The liana genus Paullinia L. is one of the most speciose in the neotropics and is unusual in its diversity of stem macromorphologies and cambial conformations. These so-called “vascular cambial variants” are morphologically disparate, evolutionarily labile, and are implicated in injury repair and flexibility. In this study, we explore at the finer scale how wood anatomy translates into functions related to the climbing habit. We present the wood anatomy of Paullinia and discuss the functional implications of key anatomical features. Wood anatomy characters were surveyed for 21 Paullinia species through detailed anatomical study. Paullinia woods have dimorphic vessels, rays of two size classes, and both septate and non-septate fibers. Fibriform vessels, fusiform axial parenchyma, and elements morphologically intermediate between fibers and axial parenchyma were observed. Prismatic crystals are common in the axial and/or ray parenchyma, and laticifers are present in the cortex and/or the early-formed secondary phloem. Some features appear as unique to Paullinia or the Sapindaceae, such as the paucity of axial parenchyma and the abundance of starch storing fibers. Although many features are conserved across the genus, the Paullinia wood anatomy converges on several features of the liana-specific functional anatomy expressed across distantly related lianas, demonstrating an example of convergent evolution. Hence, the conservation of wood anatomy in Paullinia suggests a combination of phylogenetic constraint as a member of Sapindaceae and functional constraint from the liana habit.
The InsideWood web site is a freely accessible resource for research and teaching in wood anatomy and includes a multiple-entry key to aid in wood identification. Its database has over 9400 descriptions of fossil and modern woody dicots, representing over 10 000 species and 200 plant families, and is accompanied by over 50 000 images. The descriptions and the multiple key use the numbered features of the IAWA List of Hardwood Features for Wood Identification. The background for creating this web site, the rationale for how descriptions in the database were created, and the basics for using the multiple-entry key are given. The potentials of the ever-expanding and continuously edited database for microscopic wood identification are enormous. Yet many users experience problems when attempting the identification of an unknown sample. The main reasons for this are (1) erroneous or ambiguous interpretation of the IAWA Hardwood features; (2) incomplete coverage of the infraspecific wood anatomical variation in the literature for numerous entries in the InsideWood database. Against this background, we review all individual features of the IAWA Hardwood List and give their frequency in the database, and we suggest how to use their presence or absence in the multiple-entry key. All this is done with an awareness of the limitations of the IAWA Hardwood List and InsideWood. We give two examples of using InsideWood to try to identify an unknown wood. It cannot be overemphasized that it is necessary to consult reference materials (slides, literature descriptions) to verify the identification of an unknown.
Wood anatomy is one of the most important methods for timber identification. However, training wood anatomy experts is time-consuming, while at the same time the number of senior wood anatomists with broad taxonomic expertise is declining. Therefore, we want to explore how a more automated, computer-assisted approach can support accurate wood identification based on microscopic wood anatomy. For our exploratory research, we used an available image dataset that has been applied in several computer vision studies, consisting of 112 — mainly neotropical — tree species representing 20 images of transverse sections for each species. Our study aims to review existing computer vision methods and compare the success of species identification based on (1) several image classifiers based on manually adjusted texture features, and (2) a state-of-the-art approach for image classification based on deep learning, more specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In support of previous studies, a considerable increase of the correct identification is accomplished using deep learning, leading to an accuracy rate up to 95.6%. This remarkably high success rate highlights the fundamental potential of wood anatomy in species identification and motivates us to expand the existing database to an extensive, worldwide reference database with transverse and tangential microscopic images from the most traded timber species and their look-a-likes. This global reference database could serve as a valuable future tool for stakeholders involved in combatting illegal logging and would boost the societal value of wood anatomy along with its collections and experts.
Identifying wood species using wood anatomy is an important tool for various purposes. The traditionally used method is based on the macroscopic description of the physical and anatomical characteristics of the wood. This requires that the identifier has thorough technical knowledge about wood anatomy. A possible alternative to this task is to use intelligent systems capable of identifying species through an analysis of digital images. In this work, 21 species were used to generate a set of 2000 macroscopic images. These were produced with a smartphone under field conditions, from samples manually polished with knives. Texture characteristics obtained through a gray level co-occurrence matrix were used in developing classifiers based on support vector machines. The best model achieved a 97.7% accuracy. Our study concluded that the automated identification of species can be performed in the field in a practical, simple and precise way.
The effect of natural and artificial weathering on the anatomy of seven tropical hardwoods: Bangkirai (Shorea obtusa Wall.), Cumaru (Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Wild.), Cumaru Rosa (Dipteryx magnifica (Ducke) Ducke), Ipé (Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols.), Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L.), Kusia (Nauclea diderrichii Merill) and Massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), was studied. As a result of weathering some characteristic anatomical changes occurred: the weakening of connections between cell elements related to the degradation of the middle lamella; micro-cracks in cell walls; total degradation of parenchyma cells in xylem rays, or significant thinning of parenchyma cell walls and their extreme shrinkage; micro-cracks in the vicinity of xylem rays; significant transversal disruptions in libriform fibres; ablation of pit membranes in vessels and parenchyma cells; changes in the secondary wall of libriform fibres, for example, their defibrillation and weathering-degradation of the S1 layer; and spherical formations on the S3 layer of cell walls produced from condensing compounds of degraded lignin and hemicelluloses as well as thermo-mechanical wrinkling. The highest incidence of micro-cracks after both modes of weathering was found in the densest species; Cumaru, Ipé, and Massaranduba.
Climate change is expected to be heterogeneous across the world, with high impacts on the Himalayan ecosystems. There is a need to precisely document cambial phenology and wood formation in these regions to better understand climate-growth relationships and how trees face a warming climate. This study describes the dynamics of cambial phenology in pindrow fir (Abies pindrow) along its altitudinal gradient in the Himalaya. The stages of xylem phenology, and the duration and rate of wood formation were assessed from anatomical observations during the growing season from samples collected weekly from three sites at various altitudes (2392–2965 m a.s.l.) over two years. There were significant differences in the duration and rate of cell formation along the altitudinal gradient, which decreased at increasing altitudes. The growing season duration decreased by 5.2 and 3.7 days every 100 m of increase in altitude in 2014 and 2015, respectively, while the rate of cell formation decreased from 0.38 and 0.44 cells /day to 0.29 and 0.34 cells/day in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Cell production decreased from 63.3 and 67.0 cells to 38.3 and 45.2 cells with a decrease of 4.3 and 3.8 cells per 100 m increase in altitude in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The higher precipitation in 2015 increased the growth rate and resulted in a higher xylem production. Our findings give new insights into the dynamics of cambial phenology and help in better understanding of the potential impacts of climate change on tree growth and forest productivity of Himalayan forests.
We monitored six healthy dominant trees and six girdled Scots pine trees for two successive growing seasons (2014 and 2015) to investigate the seasonal dynamics, cambial activity, and morphology of the new xylem and phloem cells formed under environmental stress when girdling was applied during the dormant period (15 January 2014). Microcore (1.8 mm) samples were collected weekly using a Trephor tool above and below the girdling area, and weather data were measured on site. Drought stress in combination with girdling reduced the total number of differentiation days cell formation. In 2014, no significant differences in tracheid dimensions were observed between the girdled area and the control trees, while in 2015, the control trees showed significantly smaller cell wall thickness and radial dimensions of the latewood tracheids (LW) compared to 2014 and girdled trees had no occurrence of LW. Under stressful heat waves and prolonged periods of no precipitation, the trees tended to reduce the number of tracheids that were formed and exhibited smaller radial dimensions (narrower tree rings) to increase their hydraulic efficiency. Trees responded to limited water availability by forming intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs L) in the zone of the LW to overcome stressful conditions. Although xylem cell differentiation was affected by stressful conditions, no significant variability in phloem cell dimensions was observed. Thus, the phloem tissue was less sensitive to exogenous factors.