Urban innovation policies reintroduce the role of social entrepreneurs and civil society into innovation studies with regard to the governance of regional innovation and the emergence of new innovation pathways. The research approach integrates the concepts of urban and regional transformation, participatory governance and works with an actor-centered approach that employs the enactment of innovation models by actor constellations such as the smart city concept and the Triple Helix model. We illustrate the pathway of a citizen-driven approach in innovation for the case of Brainport smart district in the city of Helmond, in the metropolitan high-tech region Eindhoven in The Netherlands. The empirical data is obtained in a real-world laboratory (rwl) in a multi-stakeholder co-creation process. The case contributes to the categorization of citizen-driven innovation pathways within an extended approach of Economic Evolutionary Geography (eeg) and thus to the frame of reference for structural dynamics in social theory.
Ana Cruz and Joachim Dorsch
In this ‘post-truth’ era with instantly spreading fake news and alternative facts, intentional production of ignorance and manufactured disinformation, the rapid erosion of digital privacy, coupled with a retreat of individuals to a life in cyberspace, the need for a critical media literacy education is more urgent than ever. Being oblivious regarding these threats to the digitally networked society is not an option since the future of humankind and the survival of a viable democracy are at stake. Revamping the curriculum to include a core course on critical media literacy at the college entry-level will constitute an important step in combatting these threats and supporting a democratic society. The current historical juncture is a time of disquiet, as espoused by Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935), of restlessness and uncertainty everywhere. Critical media literacy remains the only hope in order to develop an understanding of what is happening in the rapidly changing and evolving digitally networked society. It is through a robust critical media literacy education that we will be able to learn how media is transforming not only our social world but our inner world as well.
Mary Frances Agnello and Cherie Brown
A look at a Facebook exchange about bilingual education and bilingualism prior to the last presidential election led to a polarization of bilingual empathizers with teaching backgrounds versus political conservatives promoting a pro-reactionary political agenda. Verbal jousting led to the exercise of power in racist, sexist, and classist discourses. The emergent problem of such exchanges appears to be to what degree we might consider engaging with naysayers in purposeful dialog if there is little hope of changing minds with facts. After several readings of the threaded and asynchronous conversation that ensued around postings involving the theme of acceptance of bilingual people in the U.S., three ideological impasses were found in the dialogue—attempts to be logical and open versus closed commentary with no room for discussion; attempts to consider history and current economic contexts in the U.S. versus dismissive sexist (as well as racist and classist) statements that demonize non-English speakers; and with political naysayers’ claiming bilingual education is expensive and unnecessary versus the view that bilingual education is a way forward for non-native English speakers.
In this article, teacher mobilizations in 2018–2019 are presented and analyzed as a form of critical public pedagogy. Critical public pedagogy is an important theoretical framework to understand educator radicalization in the United States, in the context of the ongoing capitalist assault on public education, increased authoritarianism, the growing climate of hostility inside and outside schools, coupled with the emboldened rhetoric of hate and bigotry that is legitimized by the highest office in the nation.
Peter Westman and Julian McDougall
As Poveda, Thomson and Ferro (2018) observe, there is a momentum in ethnographic explorations of the arts in education in which “an increasing number of researchers have turned their attention to expressive practices and artistic spaces as contexts and tools for learning, identity construction and social mobilization (p. 269).” However, the distinction between ethnography of education and education by ethnography – i.e. an ethnographic pedagogy – is at least partly maintained within this momentum.
This research attempted an ethnographic approach to pedagogy, utilising digital media literacy for creative production, to facilitate new ways for students to critically engage with their own lived experiences in relation to their participation in formal ‘schooled’ learning. The pedagogic value of this type of ethnographic approach was assessed over two years of participatory fieldwork with three secondary schools and one further education college in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom, working with teachers in multiple curricular areas using ‘low-tech’ media literacy work with students. Our findings suggest that while there are clear benefits presented by this (digital) ethnographic pedagogy, for it to work in media literacy education there is a need for the creation of critical, dynamic “third spaces” (Bhabha 1994) for students to work in. The creation of these spaces is highly contingent on the respective classification and framing (Bernstein 1975) of the subject curriculum.
This research developed out of a series of ethnographic interventions into digital media education, including a European Union funded project on ethnographic social documentary as a transferable pedagogic tool (McDougall 2013) and a large scale field review of third space media literacies (Potter and McDougall 2017, see also McDougall et al. 2018). To apply this conceptual framing to a specific pedagogic context over a longer time period, the research aimed to address the following research questions:
- 1.What pedagogical value is afforded by the use of ethnographic digital media making as a tool for creative production and critically reflexive media literacy?
- 2.How can ethnographic pedagogy, in the form of creative digital media production, enhance participation in classroom learning?
- 3.What is the potential for ‘low-tech’ creative production to transgress boundaries between curriculum areas and modes of literacy, learning and teaching?
- 4.How can ethnographic digital media-making give ‘voice’ to learners and how is ‘voice’ socio-culturally framed within pedagogic and research discourses?
Aristotelis S. Gkiolmas and Anthimos Chalkidis
In the current work, the intrinsic intertwining between Scientific Literacy and Critical Media Literacy is presented and scrutinized. The two kinds of Literacy do converge in many cases, while in others the one is a prerequisite for the other. The whole interconnection is, naturally, examined from an educational point of view, and especially the perspective of critical pedagogy is emphasized, on how these two kinds of literacy could strengthen and deepen one another even more, by pointing to certain methodological and educational praxis suggestions. A double “route” of opposing directions is presented, the route from Scientific Literacy to Critical Media Literacy and the route vice versa.
Allison Butler PhD
This article, part of a larger project, argues that critical media literacy is needed in teacher education. For critical media literacy to be sustainable, it needs a more structured starting point. The argument of this piece is that the starting point should be in teacher education. Tracing the state of media literacy and discussing the ‘critical’ of critical media literacy, this essay highlights that teacher training in critical media literacy will help propel the work of critical media literacy in the United States, will strengthen education and make it more relevant for teachers and students, and will make the work of inclusion of media literacy part of, not an addition to, teachers’ curriculum development and lesson planning.
Eduardo Cadorin, Magnus Klofsten, Alberto Albahari and Henry Etzkowitz
This paper explores activities undertaken by Science Parks to attract talent for their tenants. Despite the importance of accessing talent, there are very few studies focusing on this research area. The data in this investigation comes from seven cases studies on talent attraction activities carried out by three Science Parks in Sweden. We show that the parks conduct many different activities to attract talent including headhunting key personnel for start-ups, organising establishment platforms for foreign companies, and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and talent with higher education institutions. Science Parks house companies of different sizes, ages, and business orientations and therefore, park managers should be sensitive to the real needs of tenant firms when performing talent attraction activities.
This research shows how port authorities in a triple helix context can contribute to strategic innovation with reduction of Levelized Cost of Energy in nearshore wind park ecosystems. The empirical qualitative case study was conducted from September 2017 to June 2018 with a port and a nearshore wind park owner and a logistic business actor operating on land and one operating at sea. Individual interviews and three joint network meetings provided data for the research.
The findings reveal that port authorities in triple helix contexts can contribute to strategic innovation through use of the cross-disciplinary trinity of ‘organization’, ‘business model innovation’ and ‘financial cash flow’ to address value creation on project ecosystem level. The findings are summarized in a model for overview on the shift in interest and the basic understanding of flow. It is shown that the triple helix discussions provide a meaningful frame to achieve strategic innovation for competitive advantage of renewable wind energy ecosystem.Keywordsstrategic innovation – ecosystems – renewable energy – offshore wind parks
Education and Democracy
Science is open and endless. But we have to act just in time. Democracy solves the problem by replacing substantial but endless discourses with a formal decision. Democracy can succeed only if the individual citizen is educated (›gebildet‹). A democratic society thus presupposes the objectivity and morality of all citizens. But how are citizens willing to act morally?
Zur Begründung einer nicht-affirmativen Allgemeinen Didaktik
›Bildung‹, Teaching and Respect. On the Justification of a Non-Affirmative General Didactics
In this article, I will first show that non-affirmative didactics offer a specific account of teaching. From this point of view, teaching is described with regard to the purpose of ›Bildung‹, i.e. the development of the ability to judge for oneself in the relationship with resistant objects. I will then develop a justication of non-affirmative general didactics with regard to the notion of pedagogical respect which can be specified by the principles of self-determination, ›Bildsamkeit‹ and dialog.
Zur Emergenz eines pädagogischen Deutungsmusters am Beispiel von Locke’s »Gedanken über Erziehung« (1693/2011)
The Normal Child. Reflections on »Some Thoughts Concerning Education« (Locke 1693/2011) and the Emergence of a Pedagogical Pattern of Interpretation
When perceiving children and supporting them, constructions of normality play an important role in various pedagogical contexts. Taking this in reference, the paper discusses the emergence of normality as a pedagogical pattern of interpretation. Thereby, the paper refers to Locke’s »Thoughts Concerning Education« as a concept of education, in which specific elements of normality are developed and are linked to pedagogical meanings.
Dieter Nittel and Nikolaus Meyer
Formation of the Pedagogically Organised System of Lifelong Learning: From the Disbandment of Normative Systems to the New Normality?
The authors link the thesis of the successive disbandment of normative systems in the educational system to a very specific perspective. More precisely: to a specific notion of unity and wholeness. The argumentation begins with Habermas’ critique of the communication-theoretical concept of systems. This social philosopher is indirectly recognised as the ›godfather‹ of the presented theoretical understanding of the system. The concept of a pedagogically organised system of lifelong learning will then be defined, and the real historical consequences will be indicated.
Wie soziale Differenzkategorien Biographien strukturieren. Eine Fallstudie
»Gender, Class, Race Matter.« How Social Differences/Categories Structure Biographies. A Case Study
Biographies are structured by norms, conventions and social categories such as class, gender or race. This article is about the relationship between biographies, social structures and norms. It describes the constitution of differences and subjects and discusses the possibility of resistance against the limitation by norms. Since norms are incorporated and naturalised this is a difficult request. That is illustrated by the novel »The End of Eddy« by Édouard Louis.
Ein Spannungsfeld der Begriffsbestimmung
Stefan Müller and Christian Nerowski
Precision and Contingency. An Area of Tension in the Assignment of Scientific Concepts
Given the fact that the scientific discourse on education is based on educational- scientific concepts, it is surprising that the methodology of the assignment of these concepts is hardly addressed and reflected. This article raises a tension of the requirements of concepts in educational science between precision, accuracy and exactness on the one hand; and contingency, openness, and dynamics on the other hand. In this article we reject attempts to resolve the tension to only one side, which would mean to give preference to either precision or contingency and neglect the other side. In contrast we sketch a model for the assignment of educational-scientific concepts that unites both sides of the tension: If precision is understood as a requirement for the concept as a product, and the consideration of contingency is understood as a requirement for the process of the assignment, it is possible to assign concepts that both are precise and consider their contingency.
Helmwart Hierdeis and Peter Stöger
A Concept of a self-logical Normativity of Education and their Relations to other Normativity Claims
The essay develops the concept of a self-logical normativity of education. It identifies pedagogical action as a transformational practice with its own forms of action and causality. The theoretical and practical significance of this concept is finally explained in the film »Elternschule« by distinguishing between pedagogical and therapeutical action and practice.
Erziehungswissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf gesellschaftliche Normierungen und auf immanente normative Strukturen der Familie
Pedagogical Perspectives on Societal Normalizations and on Immanent Normative Structures of the Family
This paper examines normative aspects of the family as an educational sphere from two perspectives. With regard to discourse-analytical studies, it discusses the social normative of a family responsibility for the academic success of children. In contrast, along systematic concepts of recognition, the differentiated internal logic of the family is emphasized, in which social recognition and caring love are intertwined. In the relation of both perspectives it becomes clear that current expectations forced by education policy ignore important characteristics of families.
Stephen G. Parker, Jenny Berglund, David Lewin and Deirdre Raftery
This publication makes the case for ‘religion and education’ as a distinct, but cross-disciplinary, field of inquiry. To begin with, consideration is given to the changing dynamic between ‘religion and education’ historically, and the differing understandings of religious education within it. Next, ‘religion and education’ is examined from methodologically specific perspectives, namely the philosophical, historical and sociological. The authors outline the particular insights to be gleaned about ‘religion and education’ on the basis of their commitment to these methodological standpoints. Overall, this publication is concerned with demonstrating the scope of the field, and the importance of having a range of disciplinary, and interdisciplinary, perspectives informing it.
Xudong Zhu and Jian Li
This study explores how to be a teacher of holistic profession from a perspective of transformative learning. Cultivating holistic profession in transformative learning involves the process of changes in communicative and instructional learning, the process of learning practical experience, and the process of critical reflection. These transformative learning processes contribute to the construction of teachers’ holistic profession contextually. The rationales of applying a perspective of transformative learning concentrate on three major reasons. Cultivating teachers’ profession as one type of adult learning is the core subject of transformative learning. Development serves as core idea of teachers’ holistic professional consciousness. The learning transformation occurred from semi-profession to holistic profession. In this sense, the transformative learning model for teachers’ profession is initially proposed to identify a special lens to shape an explicit pathway of being a teacher of holistic profession. In this model, transformative learning involves identifying “learning being professional”. Transformative relationship focuses on “teaching being professional”. Transformative context view concentrates on contenting being professional. Transformative context view involves contenting being professional. The conclusion and remarks are offered to summarize the rewards of being a teacher of holistic profession.
This paper reviews British experience of inspiring and educating teachers in Citizenship Education. It is based on a case study undertaken at ucl-ioe where provides diverse and distinctive teacher training programmes. The study firstly provides an overview on the National Curriculum for Citizenship and teacher education in England. Then it introduces three types of programmes related to citizenship education at ucl-ioe, in which the author used to work as both a teaching assistant and participant researcher. By reviewing relevant documents (e.g. curriculum frameworks with teacher’s guide, programme handbooks, academic literature, and participants’ evaluation), the study analyses a multi-levelled structure of teacher education for citizenship at ucl-ioe, which consists of fundamental programme for concept and theory learning, specialised programme for subject and pedagogy learning both at the institute and schools, and practical programme for project-based learning cooperating with social organisations. The study further discusses how the university-led programmes could encourage and prepare teachers for their devotion into citizenship education, and argues for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and participatory model to be implemented. The paper concludes that a high-quality teacher education for citizenship must help both pre-service and in-service teachers to develop subject-based, pedagogical and transferable competence.
This ethnographic case study documents students’ lived experience at a Canadian offshore school in Macau through students’ multimodal artifacts, interviews, and teacher-student interactions in English and Mandarin literacy classes. Undergirded by the theory of cosmopolitan literacies, this study revealed the opportunities at mcs for difference negotiation and fluid identity formation that were enabled by mcs’s curricular emphasis on celebrating multiculturalism and multimodality. However, interview and observation data showed that literacy practices in the English literacy classes also centered around pen to paper meaning-making. This study identified human and non-human actors that enabled and constrained students’ literacy and identity options in the unique cross-border education context in Macau, such as mcs’s multicultural reality, school’s curricular emphasis on celebrating multiculturalism and multimodality, individual teachers’ preferences in literacy practices, and the expectations of the standardized Alberta test. The paper discusses the pedagogical potentials of cosmopolitan literacies to expand transnational education students’ literacy and identity options.
Xinyun Hu and Nicola Yelland
This review examines the design cycles of innovation in response to changing policy, technological and practical imperatives. It begins with the initial creation of an information and communication technology course in an early childhood teacher education program and describes its evolution into a contemporary topic. Program changes occur because of policy-driven trends, including the expansion of the definition of what constitutes technology and the incorporation of innovations into curricula and pedagogical practices. We characterize these changes in three design cycles. In the first cycle, courses to prepare preservice teachers for early childhood centers focused primarily on computer-based skills. In the second cycle, new technologies were integrated into the curricula and teaching programs and incorporated into the practicum. In the third cycle, the principles and practices inherent to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (stem) education were adopted to extend the role of new technologies in contemporary curricula and pedagogies. These new learning ecologies were characterized by the application of inter-disciplinary knowledge in authentic learning contexts. The reviewed case studies included students in three new technologies course projects in an early childhood teacher education program. The findings revealed that early childhood preservice teachers expected more opportunities to practice and apply new technologies in innovative learning spaces focused on stem learning. Furthermore, they believed that university teacher education courses should be applicable to practice-based contexts. The implications of this review inform the process of change in the design of teacher education programs from technology-based learning to the pedagogical innovations needed to prepare future teachers. It illustrates that new technologies for learning should consider changing learning ecologies in their design and implementation, and should support early childhood teachers in understanding and using child-centered pedagogical approaches.
Roxanne T. Bongco and Rodrigo D. Abenes
Feminisation in the teaching profession is a global issue. It has been said this problem implies gender inequality in relation to their male counterpart for it results in the lack of male models in the basic education and, thus promote social exclusion. This social reality is also the case in the Philippines. Data in 2008–2009 from the Philippine Commission on Women reveals that about 89.58% of the teachers in public elementary and 77.06% in the public secondary schools are female (pcw, 2014). In this regard, this paper argues that feminisation of education in the Philippines, all the more result to uncompromising situations of female teachers for as women, they need to work in shifts as part of their changing roles both in school and at home. Further, this paper presents an analysis of the narratives of ten female teachers in basic education which reveals that in spite of the feminisation of teaching from a purely statistical perspective, they still remain disadvantaged in the career that had always been believed to be their domain, especially in the area of career promotion. Limiting factors to the promotion of women still point to their social conditions as women, where the multiplicity of social expectations and duties in their diverse spheres clash to the detriment of their careers.
In January 2017, the Chinese Ministry of Education issued the Curricular Standards of Science in Elementary Schools, aiming at developing students’ scientific literacy and a foundation for their learning and development as competent citizens. To achieve its overall goal, the reform reflects four main strategies: extending the learning time of science education, integrating engineering and technological contents into science subject, phased design based on the idea of learning progressions, and using big concepts to guide teaching contents. The Curricular Standards of Science in Elementary Schools has been implemented in major provinces and cities across the country and achieved initial outcomes in stimulating students’ enthusiasm for learning science. To better implement these standards, increasing capital investment, improving experiments, and upgrading equipment become urgent to be considered.
Digitalization as a key issue of society is increasingly a topic in school. Authorities like the recently deceased scientist Stephen Hawking and the founder and ceo of Tesla, Elon Musk, see both challenges and chances in the developing artificial intelligence (A.I.). Musk remarked: “A.I. will be the best or worst thing ever for humanity” (cnbc 1 2017). The solution, Musk said, is to increase regulatory oversight of the development and implementation of A.I. immediately: “AI is a rare case where I think we need to be proactive in regulation than be reactive.” (cnbc 2 2017). Stephen Hawking emphasizes the same point: “The emergence of A.I. could be the “worst event in the history of our civilization” unless society finds a way to control its development (…). Success in creating effective A.I. could be the biggest event in the history of our civilization. Or the worst. We just don’t know.” Hawking said during a talk at the Web Summit technology conference in Lisbon, Portugal, in 2017. (cnbc 3 2017). In view of these considerations and in regard to the meaning for education in school the question arises: Which topics and competencies should be presented to pupils against the background of the rapid processing in the field of digitalization and the corresponding uncertainty of topics and competencies that could be of importance in some years and decades? Verbalized differently: What does sustainable education for our future include? The answer will be aimed at the teaching and acquirement of basic competencies in general and in the field of digitalization. What should this “basic education” include? Another question is: How is it possible to combine learning processes in a “virtual reality” with learning processes in a “natural reality”? Further considerations are given in this article.
Writing from the perspective of both an instructor in a teacher education program at University of Toronto and more importantly as a mentor for teacher candidates in the classroom, hosting for over twenty years student teachers from six universities in Ontario and New York, the paper explores the master-apprentice relationship within the practicum placement in schools – drawing philosophically on Martin Heidegger’s reflections on apprenticeship, Donald Schön’s pragmatic emphasis on studio work and Lee Shulman’s focus for training on developing subject related pedagogical-content-knowledge, to resituate the significance of what many educators and student-teachers say forms the core of teacher education. Subtle changes in teacher education over the last thirty years, set against dominant themes of professional autonomy and agency within sweeping educational and economic reforms such as the neo-liberal accountability and austerity movements, are sketched in order to follow their arc or trajectory into possible futures. Using a Foucauldian genealogical approach, the author aims to show how we could think and act differently in our practices and governance of teacher education.
Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis
The Confucian Perspective of Education on “Self-Cultivation”
Much of the pedagogical work with which I have been involved over the last three decades in higher education directly concerns my relations with students and vice a versa. More recently (Waghid, 2019), I have given some thought to my pedagogical relations vis-à-vis the virtue of caring in an attempt to make sense of my encounters with students in higher education. This article reflects a closer look at pedagogical encounters between students and myself (as a university educator). In a way, I firstly reflect on my teaching and learning in a university context by making a connection between what it means to engage in pedagogical encounters through the act of caring. Secondly, I show how pedagogical encounters constituted by care could enhance both teacher and student autonomy, before, thirdly, tackling the notion that caring in pedagogical encounters cannot be remiss of deliberative iterations. Finally, I argue why caring pedagogical encounters are inextricably connected to an enactment of play which, in my view, corroborates the future of teaching.
Inclusion is nowadays a most cherished notion in educational discourses and policies around the globe. Discourses of inclusion appear as the most humane, politically sensitive and praiseworthy heights that political thought and educational practice can reach. At the same time, a kind of inclusion in the public sphere is enacted whenever people freely join debates on matters of general interest, educational or other. For, participation in debates on education and on teacher education is not limited to educational researchers, teacher organizations and all those involved in educational theory and practice. The present article begins with the operations of inclusion in educational theory and discusses some complicities and risks lurking in the unqualified valorization of inclusion that is noticeable in educational discourses and in public debates on education and teachers’ performance. Such valorization operates inter alia at the expense of thoughtful withdrawal and pertinent self-exclusion. In societal debates on education, inclusion as unconditional prerogative of a narcissist I (eye) or as social interpellation to participate legitimizes just everybody’s having investigative relevance to issues of education. The article ends with some suggestions concerning the positioning of inclusion within a broader set of concepts required for a desirable redirection of educational discourses and policies.
Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić
Since 2011 Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić have written a dozen of dialogic articles focused to critical pedagogy in the age of information technology and liberation theology. These articles are packed with Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx in various contexts, yet they never focused explicitly to McLaren’s Marxist thought. In this article we present a collection of Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx written during 8 years of working together. Developed and published in various contexts, insights in this article do not present a complete overview of Peter McLaren’s understanding of Marxism. Yet, focusing to extremely radically different themes of information technology and liberation theology, Peter McLaren’s views present a rich source for understanding Marxist theory in the 21st century.
Yanyan Ji and Yanjun Zhang
China has embarked on a new wave of curriculum reform since 2018. New Curricular Standards attempts to reposition high schools with the aim of improving the quality of citizens nationwide. It repositions basic education for the public which shall not only prepare students for university, but also for students to adapt to social life and career development, thus laying a foundation for their whole-life development. Emphasizing the key competence that students are expected to possess and formulating the academic quality standards are the two major innovations in this reform.
Many policy makers and educational researchers seem to be convinced that teaching matters. Unfortunately, such a case for teaching and teachers tends to rely on a rather one-dimensional view of what counts in education – namely the production of measurable learning outcomes – and a rather mechanistic view of what counts as education – namely teaching as an intervention that is aimed at producing particular effects. Such views about teaching and education more generally are also affecting programmes of teacher education. In this paper I raise some questions about such views about the significance of teaching, on the assumption that the future of teacher education needs to be informed by a different understanding of what teaching is and what it is for. I make a case for a multi-dimensional view of the purposes of education and for teaching as an act of communication and interpretation that always requires judgement about that ‘what’ and the ‘what for.’ Placing such judgement at the centre of teacher education suggests that the structure of the curriculum for teacher education should be spiral rather than linear-cumulative.
In teacher education, it is problematic to intertwine theory and practice. It is also problematic that student teachers lack self-awareness about what values they express in their meetings with pupils. They need to reflect and verbalize their teaching experiences. In this article, results from a study in teacher education are presented from a development work where a combination of a didactic tool that visualizes ethics in teaching and a digital tool, video paper is tried. The purpose is to investigate how this combination can stimulate student teachers´ reflections on their teaching during their internship and through follow-up in the campus course. Findings indicate that the tools in themselves are not enough to bridge theory and practice. However, the tools can be helpful to teacher educators. Reflections presented in video papers are quite different in content, range and depth which are visualized through the questions of the didactic tool and by different typologies for reflection. The reflections show that there are many ways to verbalize ethics which raises questions about what it really means to visualize ethics.
A Case Study on the Professional Development of Chinese Language Teachers in Hamburg
Ping Ren and Meinert Meyer
The professional development of Chinese teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (cfl) in Europe is confronted with various complex educational challenges and problems. Traditional Chinese educational schemata and cultural values have great impact on these teachers’ professional beliefs and their perceptions. My case studies of six cfl teachers show that their professional challenges are connected with the cultural differences of Chinese and German educational contexts. Open-ended questions, in-depth interviews and classroom observation were employed. And multiple data sources, such as the transcripts of teacher interviews, field notes were included. Cross-case analysis indicated that the cfl teachers have to deal with some conflicts of their previous biographies and new requirements of local educational context, such as teacher-centered didactics versus student-centered didactics, traditional Chinese language approaches versus intercultural communicative didactics; strict classroom discipline versus acknowledgement of students’ individuality etc. I depict their professional development by employing a theoretic framework of developmental task theory, i.e. professional competence, mediation, acknowledgment and institution. My study may help to shed light on understanding the individual difficulties that cfl teachers face in overseas teaching environments. The study’s findings and recommendations therefore are of significance for the future design of teacher training for cfl teachers in Germany and in other European countries.
From Teaching as a Moral Pursuit to Teaching as a Technological Practice
Michael A. Peters and Xudong Zhu
Teaching, born of the period of the ancient sages, developed as the moral art of living that introduced humanity to teaching as a moral pursuit, to the formation of value, to a moral and religious mode of being, and to a set of moral principles that have survived into the modern day. The idea that the ‘future of teaching’ represents a technological disruption of moral traditions of teaching and what teaching might become has become a serious concern for the current generation of philosophers in both China and the West. This editorial examines these issues and introduces this special issue.
Top school systems select and educate their teaching staff carefully, they provide an environment in which teachers work together to frame good practice, they encourage teachers to grow in their careers; and they have moved on from administrative control and accountability to professional forms of work organisation.
Still, the laws, regulations, structures and institutions on which education policy tends to focus are just like the small visible tip of an iceberg. The reason why it is so hard to move school systems is that there is a much larger invisible part under the waterline. This invisible part is about the interests, beliefs, motivations and fears of the people who are involved in education, parents and teachers included. This is where unexpected collisions occur, because this part of educational reform tends to evade the radar screen of public policy. That is why educational leaders are rarely successful with reform unless they build a shared understanding and collective ownership for change, and unless they build teacher capacity and create the right policy climate, with accountability measures designed to encourage innovation rather than compliance.
The most essential reason why teachers’ ownership of the profession is a must-have rather than an optional extra lies in the pace of change in 21st century school systems. Even the most effective attempts to translate a central curriculum into local classroom practice will drag out over a decade, because it takes so much time to communicate the goals and methods through the different layers of the system and to build them into traditional methods of teacher education. In a fast-changing world, when what and how students need to learn changes so rapidly, such a slow process leads to a widening gap between what students need to learn and what and how teachers teach. The only way to shorten that pipeline is to professionalise teaching, that is to ensure that teachers not only have a deep understanding of the curriculum as a product, but equally with the process of curriculum and instructional design and the pedagogies to enact and enable the ideas behind the curriculum. The challenge is to build on the expertise of the teachers and school leaders and to enlist them in the design of superior policies and practices. Where systems fail to engage teachers in the design of change, teachers will rarely help systems in the implementation of change.
Poststrukturalistische Einwände gegen die Limitierung des Anderen
De-Finition. Poststructuralist Objections to the Limitation of the Other
The metaphysic tradition always tried to structure the world by definitions and scientific terms. Since poststructuralist authors like Derrida, Foucault and Deleuze have claimed the ›death of the subject‹ educational research cannot ignore the critical objections to its own methods. Definitions and identifications may be a violation of the other’s right to stay different and undefined. This article tries to discuss the scientific limitations of the other in a pedagogical, ethical and political perspective.
Eine analytische Perspektive
Definitions as Pragmatic Explanations. An Analytical Perspective
This article takes an analytical perspective on ›definitions‹ in educational science. After a delineation of the analytical perspective as a pragmatic practice of explanation, two common types of definition are described and illustrated using the concept ›instruction‹ [›Unterricht‹]: the concept analysis, which aims at naming the individually necessary and jointly sufficient properties of a concept; and the concept explication, which aims at the formulation of a precise term that is fruitful for further research but only similar to everyday language. Finally, it will be discussed in which respect explication and analysis can be considered a pragmatic explanation. For this purpose, explanation is understood as a social process: not definitions explain a term, but a person uses definitions in order to explain a term to a group of addressees for a specific purpose. For this aim, conceptual analysis and concept explication may serve as possible orientations.
Reflexive Perspektiven auf Definitionen
Challenges or Chances? Reflexive Perspectives on Definitions
The paper neither supports nor rejects definitions as such. Rather, it combines both perspectives, stemming on two arguments. The first argument is based on Luhmann who discusses inclusion as exclusion inherent to every form of definition. The second argument is related to Adorno’s and Horkheimer’s Critical Theory. They analyze how definitions contain social relations of power and inequality. Developing these two approaches, the paper argues that definitions allow both an extension and a limitation of perspectives. Both effects of definitions are entangled and mutually constitutive. The crucial point for a reflexive discussion of definitions is the form of their relation and their weighting.
Emotionen, Geschichte und historisches Lernen
Felt History? Emotions, History and Learning History
Emotions are part of the process of learning history as individuality-felt emotions of the pupils and historical objectives. This paper argues, from a historical perspective, that emotions and their expression are culturally and temporally specific. Therefore, it is not possible to feel or relive the emotions felt by historical agent. To learn (from) history is to experience the temporal, cultural and geographical other. Thus, this paper calls for an emotionally sensible process of learning history, in which it is possible to think and feel openly, and speaks out against the emotional choreographies of contemporary adventure histories.
Cosmopolitism – Comments on an Ideal of Historical and Political Education
In regard to the crisis of supranational institutions and tendencies of renationalization in the present, the article discusses traditional and current concepts of cosmopolitism. Starting with the opposite theories of world peace and state sovereignty in the philosophies of Kant and Hegel and the confirmation of these theories by the reality of the states, concepts of updating Kant and Hegel are discussed. Contrary to a morally based education towards cosmopolitanism, the importance of historical knowledge in a world of conflicts is finally pointed out.
Use and Uselessness of Defining
Is it possible to define terms? The author distinguishes between word, term and concept. Words change historically; their meaning is deduced from the context. Terms are defined by convention of arbitrariness. Ultimately, concepts cannot be defined because the defining concepts would have to be redefined. That, however, is a regression to infinity.
Ein historischer Streifzug in systematischer Absicht
On the Use of Definitions in Pedagogy and Educational Science. A Historical Journey with Systematic Intent
In the academic genre of pedagogy and educational science, definitions were used from the very beginning. The question is if it is possible to differentiate between types of definitions within the history of these sciences. To answer this question the paper revives two different types of traditional definitions in order to generate a typology of definition usage. The typology can be used as a heuristic instrument for further systematic and historical research.
Ein Plädoyer für einen reflexiven Blick auf Explikationen
Annette Scheunpflug and Martin Affolderbach
On the Function of Fuzzy Terms. A Plea for a Reflexive Look at Explications
Concepts are commonly used to describe words which are, beyond a singular object, connected with an idea. This paper argues that concepts should not only be understood by a precise definition, but also with a reflexive view of their implications. Thus, the blurriness of terms fulfils important functions, including the role of communicative connectivity. This observation is discussed in regard to its meaning for educational research.
Theoretische Probleme der Fragebogenkonstruktion
Between Definition and Empirical Research. Theoretical Problems of Questionnaire Design
Within the field of quantitative educational science, theoretical terms are often defined operationally by scales or questionnaires, which have been constructed using the formal background of Classical Test Theory. This article takes a critical perspective on the current modus operandi of scale construction.
It is argued that classical quality criteria (reliability, validity, and objectivity) are usually represented by empirical correlations between scales or items of a scale. Apart from some theoretical inconsistencies, using these criteria (e.g. Chronbach’s Alpha) to optimize a scale results in a set of items with high intercorrelations, regardless of their content or meaning.
Because high inter-item correlations are neither necessary nor sufficient for an adequate operational definition, the utility of the classical approach to scale construction is questioned on a fundamental level. It is further argued that operational definitions do not pose a statistical problem in the first place, but a theoretical problem. Hence, we do not need a method to optimize scales for high inter-item-correlations, but rather a way to translate theoretical terms (which may be inherently vague) to empirically observable phenomena. This is accomplished by the semantic approach to psychological tests by Buntins, Buntins and Eggert (2016), which provides a formal alternative to classical quality criteria.
Brian Lozenski and Guy Chinang
In this article the authors make an argument for a critical race media literacy that is attuned to the ways in which popular media are used to adhere media consumers to a taken for granted US national identity. Using the concept of “black narrative commodities”, the article suggests that black pain and/or black visibility become filters through which black lives are brought into a nationalist framing. The article uses three popular media commodities to illustrate how how pain and visibility mask a nationalist agenda, including: (1) the videotaped killing of Eric Garner, (2) the book The New Jim Crow and the film 13th: An Original Netflix Documentary, and (3) the movie Black Panther. The authors suggest that critical media literacy absent a cogent and principled interrogation of the interplay between race, class, and the nation-State is incomplete.
William M. Reynolds and Brad Porfilio
Vonzell Agosto, Jennifer Wolgemuth, Ashley White, Tanetha Grosland and Allan Feldman
We center three publicly accessible images: (1) Am I not a Man and a Brother? (1787), (2) Colin Kaepernick (2017) “Taking a Knee”, (3) Mother McDowell of the Black Student in Florida Admonished for “Taking a Knee” in school (2017). The photograph of mother McDowell is included, rather than her son, who she wanted to remain anonymous across media outlets. We draw primarily from publicly accessible media and scholarship available via the Internet (museums, newscasts, scholarly repositories) to provide a composite of kneeling discourse and counter-narratives related to race (i.e., anti-slavery, abolition, anti-racism protests) and proper behavior. Each image is situated within literature supporting analysis through concepts (time, race) visual, and textual information. Rather than detailing the images, we focus on the surrounding narratives, contemporary readings, redactions, and annotations (we create or relate to) to consider emotions as part of the context, impetus, and force behind the actions captured in them. We juxtapose, redact, and critique images and texts associated with kneeling/taking a knee by men and boys racialized as Black, but not exclusively., as the practices we illustrate in response to structural racism (i.e., discipline in schools) also bring attention to events involving other students: a Black girl and an Indigenous (Inuit) boy.
Derek R. Ford
This article calls for a partisan media literacy. It begins by building on Kellner and Share’s typology of critical media literacy, ending with their own, which Ford labels “radical democratic media literacy.” Yet in our particular age we need more than criticality, we need partisanship. To make this case, the author turns to Russiagate and the repression of independent media and radical activists it’s facilitated.
Lori Bindig Yousman
Despite the potential for technology to bring us together, current research shows that new media can actually exacerbate social disconnect and contribute to feelings of isolation, inadequacy, and anxiety. However, young women in treatment for eating disorders reported that participation in a critical media literacy curriculum helped combat isolation. More specifically, participants revealed that the discussion generated throughout the critical media literacy curriculum fostered a sense of reciprocity, companionship, self-expression, and empathy. These findings suggest that critical media literacy curricula can provide a much-needed opportunity for dialogue where individuals not only hone their understanding of media and work towards social justice, but also develop a sense of community and connection that may be missing in today’s networked culture.
Sherell A. McArthur
In the current sociopolitical climate, children, often, bear witness to the levels of vitriol in this country. It has become more imperative that elementary classroom teachers disrupt normative discourses. Therefore, the author suggests critical media literacy as a significant pedagogical practice to utilize in order to do so. In this article, the author articulates the importance of employing critical media literacy in the elementary classroom to deconstruct the diversity of tense relations in the u.s. and provide a language for students to articulate their identities and experiences. Through her experiences in elementary classrooms, as a teacher and a teacher-educator, the author provides practical examples of how to disrupt normative discourses by utilizing critical media literacy.
As citizens demand more media literacy education in schools, the criticality of media literacy must be advanced in meaningful and comprehensive ways that enable students to successfully access, analyze, evaluate and produce media ethically and effectively across diverse platforms and channels. Institutional analysis in the digital age means understanding who controls the architecture(s) of digital technology, and how they use it. Big data, high tech, and rich transnational global media all need to be carefully studied and held accountable. “Panopticonic” practices such as surveillance, geolocation, data mining, and niche microtargeting need to be studied as information brokers reap huge profits by amalgamating and selling off the data that internet and social media users unwittingly but willingly provide to companies. In light of the growing evidence that online-only networks create filter bubbles and polarization, people will need to interact and mobilize in offline real world spaces. Critical media literacy education must explore how human interactivity is undergoing tectonic shifts as powerful ideological and economic interests work to alter our digital media ecology. Such an approach will allow us to better leverage our public interest goals through a media landscape that preserves the multidirectional, participatory, global, networkable aspects of the digital world.
In the contemporary cultural conditions of unstable knowledge/truth, precarious economies and 24/7 media saturation, we need to rethink knowing and learning. While there is much general agreement that the means and modes of communication have changed, and, with it, the ways we approach media, education, culture, society, citizenship, commerce, politics, art, science and everyday life, there is a diversity of terms to describe the change, each with an animating spirit and intellectual tradition behind it. There is a disconnect between school pedagogies, situated literacy practices in everyday life, and the types of abilities and knowledges needed for workplace and civic participation. Further, even as school jurisdictions around the world rush to apply solutions to the technological impasse brought upon by the digitalization of communication, too often the answer is seen as adding training in new competencies to the existing curriculum, as though the crisis is one that can be fixed with a few adjustments. If the aspirational horizon of schooling is the preparation of young people for engaged participation in cultural, civic and economic spectrums, a renewed and comprehensive model of literacy is urgently needed.
This article situates contemporary critical media literacy into a postdigital context. It examines recent advances in data literacy, with an accent to Big Data literacy and data bias, and expands them with insights from critical algorithm studies and the critical posthumanist perspective to education. The article briefly outlines differences between older software technologies and artificial intelligence (AI), and introduces associated concepts such as machine learning, neural networks, deep learning, and AI bias. Finally, it explores the complex interplay between Big Data and AI and teases out three urgent challenges for postdigital critical media literacy. (1) Critical media literacy needs to reinvent existing theories and practices for the postdigital context. (2) Reinvented theories and practices need to find a new balance between the technological aspects of data and AI literacy with the political aspects of data and AI literacy, and learn how to deal with non-predictability. (3) Critical media literacy needs to embrace the posthumanist challenge; we also need to start thinking what makes AIs literate and develop ways of raising literate thinking machines. In our postdigital age, critical media literacy has a crucial role in conceptualisation, development, and understanding of new forms of intelligence we would like to live with in the future.
Donna E. Alvermann
This research project uses both critical theory and Michel Foucault’s concept of power to analyze a read-aloud children’s picture book titled The Tantrum that Saved the World. Published in 2017 by World Saving Books, the e-version’s 64 colorfully illustrated pages tell of a little girl who stares down the climate crisis, channeling tantrum power into positive action. Equally important, the analysis brings media literacy into dialogue with powerful discursive practices that cannot take hold in the absence of critical theorizing.
Jon Levin, Peter McLaren and Shindale Seale
Superheroes have been part of human civilization since its beginnings, as evidenced by prehistoric images of heroic meticulously etched into the walls of caves around the globe (Horsman, 1981). For the better part of three generations, however, they have only grown in their popularity and have significantly impacted the contemporary age. Not surprisingly, comic books and the superheroes celebrated on their hallowed pages have reflected the value and identities of their creators. A majority of these creators, until very recently, were Caucasian and espoused the dominance, virtues, and heroism of the able-bodied, White, Anglo-Saxon, North American male.
This essay is a brief reflection on the importance of the work of Stuart Hall to critical media literacy and why that sort of critically engaged approach is more important than ever in the age of Trump.
Michael A. Peters
This paper uses the centenary of Dewey’ two years in China as an opportunity to reassess John Dewey’s views on China, based mainly on his Letters and his Lectures in Social and Political Philosophy, 1919–21 given on invitation at the University of Peking. In particular, the paper makes some criticisms of Dewey’s pragmatism (his lack of contextualism in not mentioning the significance of the May 4th Movement) and raises the question of the relationship of his thought with Chinese Marxism. The essay is given a critical reading by three scholars Jessica Ching-Sze Wang, Kang Zhao and, Zhang Huajun, all Dewey scholars.
Michael A. Peters
Discussions about indigenous philosophy are always difficult because of identities, chief among these being: what is the primary assumption that coalesces the varied philosophies of indigenous groups that then entitles me to talk about a single “indigenous” philosophy? Although I don’t make this the focus of my paper, I take as a uniting thought the holism which defines metaphysics for several indigenous groups (see e.g. Deloria, 2001; Mika, 2017; Smith, 2012). For this article, I centre on the implications of indigenous holism for both indigenous and non-indigenous students and the indigenous teacher of metaphysics in the academy. This paper often takes a turn for the anecdotal as I consider my experiences in the New Zealand context as a Maori lecturer in philosophy of education who teaches Maori metaphysics to Maori and non-indigenous students. There are difficulties that exist for me as an educator in this area and also for the students, although I have observed that non-indigenous and Maori students encounter Maori metaphysics in quite unique ways. A common feature in both cases, though, is that there is a lack of appropriate language to draw on to describe Maori metaphysics. I conclude this article by suggesting ways that philosophising can take place in correspondence with a Maori metaphysics of things as world-constituted.
In this essay, firstly I agree with Peters on his point that Dewey’s political democracy reveals his idea of education as a public good suggested in the newly discovered Dewey’s Lectures, and I highlight Dewey’s idea of relationship between political democracy and education. Secondly, for Peters’ puzzle about Dewey’s lack of discussion in this lecture concerning the students’ action in the May 4th Movement, I present Dewey’s such kind of discussion from another lecture series given at Beijing. Finally, with the notion of “narrative learning”, I echo Peters’ comment regarding Deweyan mode of thinking as the only way of understanding about thinking.
Qiang Liu, David Turner and Xiaoli Jing
The construction of world-class universities and first-class disciplines (Double First-Class Initiative) is a major commitment made by the Chinese government to adapt to changes in the educational environment at home and abroad. It is also an innovative strategy for the development and practice of international higher education. As part of the Double First-Class Initiative, China’s higher education institutions have formulated plans for their development and for developing their disciplinary specializations. They have instituted special measures for developing subject areas, staff development, building teams of teachers and researchers, and enhancing their disciplinary characteristics. However, there are some potential problems with the implementation of the Double First-Class Initiative, not least of which are the imprecision in the definition of “world-class”, the narrow focus on the range of institutions, and the lack of future-oriented development methods. These problems have attracted the attention of the government and the universities, and stimulated some discussion in society more widely.
Jun Li and Jian Li
Recently China has miraculously transformed itself from a learner in the 20th century to a re-rising leader of educational excellence. The enduring policy endeavors over the past few decades have largely enabled China as the largest educational system in the world move to a recently emerging status as a global leader of educational improvement, recognized and appreciated with admiration by many traditionally advanced countries. The two authors intend to offer a snapshot of the China miracle of educational development in terms of public policies since the turn of the 21st century. With a Multi-Flows Approach constructed from Csikszentmihalyi’s idea of “flow”, this paper investigates the complexity and dynamism of three policy streams, i.e., basic education, teacher education and higher education. It is concluded from the literature review that central to China’s key policy actions in recent decades are four core themes, i.e., equality in terms of a democratic mission of education for every citizen, quality in terms of individual and social productivity, efficiency as a national priority based on practicality, and rejuvenation of the state for nation-building and global status. Educational policy development in China since the new century is thus examined with economic, political, cultural and international flows, each presenting a colorful jigsaw puzzle that is not easily tessellated by other flows. The authors argue that the different focus of flows and beyond can benefit policy communities in the world with varied directions for educational change resulting in significant improvement while none of them should be seen as a single force in solely shaping educational policy development without the convergence of other forces. This implies that for any public policy in education policymakers, implementers and other stakeholders must ensure a comprehensive consideration of the interdependent, converging effects of these forces to prioritize and maximize their outcomes, which may be easily missed by any single force of them. The implications from this paper sheds new light on policy studies in education in China and globally, and the learner-provider dynamism of educational development in a post-colonial context.
Philosophies of civilisation, nation, globalisation, and localisation manifest in educational structuring, school hidden curricula, and subject areas like social studies or citizenship education. Additionally, media play a vital role in young people’s development of their identities and civic allegiances, apart from what takes place in schools. Media may complement or contradict messages about human living together and one’s place in living together provided in educational contexts. Given media’s impact, within and outside educational spaces, it would be counterproductive to not examine this impact if one wants to understand how students learn to live together in society. Appreciating the role of media in developing civic ideas can help to enhance strategies of civic education. It can also help to identify skills related to literacy, information processing, and social networking that align with effective development of critical thinking capacities in civic education. This article first explores theoretically how people learn through and engage with media. Next, it considers ways in which media can impact civic identities. It explores how media is impacted by and reflects messages related to civilisation, nationalism, globalization and localism. The article then discusses common ways of responding to media in education. Here, critical media literacy education is examined and reflected upon. Broader educational implications of the exploration are discussed in the conclusion.
Julie Rowlands and Trevor Gale
In this paper we consider relationships between national research assessment and publication output targets within academic workload models, theorising their potential impact on research practices and the academic habitus. Thinking with Bourdieu’s theory of practice, we draw on examples from higher education systems within the United Kingdom and Australia to argue that what an agent has done in the past plays a potentially significant role in the reformation of their own habitus. In relation to academics complying with publication output targets, whatever form those targets may take, we posit that this has implications for what research is done, how, by whom and where, and also for how researchers are disposed, or not, towards what research is perceived to be possible or desirable.
Henry A. Giroux
In this paper Henry Giroux, the US theorist of critical pedagogy, examines the treatment of immigrants in America likening it to fascism’s extreme nationalism. He draws a parallel between neoliberal capitalism and fascism to explain the suppression of freedom, anti-democratic sentiments and the growth of racism leading to a demonisation of the other. Giroux speaks to the formation of a form of “neoliberal fascism” under Trump and considers the horrors of the perpetration of state violence against children. He documents the way that Trump mobilises “fascist passions” to set up immigration detention camps that involves the separation of children from their parents. [Ed.]
In his classic work, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, Jean-Françios Lyotard prophesised the death of the age of the Professor. Writing at the end of the 1970s, Lyotard could see that in contexts where knowledge was regarded as a commodity, and where the question of truth was becoming subservient to the question of what sells, the importance of university teachers would increasingly be questioned. In the decades that followed the publication of The Postmodern Condition, many of the trends observed by Lyotard have become cemented in policy and practice. This paper argues that while the age of the Professor is not yet dead, it is dying – slowly but steadily, in a manner that is more evident in some fields than others. Given the dominance of economic goals in shaping educational agendas, the triumph of the performativity principle, and the obsession with measuring and marketing almost everything, support for scholars in the humanities in particular has been progressively eroded. This process of dying is, however, by no means complete, and a rebirth of the age of the Professor, perhaps in a slightly different form, remains a possibility that should not be ruled out.
A Response to Michael A. Peters, “100 Years of Dewey in China, 1919–1921: A Reassessment”
Michael Peters’ article “100 Years of Dewey in China, 1919–1921: A Reassessment” mainly focused on the political and ideological position of Dewey and concluded that Dewey did little to Chinese modern transition. To respond to Peters’ article, I pointed out that Dewey’s religious and aesthetic aspects of experience in his later works were largely ignored and how this idea of experience could have possible dialogue with the rich heritage of Chinese Confucianism tradition. I further made an example from the Chinese Confucian scholar Liang Shuming’s review article on Dewey’s book Democracy and Education, to indicate these two schools of thoughts could more contribution to thinking about the modern challenge from each society.
Peng Liu and Qi Xiu
Fostering higher-order thinking skills of students is important aim for 21st century education. Teachers, as important elements in a positive learning environment, are the key to high quality education. As for the importance of teacher professional collaboration in teacher development, Hargreaves and Fullan (2012) pointed out that teachers’ professional collaboration will benefit not only students but also the whole school community, and even society at large. In Chinese context, the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China (2010) issued a policy in 2010 promoting teacher professional collaboration and development as a background of this study, implying that teachers must be collaborating actively with colleagues in daily professional life to achieve collective growth for the purpose of improving student learning.
Based on the policy reality, this study explored teacher professional collaboration in the Chinese education context. It looked in particular at practices and issues in teacher professional collaboration. This article begins with the definitions of teacher professional collaboration, followed by a detailed exploration of this type of collaboration in Chinese education and issues related to its implementation. This study will provide holistic picture of teacher collaboration in China for contributing to theoretical development and educational practice.
This article explores concepts of teacher responsibility, accountability, being in loco parentis, and responsibilization as many advanced capitalist societies have dropped policies and practices that were set up in the mid 19th century after the Great Depression in the welfare state under Keynesian economics. Since the early 1980s most of these states have adopted neoliberal policies and market rationality for all aspects of social policy including education. Under neoliberalism, the subject theorised by Homo economicus, is one that is theorised as a rational autonomous individual, with its responsibilized behavior underpinning much of how not only teachers but students now are compleed to behace and perform. These have resulted in major shifts in attitudes to professionalism of teachers, in responsibilising individuals and so have impacted on subjectivity as the state has pulled back from all manner of social provision and has responsibilized the individual to be a consumer-citizen, a prudential and entrepreneurial self even in terms of education. The upshot is increasing use of audits, checklists and accountability regimes for teachers who are becoming increasingly a de-professionalised in a low-trust managerialist environment with students as consumers.
Ronald A. Barnett
Philosophers have long made allegations of a thoughtlessness in the world and, in the wake of their charges, critiques of thoughtlessness on the part of the university have also been made. Explanations for such thoughtlessness are rooted in both exogenous and endogenous sources. Thinking has not been vanquished entirely from the university but rather a malign thoughtlessness has descended on it. Drawing especially on Bhaskar’s Critical Realism, a conception of the thinking university is proffered here that both recognizes the deep structures at work and opens a sense of the university as an agent. Four criteria of university thoughtfulness are proposed. The prospects for such a cognitive culture emerging are explored, two phenomena being identified; first, that the social ontology of the university is widening and second, that contra postmodernism, universals associated with the university are increasing. Further, the constellation of reason has been displaced by the constellation of utility but a new constellation is struggling to emerge, which is calling for thought on the part of the university, namely the constellation of otherness. The thinking university is, therefore, a feasible utopia, its legitimacy standing up to the rigorous scrutiny of six conditions of adequacy. The thinking university is already living in the real world.
Jessica Ching-Sze Wang
As a response to Michael Peters’ essay, “100 years of Dewey in China,” the article takes up Peter’s question about Dewey’s lack of responses to “Chinese problems.” It asks a new question about what can be done differently—particularly in important intercultural exchanges, such as that between Dewey and his Chinese disciples. It points to the importance of seeing both self and other as intellectual equals in order to make the exchange experience most educationally worthwhile for both parties.
Ein Bericht von der Kommissionstagung der Bildungs- und Erziehungsphilosophie
The Regime of the Aesthetic
As a preliminary, the text deals with the question of what can be understood by a regime of the aesthetic. The aesthetic regime generates patterns of perception that guide people in their behavior and actions. The regime of the aesthetic oscillates between social regression and emancipation. The regression of the individual aesthetic perception of the world and of the self is evident in all areas of social life. Through the mass media, the aesthetic regime has the ability to manipulate people and influence perceptions and judgment. The ability of the self to defend itself against manipulation regresses. The adoption of given perception, explanation and assessment systems makes life easier than having to question contexts. The difficult task is to emancipate oneself from the regressive aesthetic regime. Referred to Rancière, it requires an ›emancipated viewer‹ capable of emancipating itself from the assigned structures of an aesthetic regime. This endeavor represents an infinite task.
German Philosophy of Education between Preparation for War and Desire for Peace
From both a historical and critical perspective, the article reconstructs the problematic transition of German Philosophy of Education from an enlightened to a romantic thinking as well as from the state’s political concept of orientation to that of the people in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This reveals a strange fluctuation of pedagogy in theory and practice between a latent preparation for war on the one hand and a vague longing for peace on the other hand.
Michael Obermaier and Erik Ode
How Concepts of an Enemy are Constructed in Popular Pedagogical Literature
Since the time of enlightenment, gradually a popular educational advisory literature has established itself and has become a gigantic market which – beyond pedagogically reflective theory – has by now achieved an enormous power of pedagogical interpretation. Against this setting, the present contribution examines the reasons, mechanisms and enemy concepts which lead to an undermining of educational and to an enhancement of popular narratives. It shows that pedagogic concepts of the enemy constitute a very worthwhile area of pedagogic research, hitherto taken into consideration far too little.
Empirische Rekonstruktionen und theoretische Überlegungen am Beispiel der Berufspolitik
Learning during the Transition to a new Professional Context. Empirical Analyses and Theoretical Considerations using the Example of Professional Politics
The article presents empirical analyses and theoretical considerations on the learning processes that occur during the transition to a new professional context. The research is based upon narrative interviews with German politicians who became member of the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag) for the first time. Following a reconstructive perspective, the analyses show that there are considerable differences either with regard to what aspects of their new professional environments the politicians perceive as an irritation to their occupational routines that initiate a learning process, as with regard to the forms of knowledge that are subsequently subject to changes; not least, the analyses indicate differences in their modes or ways of learning, too. It is argued that reflecting on these different levels of analysis is helpful to shape further research into workplace learning.
Pädagogisches Denken in wenig friedvollen Zeiten
María do Mar Castro Varela
Once Again: »What to do?« Educational Thinking in Less Peaceful Times
In times of increasingly normalized right-wing violence, pedagogy must once again ask itself the question: »What to do?« The text tries to make postcolonial perspectives in the revision of general educational ideas productive.
The goal hereby is to design an ethical pedagogy that can think of responsibility vis-à-vis radical alterity. For this, Adorno’s writings on Pedagogy after Auschwitz and postcolonial ideas on pedagogy unfolded by Spivak are combined without falling in to the trap to simply equate them.
Education for Wholeness, War and Peace
›Wholeness‹ is a topic in educational theory since the Baroque age. In 19th century political concepts of ›wholeness‹ came into being. The article asks what happened to educational theories that were bound to concepts like ›volk‹, ›race‹, ›nation‹ or ›the world‹. Those theories appeared before, during and after World War I. The topics were ›war‹ and ›peace‹ and the rhetorics of wholeness were used on both sides. Because of that, educational theory should abandon the suggestive language of wholeness.
Pädagogische und fachdidaktische Ansätze zum Umgang mit einer gegenwärtigen Bedrohung für den Frieden
Political Education in Times of right-wing Populism. Pedagogical and Didactical Approaches to Deal with a current Threat to Peace
Right-wing populism challenges the societies in Europe. The rise of such movements and parties are a threat to peace and democracy in Germany. This article focuses the possibilities as well as the boundaries of political education under the current circumstances. To this end, it discusses theoretical explanations based on approaches in peace education, political didactics and social sciences to deal with right-wing populism in practice.
Ines M. Breinbauer
Han Zhang, Yuzhuo Cai and Zhengfeng Li
This paper argues that failure to deeply understand various existing organizations of university-industry technology transfer in China impedes the progress of both practice and research on technology transfer between university and industry in that country. In response, it attempts to categorize different types of university technology transfer organizations in China in over a 30-year time span and analyze the relations between these organizations. In so doing, Tsinghua University is taken as an example for analysis, because technology transfer at Tsinghua University can be seen as a microcosm of university-industry technology transfer in China with pioneer practices and successful experience to be followed by other universities in China. The analysis is guided by an analytical framework, constructed by integrating the insights from relevant literature. The framework distinguishes between different forms of university technology transfer organizations by focusing on six dimensions of the organizational characteristics. After identifying eight types of university technology transfer organizations in Tsinghua University with detailed descriptions of their respective organizational characteristics, the paper further groups them into a four-category typology. Besides its contribution in constructing a framework to understand university technology transfer organizations in the Chinese context, the paper also solicits suggestions for Chinese and international stakeholders who may potentially cooperate with Chinese research universities in research, development, and innovation.