The Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam appears in substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.
This Part 2020-6 of the Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam will contain 47 new articles, reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship in the fields of Islamic Studies.
The Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam appears in substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.
This Part 2020-5 of the Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam will contain 45 new articles, reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship in the fields of Islamic Studies.
From the early phases of modern missions, Christian missionaries supported many humanitarian activities, mostly framed as subservient to the preaching of Christianity. This anthology contributes to a historically grounded understanding of the complex relationship between Christian missions and the roots of humanitarianism and its contemporary uses in a Middle Eastern context. Contributions focus on ideologies, rhetoric, and practices of missionaries and their apostolates towards humanitarianism, from the mid-19th century Middle East crises, examining different missionaries, their society’s worldview and their networks in various areas of the Middle East. In the early 20th century Christian missions increasingly paid more attention to organisation and bureaucratisation (‘rationalisation’), and media became more important to their work. The volume analyses how non-missionaries took over, to a certain extent, the aims and organisations of the missionaries as to humanitarianism. It seeks to discover and retrace such ‘entangled histories’ for the first time in an integral perspective.

Contributors include: Beth Baron, Philippe Bourmaud, Seija Jalagin, Nazan Maksudyan, Michael Marten, Heleen (L.) Murre-van den Berg, Inger Marie Okkenhaug, Idir Ouahes, Maria Chiara Rioli, Karène Sanchez Summerer, Bertrand Taithe, and Chantal Verdeil
The Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam appears in substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.
This Part 2020-4 of the Third Edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam will contain 50 new articles, reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship in the fields of Islamic Studies.

Abstract

The article analyzes four decrees from the shariʿa court in Ramallah (2010–13) that introduce procedural reforms regarding divorce, to inquire what role the court envisages for itself as Palestine prepares for statehood. The study finds that the legal maxim “Ṭalāq is in the hands of the husband,” ergo not the court, ensures that the court does not represent a real alternative to privatized justice, and thus fails to contribute to the state-building process. The court upholds its construction of men as sovereign, over whom the court has no jurisdiction in ṭalāq cases. It regards ṭalāq as a matter between the husband and God. Wives need intermediaries to obtain a unilateral divorce, but the court is reluctant to take on that role.

In: Hawwa
Author: Andrea B. Rugh

Abstract

The political impact of women from paramount families in the UAE over the last 200 years has been largely overlooked by scholars who tend to focus on male power and ignore the banality of women’s everyday influences. In fact, these women linked families, provided crucial information through their networks, restrained rulers, and promoted the career ambitions of their sons. Their ability to influence events in this early period suggests a power greater than that enjoyed by women appointed or elected to government positions today.

In: Hawwa

Abstract

In Islamic cities, the shariʿa determines to what extent women are allowed to attend public spaces. This article addresses women’s public attendance in Tehran, in both the classical and modern periods, and compares this with the prescriptions of the shariʿa. Our exploration of the Qurʾan, hadiths, the practices of religious scholars, and the descriptions of women’s status in travelogues suggests two distinct views, the first of which prohibits any kind of public appearance and considers home to be the best place for women. The second view holds that women can enter public spaces, but with some preconditions. Amidst the complexity of religion, society, culture, and politics, two shariʿa tenets have not changed significantly over time: veiling and sex segregation. Some female spheres outside the home have vanished as others have emerged. As a result of these shifts, the one notable change has been that women appear more frequently in public.

In: Hawwa
Portrait of an Eighth-Century Gentleman. Khālid ibn Ṣafwān in History and Literature by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila is an in-depth study of the eighth-century Umayyad and early Abbasid orator and courtier Khālid ibn Ṣafwān and the development of his character in adab literature. The book collects and translates all his sayings and stories about him culled from a wide range of Arabic and Persian texts.

In the book, Hämeen-Anttila studies the mechanisms of change in early narratives, showing how Arabic anecdotes developed and were modified by a series of authors during both their oral and literary transmission, changing a historical person into a literary character. Detailed chapters discuss Khālid in his various roles and analyse the literary techniques of the stories.
Author: Roel Sterckx

Abstract

This paper questions the conventional scholarly view that early Chinese economic thought simply conceived of farming and commerce as mutually opposing forces. It argues that during Western Han times there existed a significant distance between court rhetoric and economic reality and suggests that, in reading official discourse, one should be cautious not to emphasize the economic over the political. The paper re-examines a series of well-known court memorials and concludes that few questioned the ethics of how wealth should be generated as long as political control could be maintained and the Han court was on the receiving end of it.

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

Abstract

This article takes the understudied Ottoman city of Gaza in southern Palestine at the end of the nineteenth century as a case study to illustrate the new possibilities available today to researchers of the Middle East by combining the study of historical sources with GIS and other digital technologies. It first surveys the main sources available for the study of this city, some of which have only become available to researchers in recent years. It then describes the construction of a comprehensive database based on these sources and ways to run statistical analyses based on it. Finally, it presents the research results on maps and aerial photos connected to a GIS system. The case of Gaza can thus serve as a model for studying other cities in Ottoman Greater Syria and the Ottoman Empire in general.

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient