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Everyday Life under Occupation in World War II Europe: A Source Edition
Volume Editors: Tatjana Tönsmeyer and Peter Haslinger
During the peak of the German expansion in World War II, more than 230 million people from Norway to Greece and from France to various regions inside the former Soviet Union lived under German occupation. This edited collection of primary sources for the first time gives an insight into the experiences of these ordinary people under German occupation, their everyday life and how this quickly became dominated by shortages (especially of food but also of other necessities such as medicine), the search for supplies and different strategies to fight scarcity. In addressing examples from all European countries under German occupation the collected sources give the first pan-European perspective on the history of shortage, malnutrition and hunger resulting from the war, occupation, and aggressive German exploitation policies.
Der Bildschirmtext in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland von 1977 bis 2001
Der Bildschirmtext der 1980er Jahre ist eine weitgehend vergessene Technologie, vom späteren Internet vollständig verdrängt, in Inhalten und interaktiven Anwendungen diesem aber erstaunlich nahe.
Mit der Kombination von Fernsehgerät und Telefonanschluss eröffnete die Deutsche Bundespost Privatpersonen erstmals ein umfangreiches Spektrum interaktiver Netzwerkanwendungen, so beispielweise das Homebanking. Das Buch untersucht Btx in seiner Gesamtheit, historisiert das Agieren der staatlichen Akteure, verdeutlicht die medienrechtlichen Debatten, die bis in die Gegenwart hineinwirken und zeigt an konkreten Inhalten die Möglichkeiten und Probleme des Systems. So wird keine zum Scheitern verurteilte Technologie betrachtet, sondern ein eigenständiges Medium, welches auf dem Höhepunkt seiner Verbreitung durch den kometenhaften Aufstieg einer weiteren Vernetzungstechnologie substituiert wurde.
L’écolâtre cathédral en France septentrionale du ixe au xiiie siècle
Author: Thierry Kouamé
This book traces the history of one of the central actors in the transformation of the Western educational system between the 9th and 13th centuries: the cathedral schoolmaster. Originally responsible for running the episcopal school, this ecclesiastical official eventually became a true school administrator with a territorial monopoly and coercive powers, including in particular issuing ‘licentia docendi’ to masters under his jurisdiction. Using a wide range of sources and taking in thirty-nine dioceses in northern France, the study analyses the construction of the office from the Carolingian period, the place of the schoolmaster within the canonical community and in feudal society, and the institutionalisation of his function with the Gregorian Reform and the birth of universities.
Author: Jakub Wysmułek
This volume offers the first comprehensive analysis of wills in late medieval Krakow. It presents the origins of testamentary acts in the Kingdom of Poland and its centre, Krakow, and their subsequent transformation from so called ‘canonical wills’ to ‘communal wills’. Wysmułek discusses the socio-cultural role of wills and sets them in their contemporary legal, social, and economic context. In doing so, he uncovers their influence on property ownership and family relations in the city, as well as on the religious practices of the burghers. Ultimately, this work seeks to change the perception of wills by treating the testamentary act itself as an important agent of historical social change – a ‘tool of power’.
Author: Eric Blanc
This groundbreaking study rediscovers the socialists of Tsarist Russia’s imperial borderlands, upending conventional interpretations of working-class politics, the Russian Revolution, and Second International socialism. Based on archival research in eight languages, Revolutionary Social Democracy is the first comparative account of the numerous socialist parties that fought for democracy and workers’ power across the entire span of the Russian Empire, from the factories of Warsaw, to the oil fields of Baku, to the autonomous parliament of Finland. By demonstrating that the Russian Revolution was far less Russian than commonly assumed, Eric Blanc challenges long-held assumptions of historians, sociologists, and activists about the dynamics of revolutionary change under autocratic and democratic conditions.
Prices, Markets and Industrialization in the Netherlands, 1800-1913
Author: Arthur van Riel
For over a century now, historians have debated the causes of the lagged industrialization of the Dutch economy during the nineteenth century. To this debate, Trials of Convergence brings the analytical perspective of prices, factor costs and the functioning of markets. Its critical insight is that only an approach based on the integrated incentive structure of the economy allows us to delimit the role of alternative explanations. Using statistical reconstruction and microdata, it shows that the retarded transition resulted from a confluence of forces. These ranged from open economy effects and natural endowments to the resilient influence of the institutions of the former Dutch Republic and the fiscal policy adopted in response to Belgian secession. At the height of the British Industrial Revolution the Dutch economy slowed, triggering a return to the problems of eighteenth-century stagnation. All this meant that the transition to 'modern economic growth' after 1860 came about only in a changed international context and after a period of politico-economic reform.