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Author: Paul Shore

Abstract

The forty-one years between the Society of Jesus’s papal suppression in 1773 and its eventual restoration in 1814 remain controversial, with new research and interpretations continually appearing. Shore’s narrative approaches these years, and the period preceding the suppression, from a new perspective that covers individuals not usually discussed in works dealing with this topic. As well as examining the contributions of former Jesuits to fields as diverse as ethnology—a term and concept pioneered by an ex-Jesuit—and library science, where Jesuits and ex-Jesuits laid the groundwork for the great advances of the nineteenth century, the essay also explores the period the exiled Society spent in the Russian Empire. It concludes with a discussion of the Society’s restoration in the broader context of world history.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Jesuit Studies

Abstract

In An Overview of the Pre-Suppression Society of Jesus in Spain, Patricia W. Manning offers a survey of the Society of Jesus in Spain from its origins in Ignatius of Loyola’s early preaching to the aftereffects of its expulsion. Rather than nurture the nascent order, Loyola’s homeland was often ambivalent. His pre-Jesuit freelance sermonizing prompted investigations. The young Society confronted indifference and interference from the Spanish monarchy and outright opposition from other religious orders. This essay outlines the order’s ministerial and pedagogical activities, its relationship with women and with royal institutions, including the Spanish Inquisition, and Spanish members’ roles in theological debates concerning casuistry, free will, and the immaculate conception. It also considers the impact of Jesuits’ non-religious writings.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Jesuit Studies

Abstract

From Eusebio Kino to Daniel Berrigan, and from colonial New England to contemporary Seattle, Jesuits have built and disrupted institutions in ways that have fundamentally shaped the Catholic Church and American society. As Catherine O’Donnell demonstrates, Jesuits in French, Spanish, and British colonies were both evangelists and agents of empire. John Carroll envisioned an American church integrated with Protestant neighbors during the early years of the republic; nineteenth-century Jesuits, many of them immigrants, rejected Carroll’s ethos and created a distinct Catholic infrastructure of schools, colleges, and allegiances. The twentieth century involved Jesuits first in American war efforts and papal critiques of modernity, and then (in accord with the leadership of John Courtney Murray and Pedro Arrupe) in a rethinking of their relationship to modernity, to other faiths, and to earthly injustice. O’Donnell’s narrative concludes with a brief discussion of Jesuits’ declining numbers, as well as their response to their slaveholding past and involvement in clerical sexual abuse.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Jesuit Studies
Tracing Their Paths, Reassessing Their Goals
This book collects fifteen essays and book sections about the Jesuits in India written over a period of more than thirty years. Many of these pieces, unavailable for years, now appear together for the first time. The essays open a window on the 450-year Jesuit history in India, from Roberto de Nobili in the seventeenth century to the leading Jesuit scholars of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The volume looks back into this long missionary history, but Clooney’s eye is also on the question of relevance today: How ought interreligious learning take place in the twenty-first century?

“Western Jesuit Scholars in India is a fascinating collection of studies of 17th-21st century Jesuit writings in and about classical India. By his methods and questions, Francis Clooney, Indologist and Jesuit theologian, exposes certain aporias and deficiencies latent in Indology. It concludes with a notable proposal of an interfaith sensibility.”
Gérard Colas, Directeur de recherche émérité, Centre National de la Recherche scientifique, Paris

“Francis X. Clooney’s Western Jesuit Scholars in India is that of a humanist. He is not only a studious and assiduous reader of texts in languages and intellectual idioms that few scholars are capable of untangling, but is also committed to finding deep human and spiritual connections, detecting the intellectual empathies and affinities that the Jesuit missionaries had labored to bring out in their writings over half a millennium. With a clear and engaging pen, impressive erudition, and intellectual humility before the truly difficult task, Clooney studies what is undoubtedly one of the most fascinating chapters in Jesuit intellectual history, the encounter with Indian philosophical and textual traditions. Seekers of knowledge and cultural understanding of all stripes will find in this book plenty of wisdom, some surprises, and a large historical canvas stretching from Italy to India and back, and beyond.”
Ines G. Županov, Senior Fellow, Centre d’études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud, CNRS, Paris
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Western Jesuit Scholars in India
In: Handbook of Megachurches
Author: Andrew Davies

Abstract

This chapter commences with the observation that Pentecostals historically have never been particularly engaged social or politically despite the social challenges faced by their communities. Largely this was because of their focus on their hope for the ultimate resolution of eternity to be too deeply and systematically concerned with the hardships faced in the here and now. Furthermore, they were concerned that engagement with any sort of ‘social gospel’ would distract them from their central call to preach the ‘full gospel’ salvation. The chapter explores the sea change in which Pentecostals megachurches endorsed social activism via the rise of ‘progressive Pentecostals’ and what this has entailed.

In: Handbook of Megachurches
In: Handbook of Megachurches

Abstract

This chapter seeks to understand the growth and dynamics of Calvary Temple (CT), a megachurch founded by Rev Satish Kumar in India. The chapter argues that growth and significance can be understood in terms of the multi-faceted processes of globalisation and in particular: global, ‘glocal’ and local factors. In analysing these three factors, I suggest that the global factor seems to have taken centre stage in recent times because CT’s phenomenal growth has given it a voice in the global arena – both amongst the fraternity of Pentecostal churches as well as with US Christian politicians who hold religious freedom close to their hearts.

In: Handbook of Megachurches
Author: David E. Eagle

Abstract

This chapter argues that, contrary to commonly accepted views, megachurches enjoy a long history in Protestantism. That history can, for example, be traced to the sixteenth century Huguenot architect Jacques Perret who revealed the early Protestant vision for a large, multi-functional worship space which was eventually realised. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries further connections between present day megachurches and the past came with revivalism which provided the motivation for Protestants reach the masses and the Institutional Church Movement that created the infrastructure. The chapter also considers the demographic shifts that occurred following wwii, leading to the proliferation of megachurches in post-war America.

In: Handbook of Megachurches
Author: Stephen Hunt

Abstract

This chapter details the central place that revivalism has in the success and advocacy of megachurches. Invariably the emphasis is on that fragmented movement which has emphasised revivalism, that is, Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement (neo-Pentecostal) which has given birth to a number of unique but over-lapping ‘streams’. The chapter commences with definitions of revivalism before considering the evidence of church growth under the activities and theology of the movement and provides examples of some major revivals with a particularly focus on those of the late twentieth -early twenty-first century.

In: Handbook of Megachurches
In: Handbook of Megachurches

Abstract

In discussing examples of megachurches from around the world, this chapter explores the close connections between such churches’ engagement in popular culture and their strategies for expansion. The chapter argues that two ethical approaches to ‘performing the mega’ can be discerned: ‘enclaving’, which involves drawing, social, and ritual boundaries around behaviours of those who are already members; and ‘encroaching’, which involves explicit and often aggressive attempts to move into and appropriate secular realms of discourse and culture. Overall, this chapter indicates the subtleties of engagement and motivation among believers who are committed to inhabiting a space of agency that lies on the border of redeemed and unredeemed arenas of action.

In: Handbook of Megachurches
Author: Richard Burgess

Abstract

Megachurches in Canada need to be understood in the context of significant religious change, most notably the decline of the historical churches, shifts in immigration, growing numbers of people who say they have no religion, and the relative vitality of evangelical congregations. Most megachurches in Canada are evangelical, charismatic, and some are new immigrant congregations. This chapter offers an overview of religion in Canada with attention to evangelical congregations and the growth of megachurches, a summary of the Canadian Large Churches Study, a case study of a Canadian megachurch, and some theoretical reflections on megachurches in a changing Canadian society.

In: Handbook of Megachurches

Abstract

This chapter investigates the nature of education as provided by megachurches as institutions. It proceeds by sketching out the characteristics of congregational education in general terms before considering megachurch provision more specifically. In particular, the chapter explores the impact of Sunday worship and how beliefs and values are socialised through music, ritual and preaching, as well as the videos and branded material. It also considers the role that small groups play in very large churches and in especially different kinds of discipleship courses. The study also illustrates the ways in which megachurches demonstrate links to more formal educational practices.

In: Handbook of Megachurches

Abstract

Megachurches must be understood as total environments. By providing programmes for nearly every stage of life, megachurches combine a sense of solidarity with a feeling of dependence. Employing Randall Collins’s theory of interaction ritual chains, this chapter shows that the desire for emotional energy (EE), which is interpreted as the physical manifestation of God’s love, has been embraced by megachurches and is the key to understanding their success. The chapter develops rational choice theory and show how megachurches charge attendees with their next ‘hit’ of EE, which becomes the life-blood of attendees that binds them together in a total environment.

In: Handbook of Megachurches