the object of political decision-making, or as preparation for politics, the authors of this volume see education as implicated in social conflicts and in the political processes that produce and change social structures. Education, then, is a practice that reconfigures the relations between subjectivities and the political. The collection focuses on several critical cases and theoretical debates where the relation between education and politics demands new articulations. It explores the potential of theoretical languages proposed by Rancière, Laclau, Derrida, Mouffe, Bakhtin, and other thinkers whose work has not yet been fully recognized in its pedagogical meaning.

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Edited by Diane Brook Napier and Suzanne Majhanovich

This volume is a collection of research cases illustrating the interrelationships among education, dominance and identity in historical- and contemporary contexts. The cases reflect particular ways in which local-, group, and indigenous identities have been affected by a dominant discourse, how education can support or undermine identity, and how languages (including dominant and sub-dominant languages) and the language of instruction in schools are at the centre of challenges to hegemony and domination in many situations. Examining the issues in their research, the contributors reveal how members of minority-, disadvantaged-, or dominated groups (and the teachers and parents of children in their schools) struggle for recognition, for education in their own language, for acceptance within larger society, or for recognition of the validity of their responses to reform initiatives and policies that address a wider agenda but that fail to take into account key factors such as perceptions and subaltern status.
Collectively, the chapters document research employing a variety of methodological approaches and theoretical perspectives, illustrating an array of universal and global issues in the field of comparative and international education. However, each of the cases its own unique character, as research findings and as personal reflections based on the authors’ experiential knowledge in particular social, cultural and political contexts. The contexts and regional settings include Chile, Canada, the United States, Hungary and elsewhere in East-Central Europe, France, Germany, Spain, Malaysia, Tanzania, South Africa, Cyprus, Tunisia, Egypt, Iran and elsewhere in the Middle East.

Engaged Scholarship

The Politics of Engagement and Disengagement

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Edited by Lynette Shultz and Tania Kajner

This volume brings together diverse theoretical reflections and practices of community engaged scholarship in order to stimulate critical discussion, deepen theory, and invite critical practice. It is an international trend that higher education institutions and agencies are encouraging and promoting community engagement. At the same time, there is recognition of a lack of consistent definitions and understandings of what it is they are promoting. As a counterweight to the dominance of pragmatic and technical discussions in the literature on engaged scholarship, the chapters in this book shift the discourse to ask foundational questions that emphasize the political nature of engagement. Recognizing that acts of engagement are never neutral, the authors in this book explore how engaged scholarship requires decision-making that is inherently grounded in values, beliefs, and interpretations of what is and what ought to be.
Alongside complex global and local social movements rising to address issues, for example climate change or the global financial collapse and the uneven consequences of these globalized problems, we see corresponding concerns expressed about the limited participation by excluded, silenced, and invisibilized people throughout the world. How can engaged scholarship be mobilized and who will it serve within such contexts? With contributions covering such diverse topics as a non-binary approach to engagement; citizenship of knowledge; university contexts and corporatization; stranger pedagogies and anti-foundational approaches to service learning; contemporary revolutionary movements in the Arab world; and transforming higher education through Africanist onto-epistemologies, this volume is poised to open the door to a deeper understanding of engaged scholarship.

Gendered Voices

Reflections on Gender and Education in South Africa and Sudan

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Edited by Halla B. Holmarsdottir, V. Nomlomo, Alawia Ibrahim Farag and Z. Desai

Internationally, there is growing awareness that the target of Education for All by 2015 will not be met unless more strident efforts are made to improve access for marginalized, hard-to-reach children (most often girls). For almost four decades gender equality in education has been one of the key global concerns and as a result various organizations at national and international levels along with governments have initiated programs focusing on achieving gender equality, women’s empowerment and improving girls’ access to education. By focusing on access alone (i.e. gender parity) we may not understand how education can be used to achieve empowerment and influence cultural practices that are gender insensitive. In this volume we attempt to call into question the content of gender equality as simple parity and in doing so we reflect upon the following questions:
Do the global (macro) discourses on gender equality in education lead to a focus on numbers only or to more profound sustainable changes at the national (meso) level and the school (micro) level? To what extent have national policies been adjusted to reflect the global discourses on gender equality?
Are schools/classrooms (micro) expected to adjust to these global discourses and if so in what ways has this happened?
What are the challenges of providing access to good quality education for girls in both countries? Is there a dichotomy between the schools/classrooms on the one hand and the community on the other in terms of gender equality/equity?
To what extent is gender equality/equity imposed upon schools and communities and does it take into account the cultural practices in traditional communities?

Series:

Edited by Heidi Biseth and Halla B. Holmarsdottir

There is no single answer to the question: what are human rights? The answer depends on whom you ask. Several of the papers presented at Fourteenth World Congress of Comparative Education held at Bog

Series:

Philip G. Altbach

21st century higher education faces immense changes—from the broad impact of globalization to the implications of massification and the growth of enrollments worldwide. The International Imperative in Higher Education focuses on most of the central elements affecting universities worldwide. Included among the themes analyzed are global issues such as corruption, the continuing impact of the brain drain and the phenomenon of brain exchange, the role of English in internationalization, changes in the environment for publishing and knowledge distribution, and academic freedom. The specific elements of internationalization, such as growing commercialization, and the role of agents and recruiters as a part of global student flows are considered. The role of the academic profession in a rapidly changing university environment is also discussed. Special attention is paid to China and India, the world’s two largest academic systems, and the specific challenges faced by them.
This book consists of 40 concise essays analyzing key aspects of global higher education. They bring together broad analysis and an underlying concern for the public good aspects of higher education in a comparative and international framework.

Language Issues in Comparative Education

Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures

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Edited by Carol Benson and Kimmo Kosonen

This volume compiles a unique yet complementary collection of chapters that take a strategic comparative perspective on education systems, regions of the world, and/or ethnolinguistic communities with a focus on non-dominant languages and cultures in education. Comparison and contrast within each article and across articles illustrates the potential for using home languages—which in many cases are in non-dominant positions relative to other languages in society—in inclusive multilingual and multicultural forms of education. The 22 authors demonstrate how bringing non-dominant languages and cultures into schooling has liberatory, transformative potential for learners from ethnolinguistic communities that have previously been excluded from access to quality basic education.
The authors deal not only with educational development in specific low-income and emerging countries in Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Philippines Thailand and Vietnam), Latin America (Guatemala and Mexico) and Africa (Mozambique, Senegal and Tanzania), but also with efforts to reach marginalized ethnolinguistic communities in high-income North American countries (Canada and the USA). In the introductory chapter the editors highlight common and cross-cutting themes and propose appropriate, sometimes new terminology for the discussion of linguistic and cultural issues in education, particularly in low-income multilingual countries. Likewise, using examples from additional countries and contexts, the three final chapters address cross-cutting issues related to language and culture in educational research and development.
The authors and editors of this volume share a common commitment to comparativism in their methods and analysis, and aim to contribute to more inclusive and relevant education for all.

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Edited by Elisabeth Bjørnestad and Janicke Heldal Stray

This volume represents the work of 12 authors, all of whom were or are working at the Department of Education at the University of Oslo. This volume aims to provide insights into the diversity of some of the research conducted during the last ten years in Norway, and to shed light on the diverse and broad field of education represented by various new voices from the Department. The contributions have in common that they represent what we can understand as Norwegian voices, at the same time they also show how Norwegian researchers are communicating with and contributing to the international field of educational research. The researchers contributing to this volume are all trained and skilled within a Norwegian tradition, and yet have a broad and international outlook.
Norway is a country built on social democratic values, safely situated in one of the northern most corners of the world. During the last ten years or so, the national educational system has been challenged and adjusted to be compatible with international educational trends and expectations. This has brought Norway one step closer to more internationalized and globalized educational approaches, which is clearly shown in this volume. The major themes in this volume serve to highlight this trend with a focus on issues such as achievement goals, motivation and innovation, digital tools and technology in education and new ways of teaching and learning, which include a focus on issues concerning diversity and democracy.
The editors and the authors have been collaborating since they first started out as PhD students roughly ten years ago. In this volume, the ambition is to bring together the expertise from this period, and to highlight the contribution to research conducted at the Institute. Elisabeth Bjørnestad lives and works in Oslo, where she is an Associate Professor in Teacher Education and Early Childhood Education and Care at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences. Janicke Heldal Stray is also working and living in Oslo, and is an Associate Professor at the Norwegian School of Theology.
Nordic Education Focus.

Private Tutoring Across the Mediterranean

Power Dynamics and Implications for Learning and Equity

Series:

Edited by Mark Bray, André E. Mazawi and Ronald G. Sultana

Private tutoring—supplementary, out-of-school instruction offered at a fee to individuals or groups—represents a substantial household expenditure, even in systems that claim to have free public education. It plays out across, alongside, and even within some school systems. Emerging as a ‘shadow education’, private tutoring now operates as a system and industry crossing national, regional, and social-class boundaries. Private tutoring is provided through different modes of delivery including the internet. Policy makers, parents, teachers, trade unions, corporations, community associations, and students are implicated in the private tutoring industry. The debates over private tutoring are therefore part of the larger struggles over the ends of education in just and equitable societies.
The authors in this volume address diverse national settings of private tutoring across the Mediterranean, and examine its political, economic, social, and cultural underpinnings. They draw on a range of conceptual frameworks, and deploy a variety of research methods to problematize the multifaceted relationships between tutoring, learning, and equity. The volume captures a multiplicity of voices, and focuses on some of the central challenges facing education in pluralistic societies.

Teaching in Tension

International Pedagogies, National Policies, and Teachers' Practices in Tanzania

Series:

Edited by Frances Vavrus and Lesley Bartlett

In recent years, international efforts to improve educational quality in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on promoting learner-centered pedagogy. However, it has not flourished for cultural, economic, and political reasons that often go unrecognized by development organizations and policymakers.
This edited volume draws on a long-term collaboration between African and American educational researchers in addressing critical questions regarding how teachers in one African country—Tanzania—conceptualize learner-centered pedagogy and struggle to implement it under challenging material conditions.
One chapter considers how international support for learner-centered pedagogy has infl uenced national policies. Subsequent chapters utilize qualitative data from classroom observations, interviews, and focus group discussions across six Tanzanian secondary schools to examine how such policies shape local practices of professional development, inclusion, gender, and classroom discourse.
In addition, the volume presents an analysis of the benefi ts and challenges of international research between Tanzanian and U. S. scholars, illuminating the complexity of collaboration as it simultaneously presents the outcome of joint research on teachers’ beliefs and practices. The chapters conclude with questions for discussion that can be used in courses on international development, social policy, and teacher education.

Edited by Ali A. Abdi

Philosophy of Education basically deals with learning issues that attempt to explain or answer what we describe as the major questions of its domains, i.e., what education is needed, why such education, and how would societies undertake and achieve such learning possibilities. In different temporal and spatial intersections of people’s lives, the design as well as the outcome of such learning program were almost entirely indigenously produced, but later, they became perforce responsive to externally imposed demands where, as far as the history and the actualities of colonized populations were concerned, a cluster of de-philosophizing and de-epistemologizing educational systems were imposed upon them. Such realities of colonial education were not conducive to inclusive social well-being, hence the need to ascertain and analyze new possibilities of decolonizing philosophies of education, which this edited volume selectively aims to achieve. The book should serve as a necessary entry point for a possible re-routing of contemporary learning systems that are mostly of de-culturing and de-historicizing genre. With that in mind, the recommendations contained in the 12 chapters should herald the potential of decolonizing philosophies of education as liberating learning and livelihood praxes.

Enlightenment, Creativity and Education

Polities, Politics, Performances

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Edited by Lennart Wikander, Christina Gustafsson and Ulla Riis

Enlightenment, Creativity and Education: Polities, Politics, Performances presents some outcomes of the 24th Conference of the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE), held in Uppsala, in summer 2010.
Bringing together studies related to knowledge and educational policies, the volume deals with the role of knowledge, globalisation and new trends what have an effect of identities and policies. Changes in societies have changed the rhetoric concerning the position and function of education. What—in comparative perspective—are the historical forces and sociological and economic structures which are infl uencing our ideas and assumptions about identity and wisdom and the future of polities and economies? So the conference asked: what are the contemporary and emergent nature of polities, and the politics of the future—and who says so? This publication is structured along three themes for the purpose of giving illustrations to some of the questions asked. The themes are I. Comparative Education—The role of Knowledge and Educational Research, II. Globalisation and New Trends, III. New Knowledge—Identities—Policies.
Lennart Wikander is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education at Uppsala University. His field is Higher Education including its relations to the labour market. Educational policies in a comparative perspective have also been a major part of his lecturing and research. He is President of NOCIES (Nordic Comparative and International Education Society). He is also member of the CESE Executive Committee.
Christina Gustafsson is Professor of Education at Uppsala University and Director of Research in Educational Science at the University of Gävle. She started as a classroom researcher, and spent some years working on evaluation as a research practice. For the past fi fteen years, she has been oriented towards higher education research, especially research related to teacher training and newly qualified teachers.
Ulla Riis is Professor of Education at Uppsala University and Director of the programme Studies in Higher Education (SHE) at the Department of Education. She also has publications in Science Education and Computer Education in school as curriculum issues. Her latest report deals with the outcomes of a reform of the promotion system for Swedish university professors.

The Immigration & Education Nexus

A Focus on the Context & Consequences of Schooling

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Edited by David A. Urias

The focus of this edited volume is on immigration’s effect on schooling and the consequential aspect of illegal immigration’s effect. To understand immigration (legal and undocumented) and K-16 education in Asia, Europe, and the US is to situate both within the broader context of globalization. This volume presents a timely and poignant analysis of the historical, legal, and demographic issues related to immigration with implications for education and its interdisciplinary processes. Arguments based on theories of globalization, socialization, naturalization, and xenophobia are provided as a conceptual foundation to assess such issues as access to and use of public services, e. g., public education, health, etc. Additional discussions center around the social, political, and economic forces that shape the social/cultural identities of this population as it tries to integrate into the larger society. The long-term causes and consequences of global immigration dynamics, and the multiple paths taken by immigrants, especially children, wishing to study are addressed. Summary discussion concludes the volume as well as projections with respect to links between immigration and key national security and international policy issues.
Education can and must play an important role in a world that is more global and at the same time more local than it was almost twenty years ago. This volume intends to serve as an ambitious guide to approaching the issues of immigration and education more globally.

Learning and Doing Policy Analysis in Education

Examining Diverse Approaches to Increasing Educational Access

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Edited by Maria Teresa Tatto

The book is designed for faculty and doctoral students in education who are interested in understanding diverse frameworks for policy analysis, and for those in the general public who are interested in the policies we analyze here.

This book originated in a policy analysis class at Michigan State University taught during 2010. Using Professor Tatto’s unique approach to teaching policy analysis, the professor and students agreed to construct a class that represented a reflective and grounded experience in the policy analysis of a current and relevant issue with global ramifications; we began exploring policies that were developed at the global level and that were implemented locally. We investigated the surge of globally developed standards and regulations in an effort to improve education.

Our goal was to learn cross-nationally about policies that seek to reform curriculum and instruction under efficiency and global competitiveness arguments, such as Education for All (EFA) and its USA cousin No Child Left Behind (NCLB). We knew our work would be bounded by the time available in a one-semester class, and by resource constraints. We did exploratory inquiry supported by literature reviews, reports on rigorous research studies, and in one case an exploratory case study. The policies we chose to explore, such as EFA and NCLB, offered us the opportunity to examine current reform tendencies that are intended to provide access to quality education for all children, the preparation of teachers to support diverse populations, the organization of schools to accommodate these children in response to vague policy mandates, and power issues affecting the different constituencies and stakeholders. The effects of these and other policies were difficult to track because research is scant and decisions are frequently made based on ideology or political persuasion.

Our purpose was to explore the critical issues that originated such policies, and to search for documented evidence regarding policy implementation and effectiveness. We investigated the factors that seemed to interfere with successful implementation, from conceptual, theoretical, and methodological perspectives. In this class we learned that there are not ready-set frameworks for policy analysis, but rather that these have to be constructed according to the issues that emerge as policies are conceptualized and implemented to fit local contexts and needs. The book pays particular attention to the contexts of policy, including the evolving conceptualization of global and local systems of governance, knowledge regimes, and policy spaces.

Personalisation of Education in Contexts

Policy Critique and Theories of Personal Improvement

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Edited by Monica Mincu

This volume addresses personalisation, a key education policy in England and a key issue identified by the OECD for the schools of the future. The central questions addressed are: Which are the main theoretical perspectives on personalisation? Which are the policy strategies in different contexts? Which ingredients and theories of personalisation as legitimated knowledge from abroad are locally adopted and adapted in different countries? What are the meanings and purposes of personalisation? Why does it come paradoxically to be implemented by teachers through grouping by ability? Which alliances between the public and the private sectors are proposed?

Leading scholars in the comparative education field as well as scholars committed to understanding the design and substance of education processes and politics, such as Michael Fullan, Chris Watkins, Michael Peters, Michael Fielding, Giorgio Chiosso, Ruth Deakin Crick, Ferran Ferrer, and Baocun Liu, engage with personalisation from a plurality of theoretical frameworks and in relation to many national contexts.

The volume, prefaced by Mark Ginsburg, presents two main perspectives which are simultaneously at work. In the first, personalisation is assessed as a recent and global education policy, in line with the current restructuring reforms of State administration worldwide. In the second perspective, personalisation is assumed to be not only a matter of recent education policy regarding school clients and their choices, but foremost a pedagogical theory, a reassembly of old and new pedagogical approaches under new reform discourses.

Preparation, Practice, and Politics of Teachers

Problems and Prospects in Comparative Perspective

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Edited by Mark Ginsburg

This edited volume, based on papers presented at the World Congress of Comparative Education (Istanbul, 2010), presents research examining pre-service teacher education, in-service teacher development, and the politics of teachers’ work in a variety of geographical regions, including Asia, Africa, Eurasia, Europe, Latin America, and North America. More specifically, the chapters examine the situations, activities, and education of teachers in the societal contexts of Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, France, Germany, Ghana, Hong Kong, Ireland, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. The authors address a variety of important questions related to a group of employees who are key actors in determining the quality of education: How can pre-service teacher education best be organized for different purposes in various settings? What kinds of activities should be organized and who should be involved in in-service professional development to promote teacher capacity and commitment to perform their roles in classrooms and communities? What kinds of incentives can motivate teachers’ engagement with various aspects of their work? How do certain educational policies and reforms promote the professionalization or the deprofessionalization and proletarianization of teaching? What are the opportunities and constraints for teachers as they seek to operate within themicro-politics of schools and the macro-politics of society? The book thus contributes to refining our understanding of the critical theoretical issues in the field of comparative and international education as well as calling attention to dynamics that should be considered in developing and implementing as well as critiquing and resisting educational policies in varying contexts.

Quality and Qualities

Tensions in Education Reforms

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Edited by Clementina Acedo, Don Adams and Simona Popa

Quality and Qualities: Tensions in Education Reforms is a provocative call for understanding and further exploring the elusive concept of quality in education. Although education quality has acquired high priority in the past few decades, the multiplicity of conceptualizations of quality also reflects the concerns and foci of multiple stakeholders. Coming to an understanding of quality education involves careful analysis of the context from which any particular reform or program emerges and of the continuing struggle to define and achieve it. Two main questions persist: who benefits from particular policies focused on quality? And what are the potential tradeoffs between a focus on quality, equitable distribution of education, and inclusion of various traditional expectations?

This book explores notions of quality as understood within various systems of national, formal, and nonformal education. Also it considers the tensions that arise with the introduction of new standardized notions of quality in relation to international measures and educational reforms in developing countries. In all cases, specific national issues and concerns compete with global agendas. Challenges to quality that are given particular attention in the book chapters include changing definitions of quality, high expectations for education and issues with implementation, and the introduction of English as a means to achieve quality in a globalizing world. Special attention is also given to possible actions that support a more equitable education without ignoring the requisite of quality. The final chapter suggests three models/choices for seeking higher quality and guiding the educational future of nations.

Cover image: View of Hong Kong by Ana Cristina (7 years old), Costa Rica, 2007.

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Carl Parsons

This book chronicles the trajectory of one Kent secondary school which was twice dubbed ‘the worst school in England’ in the national press. Serving a high poverty neighbourhood, The Ramsgate School was challenged by national targets, low levels of attainment of the school intake at 11 and difficulties of recruitment and retention of quality staff.
The local housing estates were amongst the most deprived in the country and shared the school’s negative reputation. The school became The Marlowe Academy in 2005 with new leadership and a new building (in 2006). Student numbers increased, attendance and attainment came close to the national average and the atmosphere in the school was transformed, though the characteristics of the pupils in terms of special needs (twice the national average) and deprivation (more than twice the national average entitled to free school meals) remained unchanged.
This book questions the notion that school improvement and school leadership are key areas to focus on when the socio-economic circumstances of pupils, poverty, dwarf all the other factors which are related to the educational progress of students.

State and Market in Higher Education Reforms

Trends, Policies and Experiences in Comparative Perspective

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Edited by Hans G. Schuetze and Germán Álvarez Mendiola

Universities have never been static. Even so, it is fair to say they have experienced a most radical transformation in the past twenty years. During this period, the role and responsibility of the state generally have been broadly limited while allowing ‘market forces’—private ownership and control—more influence.

But even where the state is still the main provider or funder, it relies increasingly on ‘market mechanisms’, for example contractual relations between state and institutions, competition among providers for resources, and external assessment of ‘outputs’ which means the results or impact of what universities do, in particular teaching and research. The new terminology speaks of price and competition, inputs and outputs, resources, cost and benefits, demand and supply, provider and customer, consumers and investors, quality control and accountability. Education, and post-secondary education especially are increasingly seen as matters for markets. Formal post-secondary education becomes a service, commercialized and traded across national borders.

This volume on changing relationship between state and market, contains, besides an introductory analytic overview of the issues, accounts from different countries, regions, and thematic perspectives. Chapter authors describe and analyze government reforms and other developments that have directly or indirectly affected this relationship. Although the geographical focus is on North America, especially Mexico, South East Asia and Europe, the phenomenon is not limited to these regions and countries but worldwide.

The World Bank and Education

Critiques and Alternatives

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Edited by Steven J. Klees, Joel Samoff and Nelly P. Stromquist

For more than three decades, the World Bank has been proposing global policies for education. Presented as research-based, validated by experience, and broadly applicable, these policies are ideologically driven, insensitive to local contexts, and treat education as independent of international dynamics and national and local economies and cultures. Target countries, needing resources and unable to generate comparable research, find it difficult to challenge World Bank recommendations.

The World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives represents a powerful challenge to World Bank proposals. Probing core issues—equity, quality, finance, privatization, teaching and learning, gender, and human rights—highlights the disabilities of neoliberal globalization. The authors demonstrate the ideological nature of the evidence marshaled by the World Bank and the accompanying policy advice.

Addressing key education issues in developing countries, the authors’ analyses provide tools for resisting and rejecting generic policy prescriptions as well as alternative directions to consider.

Robert Arnove, in his preface, says, “ Whether the Bank is responsive to the critiques and alternatives brilliantly offered by the present authors, the book is certain to influence development and education scholars, policymakers, and practitioners around the globe.

Beyond the Comparative

Advancing Theory and its Application to Practice

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John C. Weidman and W. James Jacob

We are pleased to introduce this inaugural volume in the PSCIE Series—Beyond the Comparative: Advancing Theory and Its Application to Practice—which expands on the life work of University of Pittsburgh Professor Rolland G. Paulston (1929-2006). Recognized as a stalwart in the field of comparative and international education, Paulston’s most widely recognized contribution is in social cartography. He demonstrated that mapping comparative, international, and development education (CIDE) is no easy task and, depending on the perspective of the mapper, there may be multiple cartographies to chart. The 35 contributors to this volume, representing a range of senior and junior scholars from various CIDE backgrounds and perspectives, celebrate the life and work of Paulston by addressing issues, perspectives and approaches related to charting the future course of the field. The volume reports on new research in several genres as well as conceptual analysis. As the title suggests, authors were encouraged to go “beyond” established canons of CIDE.
The cover art, The CIDE Theoretical Compass, was conceptualized by the editors and depicts that theory selection and theory generation are an ongoing and important process in comparative, international, and development education (CIDE). The image was designed by artist Natalie Jacob, which positions the CIDE Theoretical Compass over Rolland G. Paulston’s 1993 concentric circle map.

Educators of the Mediterranean......Up Close and Personal

Critical Voices from South Europe and the MENA region

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Edited by Ronald G. Sultana

A score of prominent educators from South Europe and the Middle East and North Africa region speak about their upbringing, their educational and professional journeys, their academic achievements, and their struggles in order to enhance democracy, justice and equity in their countries and across the Mediterranean. The interviews in this volume shed light on educational movements, challenges, and aspirations in a region that is attaining increasing importance geo-politically, and in comparative and international studies. These are powerful and critical voices, providing readers with fresh, often unexpected insights about contexts, cultures, and convictions that deserve global attention. The interviews with these men and women inform, intrigue, but above all inspire, calling, as they do, for an earnest commitment to a vision of education as a transformative, democratising force. In contrast to the global, totalising discourse that has increasingly defined education in narrowly economistic terms, here are the beginnings of alternative agendas, inviting citizens to ‘read’ and decode the world around them, and to confront power, wherever it lies. In doing so, the educators in this volume draw upon and put at our disposal a wide array of theoretical lenses, nimbly weaving these within a narrative that speaks about a lifetime lived in the hope of making a difference. These, then, are vivid, engaging, and reflexive accounts, emerging from contexts where democracy has only recently taken root, if at all, and from a region that has come to symbolize the return of the political, and the reclaiming of the public sphere as a site for transformation, contestation, revolt, and hope.

PISA Under Examination

Changing Knowledge, Changing Tests, and Changing Schools

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Edited by Miguel A. Pereyra, Hans-Georg Kotthoff and Robert Cowen

From the 23rd to 26th of November 2009 in La Palma island, in the Canaries, the Comparative Education Society in Europe (CESE) organized an international symposium entitled PISA under Examination: Changing Knowledge, Changing Tests, and Changing Schools. During four days seventeen leading scholars of Europe and America presented their contributions to debate the different problematiques of the remarkable phenomenon represented by the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment or PISA.
PISA is not merely an educational event. It is also a media circus which involves the public rehearsal for reasons for failure or success; and even, in some cases, public and political and academic explanations about why 'failure' was not really that, and why’success’ was not really that either. At the centre of all these indications, we find the growing influence of international agencies on education and schooling which is decisively contributing to a marketisation of the field of education, in the context of an increasingly multilevel and fragmented arena for educational governance based on the formulation, the regulation and the transnational coordination and convergence of policies, buttressed at the same time by the diffusion of persuasive discursive practice.
Organized in four sections entitled The Comparative Challenges of the OCDE PISA Programme, PISA and School Knowledge, The Assessment of PISA, School Effectiveness and the Socio-cultural Dimension, PISA and the Immigrant Student Question, and Extreme Visions of PISA: Germany and Finland, the contributions of this book offers a comprehensive approach of all these challenging and significant issues written from different and distinct research and academic traditions.

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David Andrew Turner

The quality of higher education is a hot topic, especially as students around the world are asked to pay more towards their own education, and expect to get what they pay for. In addition, league tables, both national and international, have come to dominate discussion, with several governments, and many institutions, setting themselves the goal of improving their ratings. In this volume Professor Turner examines the assumptions that are being made about what counts as quality, and what the traditional purposes of universities are. But with the growth of mass higher education, and the rise of student centred approaches to learning and teaching, it has become increasingly clear that high quality education is education that meets the needs of the student at that particular moment, and promotes their future development. After examining a range of different approaches to the quality of higher education and its measurement, Professor Turner develops an approach to benchmarking and quality enhancement that is better suited to the ethos of individualised learning, and uses it to critique the philosophies that have dominated debates about quality to date.