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This book explores the rise of a Scottish common law from the twelfth century on despite the absence until around 1500 of a secular legal profession. Key stimuli were the activity of church courts and canon lawyers in Scotland, coupled with the example provided by neighbouring England’s common law. The laity’s legal consciousness arose from exposure to law by way of constant participation in legal processes in court and daily transactions. This experience enabled some to become judges, pleaders in court and transactional lawyers and lay the foundations for an emergent professional group by the end of the medieval period.
Dieser Band präsentiert zunächst die Morphologie der 432 Titel der Pandekten als weitgehend rhetorisch komponiert, woraufhin diese Einsicht in eine systematische Hermeneutik übersetzt wird: die Titel der Pandekten sind – auch – systematisch auszulegen. Friedrich Bluhmes Massentheorie erscheint daher richtig, aber unvollständig und beweist nicht, dass das räumliche Nacheinander der die Titel ausmachenden Leges die unabsichtliche Folge des zeitlichen Nacheinanders des Exzerpierens ist. Es scheint vielmehr die absichtliche Folge eines Kompositionsbestrebens zu sein. Bei einer konsequenten Anwendung von Bluhmes eigener Methode käme man zu dem Ergebnis, dass etwa ein Viertel der Leges nicht dort alloziert sind, wo sie theoretisch stehen müssten. Durch diese ‚Versetzungen‘ werden semantische Systeme mit den umgebenden Stellen etabliert, indem die Kompilatoren mittels der Leittextmethode in einen textlichen Hauptstrang Nebenstränge einflechten.
Violence, Justice, and Law in Classical Antiquity collects together forty-three of Andrew Lintott’s most significant papers. Lintott’s corpus of work exposes the fundamental reliance of ancient Romans (and Greeks) on violent measures, including their readiness to resort to violence in the manner of judicial “self-help” or political tyrannicide. The legitimation of violence in Roman culture and Roman political discourse informs the nature of Roman imperialism, and equally it is impossible to understand the illegitimate violence which characterised the political collapse of the Roman Republic without understanding its deep roots in the intellectually legitimised and legally sanctioned violence of Roman society.
Natural law changed its character in the post-Reformation period, mainly because it became an academic discipline. This institutionalisation happened first in Protestant countries but increasingly also in Catholic areas. In the hands of philosophers and jurists rather than theologians the subject served a wide variety of purposes in domestic, colonial, imperial and international politics, in judicial administration, legislation and reform, in social analysis and in the inculcation of social ethics. Although concerned with the foundations of morality, law and politics, early modern natural law was far from a coherent philosophical theory, but rather the framework for fundamental disputes. What kind of natural law was adopted in a given place and period was often a matter of local controversy in state, church and university. At the same time, natural law was characterised by extensive transnational networks.

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Conscription, Conscientious Objection, and Draft Resistance in American History is the definitive history of conscription in America. It is the first book ever to consider the entire temporal sweep of conscription from pre-Revolutionary War colonial militia drafts through the end of the Vietnam era. Each chapter contains an examination of that era’s draft law, the actual workings of the conscription machinery, and relevant court decisions that shaped the draft in practice. In addition, the book describes the popular opposition to conscription: organized and unorganized, violent and nonviolent, public and clandestine, legal and illegal. Using sources never before utilized by historians, including government documents obtained in Freedom of Information Act requests, the book demonstrates how anti-conscription sentiment has been far deeper than is popularly appreciated.