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Ein interkultureller Vergleich zwischen dem Philanthropinum in Dessau und dem Colegio de las Vizcaínas in Mexiko-Stadt
Author: Eva Rautenberg
Aufklärung und Schule, Männer und Frauen in Dessau und in Mexiko. Eine kulturhistorische Betrachtung und Darstellung einer facettenreichen und vielfältigen Wirklichkeit.
Thematisiert werden Szenen des Alltags und des Schullebens, die in zwei verschiedenen westlichen Kontexten zur Zeit der Aufklärung stattfanden: Dessau und Neuspanien bzw. das koloniale Mexiko. In dieser Ausführung zeigen sich die Macht- und Herrschaftsverhältnisse, die sowohl innerhalb der politischen Kontrolle als auch im Bereich des Akademischen ausgeübt wurden. Das Werk versteht sich als ein alternativer methodologischer Ansatz für die Vergleichende Pädagogik.
The focus of this volume is on illuminating how local educational traditions developed in particular contexts around the world before or during the encounter with European early modern culture. In this vein, this volume breaks from the common narrative of educational historiography privileging the imposition of European structures and its consequences on local educational traditions. Such a narrative lends to historiographical prejudice that fosters a distorted image of indigenous educational cultures as “historyless,” as if history was brought to them merely through the influence of European models. Fifteen multi-disciplinary scholars globally have contributed with surveys and perspectives on the history of local traditions in countries from around the globe before their own modernities.

Contributors include: Guochang Shen, Yongyan Wang, Xia Shen, Gaétan Rappo, Sunghwan Hwang, Jan S. Aritonang, Mere Skerrett, Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri, Zackery M. Heern, Judith Francis Zeitlin, Layla Jorge Teixeira Cesar, Mustafa Gündüz, Igor Fedyukin, Edit Szegedi , Inese Runce, Sigurður Gylfi Magnússon, and Davíð Ólafsson.
This volume addresses a gap in previous research and to explore Nordic textbooks chronologically and empirically from the Protestant Reformation to our present time. The chapters are written by scholars from universities in Finland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, countries that distinguish themselves for a rich tradition of textbook research. The authors represent different academic traditions and use a wide range of scholarly methods and perspectives. The overall objective is to highlight how textbooks reflect national educational policies and legislation. The various chapters cast light on everyday life in school and demonstrate how textbooks have contributed to nation-building and to strengthening the nations’ core values and other major political projects.

Contributors are: Karl Christian Alvestad, Norunn Askeland, Kjell Lars Berge, Peter Bernhardsson, Kerstin Bornholdt, Mads B. Claudi, Henrik Edgren, Morten Fink-Jensen, Stig Toke Gissel, Thomas Illum Hansen, Pirjo Hiidenmaa, Marthe Hommerstad, Axel Hörstedt, Kari-Anne Jørgensen-Vittersø, Tujia Laine, Esbjörn Larsson, Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund, Christina Matthiesen, Eva Maagerø, Tuva Skjelbred Nodeland, Kari H. Nordberg, Merethe Roos, Henriette Hogga Siljan, Johan Laurits Tønnesson and Janne Varjo.
Policy and Practice in Multilingual Education Based on Non-Dominant Languages
This second volume of Language Issues in Comparative Education, following the tradition of the first, introduces the state of the field, re-establishes core terminology and concepts, and situates the chapters in terms of their contributions to multilingual education based on non-dominant languages. The first group of chapters examines language-in-education policy change, applying an innovative framework to analyze diverse contexts including Mozambique, Estonia and the Philippines. The next group of chapters describes activities designed to implement multilingual education. Using examples from Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nepal, they explore progress in teacher professional development and elaboration of materials for literacy and learning through non-dominant languages. Some highlight new areas of the field, attending to speakers of non-dominant languages other than the ones chosen for instruction, and to the urgent multilingual needs of refugee learners. The final group of chapters presents strategies for research and advocacy, illustrated with examples from DR Congo, Uganda and India. Taken together, these contributions form a cohesive body of work that takes stock of advances in multilingual education and moves the field forward.

The authors and editors share a common commitment to comparativism in their methods and analysis, and aim to contribute to a more inclusive and multilingual education for all.
This diverse and global collection of scholars, educators, and activists presents a panorama of perspectives on media education and democracy in a digital age. Drawing upon projects in both the formal and non-formal education spheres, the authors contribute towards conceptualizing, developing, cultivating, building and elaborating a more respectful, robust and critically-engaged democracy. Given the challenges our world faces, it may seem that small projects, programs and initiatives offer just a salve to broader social and political dynamics but these are the types of contestatory spaces, openings and initiatives that enable participatory democracy. This book provides a space for experimentation and dialogue, and a platform for projects and initiatives that challenge or supplement the learning offered by traditional forms of education. The Foreword is written by Divina Frau-Meigs (Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris) and the Postscript by Roberto Apirici and David García Marín (UNED, Madrid).

Contributors are: Roberto Aparici, Adelina Calvo Salvador, Paul R. Carr, Colin Chasi, Sandra L. Cuervo Sanchez, Laura D’Olimpio, Milena Droumeva, Elia Fernández-Diaz, Ellen Field, Michael Forsman, Divina Frau-Meigs, Aquilina Fueyo, David García-Marín, Tania Goitandia Moore, José Gutiérrez-Pérez, Ignacio Haya Salmón, Bruno Salvador Hernández Levi, Michael Hoechsmann, Jennifer Jenson, Maria Korpijaakko, Sirkku Kotilainen, Emil Marmol, María Dolores Olvera-Lobo, Tania Ouariachi, Mari Pienimäki, Anna Renfors, Ylva Rodney-Gumede, Carlos Rodríguez-Hoyos, Mar Rodríguez-Romero, Tafadzwa Rugoho, Juha Suoranta, Gina Thésée, Robyn M. Tierney, Robert C. Williams and María Luisa Zorrilla Abascal.
International cooperation in higher education is not new, but gained new urgency in recent years with the expansion of the knowledge economy, the easy flow of communications and the emulation created by international rankings. In the European Union’s countries, international competition and the process of political and economic unification required national higher education institutions to give priority to international cooperation, while large countries such as Russia, China, Brazil and South Africa intensified their effort to modernise their institutions and link them to the international flow of science, technology and talent, leading similar trends in other countries in their regions. These global trends are shaped by the national culture and institutions of each country, and the existing national and international cooperation policies and instruments on all sides. In Building Higher Education Cooperation with the EU: Challenges and Opportunities from Four Continents, the authors look at how these interactions occur from the perspectives of the European Union and the countries involved and make recommendations on policies that could make international cooperation more fluid and beneficial to all parties involved.
Volume Editors: Denise Bentrovato and Johan Wassermann
Emerging from the pioneering work of the African Association for History Education (AHE-Afrika), Teaching African History in Schools offers an original Africa-centred contribution to international history education research. Edited by AHE-Afrika’s founders and directors, the volume thus addresses a notable gap in this field by showcasing otherwise marginalised scholarship from and about Africa.

Teaching African History in Schools constitutes a unique collection of nine empirical studies, interrogating curriculum and textbook contents, and teachers’ and learners’ voices and experiences as they relate to teaching and learning African history across the continent and beyond. Case studies include South Africa, Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Cameroon and Tanzania, as well as the UK and Canada.

Contributors are: Denise Bentrovato, Carol Bertram, Jean-Leonard Buhigiro, Annie Fatsereni Chiponda, Raymond Nkwenti Fru, Marshall Tamuka Maposa, Abdul Mohamud, Sabrina Moisan, Reville Nussey, Nancy Rushohora, Johan Wassermann, and Robin Whitburn.
Author: Nancy Rushohora

Abstract

This chapter presents the research findings of the Majimaji project in Tanzania’s southern regions of Mtwara and Ruvuma to elucidate how the Majimaji War is taught in secondary schools, while reflecting on how that popular history survives as unofficial memory. The Majimaji War of 1904–1908 was a mass resistance against German colonialism in Tanzania and narratives pertaining to it have created a national epic and have been central to practices of commemoration of national heroism in defence of the country’s sovereignty. This chapter examines the history curriculum’s articulation of the Majimaji War as official history and compares it to the available unofficial narratives of the history of this war that are found among affected communities. It presents a contextualisation of history education in Tanzania, a reflection on the use and abuse of the Majimaji War as a significant event in the country’s history, and an argument about the contestation and appropriation of war memories. It discusses the challenges of teaching the Majimaji War as reflected in textbooks, teachers’ knowledge, teacher training, and local oral history against the backdrop of an overarching nationalistic project, and it reflects on how these aspects of history education are both useful and problematic.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

This concluding chapter fleshes out and reflects on the positionality, premises and vision underpinning this book project and the journey undertaken towards its materialisation. It thereby also retraces some of the specific contributions made by each author and their respective chapters to the goals and visions embodied in this collective project. Conceived of as a fundamentally anti-colonial and decolonising act, this project is presented as seeking to counter the coloniality of knowledge under which history education currently exists by showcasing scholarship about, from and for Africa. It is regarded as a response to the large-scale marginalisation of Afrocentric history educationists and their knowledge from the spaces in which history education knowledge is produced, a condition which both alienates those excluded and makes little sense in an African context that is hardly ever considered.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

The chapter explores the relationship between policy and practice in the representation of people with disabilities (PWDs) in Malawian junior-school history textbooks as a form of programmatic curriculum. Since 1994, when Malawi became a democracy, the government has developed policies that recognise the rights of PWDs in various aspects of life including education. Among them are policies emphasising the inclusion of PWDs in the curriculum and advocating inclusive education. The chapter analyses the representation of PWDs in four Malawian junior-school history textbooks and uses the medical and social models of disability to explore the extent to which the policy of inclusion of PWDs is adhered to in history curriculum development and textbook production. The study demonstrates the under-representation of historical characters with disabilities in the verbal text and their exclusion or marginalisation in the visual text, thus evincing a clear contradiction between policies and practices in history education with regard to inclusiveness. This exclusion or marginalisation and under-representation are attributable to both theoretical and cultural factors.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

Doing oral history tasks in South African primary schools means that controversial issues are usually present, because differing memories of a contested past come alive. These are the “emotional elephants and other baggage” in the classroom, and this research focuses on how South African history teachers address controversial issues in practice in the post-apartheid era in this context. Adopting a qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry within an interpretive framework, this study uses a conception of a continuum of history teachers’ roles developed in an Irish context, then explores the similarities and differences in a South African context. The use of classroom observations and interviews with three teachers at different primary schools in Johannesburg during 2009–2011 reveal the different roles these teachers adopted when they used oral history tasks. This showed how the effects of racial identities from the past continue to affect teachers’ roles and the way controversial issues are dealt with in the history classroom. The chapter proposes an additional role to the continuum of teachers’ roles, namely, teachers as enablers. The results of this research indicate that the education of pre-service history teachers regarding the teaching of controversial issues needs to be reconsidered, which also has implications for ongoing teacher development. This study’s insights might be useful to history practitioners in other countries who are also grappling with their own contested pasts.

In: Teaching African History in Schools
Author: Sabrina Moisan

Abstract

This study questions the inclusion of school history in a broader reflection on human rights issues. The teaching of the history of anti-apartheid movements is considered from the perspective of teaching about social change: its conditions and obstacles, its mechanisms, its actors, etc. An analysis of the ministerial prescriptions, teaching tools and teaching practices of the anti-apartheid movements in South Africa made it possible to identify the intentions of each and the ways in which knowledge was organised. The case study, carried out in three secondary-school history classes in Quebec (Canada), was also based on interviews and classroom observation. It relates the objectives pursued by teachers with regard to history teaching to what students retain from it during formal evaluations. The results point to the paramount importance that teachers seem to attach to their ministerial mandate and to “objective” knowledge about the past. Similarly, it appears that the issue of human rights is thought of in parallel with the teaching of history rather than simultaneously or jointly.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

This paper stems from debates on the nature of the experiences that are ascribed to post-colonial Africa. On one hand, there is a tendency to focus on the negative, implying post-colonial Africa to be a failure, while, on the other, some emphasise the positive experiences that make it a success story. History textbooks, as purveyors of state-legitimated knowledge, are caught in this quandary of representation. This chapter aims to analyse and understand, through a qualitative approach and a critical discourse analysis (CDA) methodology, how selected South African history textbooks verbally and visually represent the experiences of post-colonial Africa. The analysis shows that while the textbooks represent mixed experiences of post-colonial Africa, they seem to suggest that these experiences are, to a large extent, negative. It further demonstrates the articulation of the concept of dual assumption in representation discourses, in which positive experiences are ascribed to a few countries – like the Maghreb and South Africa – even when they have negative experiences, while negative experiences in general seem to be ascribed to tropical Africa.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

Since the turn of the century, debates around the teaching and representation of the re-unification of Cameroon have dominated national headlines. History education has been highly instrumental in fanning the flames of this controversy through conflicting historical interpretations. A significant aspect of this controversy is the fact that the history curriculum in the Francophone sub-system of education stipulates the teaching of re-unification at the classes de terminale, but the history textbook adopted for use at that level is largely silent on the topic. Against this backdrop, we employed qualitative content analysis and Thomas Huckin’s theory of manipulative silence to analyse the implications of silence on re-unification in a Francophone Cameroon school history textbook. The chapter is informed by a premise that what is absent from the textbook is as powerful as what is represented in it. The findings revealed that the principles of intentionality (to diminish the importance of the topic), deception and advantage as well as the socio-political sensitivity of the topic are important variables for explaining the limited textual coverage on re-unification. Situating the textbook in the bigger picture of re-unification tension supports the view of textbooks serving ideological rather than purely pedagogic functions.

In: Teaching African History in Schools
In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

This chapter investigates, through in-depth interviews, the “emotion discourse” of Rwandan secondary-school history teachers in relation to the genocide experienced by this country, the teaching of which is expected of schools as part of a nation-building project that aims at the eradication of internalised colonial identities in favour of national unity and reconciliation. The study points to the determining role of the associated emotions in shaping, and often constraining, teaching and learning experiences related to the genocide and its history. Having uncovered teachers’ profound apprehension towards the potentially adverse sequelae of uncontrolled classroom discussions, the chapter identifies teachers’ application of a multifaceted regulatory strategy of deliberate selectiveness and limited disclosure. The pedagogical choices made around the mediation and management of student exposure to traumatising content, the performance of neutrality, and the manufacture of unity and consensus alongside the neutralisation of perceived illegitimate narratives all reflect facets of this strategy in action. The study ultimately evidences the need to better support Rwandan history teachers in adequately addressing the challenges and multidirectional societal demands they might encounter in this post-colonial, post-conflict context.

In: Teaching African History in Schools

Abstract

Racial justice remains a key concern for societies across the globe as processes of decolonisation extend into realms of education and culture as well as politics and economics. Societies across Africa, Europe and the Americas still endure the challenges of systemic racism and their young people need to be educated about its historic roots. The South African apartheid system and its resistance struggles have much to contribute to the history curriculum in global societies. This study considers one historical inquiry for secondary school learners that attempted to interrupt the usual master narrative seen in many schools, in which Mandela and Verwoerd play out a Manichaean struggle. Lesser actors, Beyers Naudé, an Afrikaner church minister, and Robert Sobukwe, a Black African teacher, were the central figures in the inquiry lessons and their ethical positions were considered in nuanced ways. The study reports on the teaching of the inquiry in two racially diverse schools, one in South Africa and the other in England. Both curriculum and pedagogy had important impacts on the learners, whose accounts form the data for the study, including challenges connected with identity and race.

In: Teaching African History in Schools
Author: Carol Bertram

Abstract

Any school curriculum document represents a selection of content from the huge body of knowledge that exists in a discipline. This selection and sequencing of knowledge is a recontextualising process which is influenced by principles that are either internal or external to the discipline of history. This chapter adopts a set of principles that can inform this process of recontextualising to compare secondary-school history curriculum documents from four post-colonial African countries, namely, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The analysis explores what each document understands as the purpose of school history, what each curriculum selects as worthwhile knowledge, and how this knowledge is sequenced. The analysis suggests that in Kenya and Rwanda the purpose of school history is nation building and the knowledge selected focuses to a greater extent on national and African history and citizenship. By contrast, in South Africa and Zimbabwe, school history, covering international, African and national history, seems primarily geared towards developing both global citizenship and ways of thinking historically.