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Masahiko ASADA, International Law of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament
In addition to the prestigious Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law in hardback, the Curatorium of the Academy has decided to yearly publish, in English or French, certain courses from the private or public international law sessions in the form of low-cost "pocket books". These courses, given to the Academy’s students by eminent specialists, focus on topics which are of particular interest, especially from a pedagogical perspective, to students and, more generally, to all who take an interest in the principal questions of international law. With this new publication, the Academy hopes to fully fulfil its role in the diffusion and promotion of international law, by making it accessible to all.

A côté de la célèbre collection reliée des cours de l’Académie de droit international, le Curatorium de l’Académie a souhaité publier chaque année quelques cours des sessions de droit international privé et public, en anglais et en français, sous la forme de « livres de poche » et donc à un prix extrêmement réduit. Ces cours délivrés aux étudiants de l’Académie par des spécialistes éminents portent sur des sujets dont l’intérêt est particulièrement marqué, en particulier du point de vue pédagogique, pour la formation des étudiants et, de manière plus générale, pour l’information de tous ceux qui s’intéressent aux grandes questions du droit international. Avec cette nouvelle réalisation l’Académie a le souci de pleinement remplir son rôle en matière de diffusion et de promotion du droit international ainsi rendu accessible à tous.
This course investigates the relationships between international criminal law and other branches of international law. It begins by examining four issues of general international law: the principal sources of international law, jurisdiction and immunities, State responsibility, and use of force. It then explores internationalhumanitarian law, focusing on definitions of war crimes and difficulties in linking IHL and ICL. Next, it examines refugee law, paying particular attention to the exclusion of war criminals from refugee protection and to international crimes that may be related to the rights and treatment of refugees. The final chapter explores the relationship between ICL and human rights law, examining the position of human rights within the Rome Statute of the ICC, as well as the human rights aspects of genocide, crimes against humanity, various procedural rights relating to fair international trials and the contribution of human rights fact-finding mechanisms.
Author: Dire Tladi
This study assesses the rules of international law relevant to the use of force against non-State actors. The rules of international law on the use of force are the lynchpin of the project of international law for a more secure and peaceful world. Yet, as important as they are, the rules of international law on the use of force are also highly contentious. With the shift in the nature of conflicts from inter-State wars to conflicts involving non-State actors, and with the growth in the threat of global terrorism, the focus of the law on the use of force has shifted to the use of force against non-State actors. To assess the permissibility of the use of force against non-State actors, this study will focus on two grounds that have been advanced as bases for the extraterritorial use of force against non-State actors: the right of a State to act in self-defence and intervention by invitation. While there are other grounds that have been advanced for the extraterritorial use of force in international law, it is only in respect of these two grounds that the role of non-State actors has a significant influence on the legality or not of the use of force.
Author: Robert Kolb
Cet ouvrage radiographie le corps du droit international public sous l’angle d’une division courante dans tout ordre juridique, à savoir le «droit privé» et le «droit public». Le premier vise à satisfaire les intérêts des sujets de droit pris individuellement, alors que le second cherche à protéger les intérêts d’une collectivité de sujets (en droit interne l’Etat, en droit international des collectivités à géométrie variable). Des illustrations de la gravitation de ces deux forces sont données dans les grandes matières structurantes du droit international: les sources, les rapports de système, les personnes, la responsabilité, le règlement des différends, le jus ad bellum et le jus in bello, ainsi que les espaces communs. En suivant ce fil d’analyse inédit, une série d’équilibres et de déséquilibres formant le code génétique intime du droit international sont mis à jour.
The Growth, Challenges and Future Prospects for Investment Dispute Settlement, by M. KINNEAR, Vice president of the World Bank Group.

“Mutual Trust”: A Suitable Foundation for Private International Law in Regional Integration Communities and Beyond?, by M. WELLER, Professor, Universität Bonn.
“Mutual trust” has become the central justification of the EU to drive its private international law forward – the reason why this Course undertakes to explore the theoretical potential of a trust perspective on private international law. In a first step, the opaque term of trust is deconstructed in an interdisciplinary analysis. The results are connected with fundamentals of private international law. The central finding is that private international law builds on the dichotomy of trust and control: how far should foreign judgments, foreign law and other foreign judicial acts be integrated – “trusted” – within the domestic administration of justice? This question must be answered by each and every legislator and each and every court, in particular by those that strive for economic and complementing judicial integration. Recurring tools of trust management can be identified. How do regional integration communities use and fine-tune these tools for their private international law and what are potential explanations from their history, their economics and their legal cultures? Four communities, selected from different parts of the world, are presented under this perspective, ordered in a series towards growing intensities of mutual trust: the ASEAN, the CEMAC, the MERCOSUR, and the EU. The Course comes to the conclusion that trust is, must, and can be managed and dosed according to the respective conditions and contexts, but no matter where we are: to trust or not to trust – that is the question of private international law, for regional integration communities and beyond.
We are currently living in a new normal. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to millions of deaths and is changing how we live, work, socialise and move through the world. But Covid-19 is one of many epidemics to have shaped human life throughout history, causing untold suffering and death and changing how we live. Their effects are seldom limited to one country or region, and how societies prevent, manage and recover from epidemics is inevitably influenced by international law. Epidemics are regulated not only by international health law but also by international human rights law, international environmental law, international trade and investment law, international transport law, international law of peace and security and international humanitarian law. Despite this, they have received limited attention in mainstream international legal scholarship. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of epidemics and international law from the perspective of general international law. Featuring thirty-one essays by researchers from around the world and from various areas of expertise, it demonstrates how epidemics shape – and are shaped by – international legal norms across varying domains of international law.

This volume is the product of collaborative work conducted between August 2020 and April 2021 as part of the Centre for Studies and Research on Epidemics and International Law.
Author: R. Wolfrum
Solidarity and community interest may appear to be purely abstract notions. But in fact they may form the basis of a more flexible approach to international lawmaking than traditional formulas of legally binding commitments. Through an empirical analysis of existing and emerging public international law, this book traces these concepts in existing regimes and investigates the impact they have had and will continue to have on the progressive development of specific international regimes, particularly those serving the protection of the environment and of human rights. It discusses how through these two regimes these concepts have changed the international normative order and explores the challenges such changes have created for implementation and enforcement. One such challenge is the lack of an adequate dispute settlement regime, and the book closes with some practical suggestions for an appropriate mechanism.
La protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux en droit international public et en droit international privé, par José Angelo Estrella-Faria.
La protection des biens culturels religieux comporte généralement trois dimensions : la conservation et la préservation physique des biens ; les mesures visant à garantir l’accès aux biens culturels et à garder leur fonction cultuelle ; et finalement leur rattachement territorial. Le droit international des conflits armés et le droit pénal international, ainsi que le droit du patrimoine culturel universel et les droits humains, offrent des niveaux variables de protection des biens culturels d’intérêt religieux par des mesures préventives et répressives, auxquelles s’ajoutent des normes de droit privé régissant les conditions de la circulation de ces biens. Le cours aborde certains aspects du traitement juridique des biens culturels dans ces différents domaines du droit ayant des implications particulières pour les biens culturels d’intérêt religieux, tant au niveau international que national, et la manière dont les domaines pertinents du droit prennent en considération les règles et besoins propres des communautés religieuses.
The Private International Law of Class Actions: A Functional Approach, by Michael Karayanni.
A transnational class action raises fundamental questions in regards of the class action court’s jurisdiction over the defendant and the class members, on how to choose the applicable law, and ultimately on how to deal with the judgment if and when it comes up for enforcement or recognition before a foreign court. At times these questions and the complications they give rise to, become part and parcel of the class action court’s consideration whether to certify the class action as such. In these lectures, I will identify the major private international problems that are endemic to transnational class actions and how these were handled, principally by courts in the US, Canada and Israel. I will also offer an analytical legal framework that can better assist us in dealing with the private international law questions pertaining to transnational class action and that so by identifying three different categories of class actions, with each category demanding a separate and more surgical treatment.

Self-Defence and “Unwilling or Unable” States, by Said Mahmoudi.
A frequently debated question in international law after the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001 has been whether the right to self-defence is available for a victim state when the non-state actor responsible for the attack is located in and operates from another state, which is unwilling or unable to forestall the attack. The ICJ has established that the right to self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter can be invoked against non-state actors' armed attacks provided the attacks are attributable to the state hosting such actors.
The purpose of the ‘unwilling or unable’ standard is to do away with the attribution requirement. It is thus claimed that the mere fact that an armed attack is carried out by a non-state actor active in the territory of another state should entitle the victim to use of force in self-defence against that actor within the territorial state.

The present text discusses whether state practice, the jurisprudence of the courts and the doctrine of international law in the past two decades indicate any change in the scope of the right to self-defence and its application against armed attacks by non-state actors. Its conclusion is that there has not yet been any change and the ‘unwilling or unable’ standard remains as controversial as when it gained currency in the aftermath of the 9/11 events.