During the court journey to Edo (Tokyo) in 1826, the famous Japan explorer Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796–1866) met an old and wise mathematician, explorer, and ethnographer, Mogami Tokunai (1755–1836). Tokunai not only allowed Siebold to copy sensitive maps of disputed territories in Northern Japan, but also donated him a set of 45 Japanese wood samples, most of them decorated with paintings of the foliage of the trees from which the wood came, and later provided with interesting notes on their timber uses by the Ainu people in “Jezo” (or Ezo-chi, more or less equivalent with modern Hokkaido). Based mainly on earlier detailed studies by Prof. Takao Yamaguchi and Prof. Nobushige Kato, we will discuss this collection in the context of contemporary and later wood collections and its significance for forest products research in and beyond Japan. Other Japanese wood collections taken to the Netherlands by Siebold were used for the very first Ph.D. studies on wood anatomy in Leiden, and possibly also in Munich. Siebold’s most important disciple Ito Keisuke (or Ito “Keiske”, or “Keisuke Itoh”, 1803–1901) oversaw the decoration of a set of painted wood samples for teaching purposes in Tokyo in the 1880s. From the 1870s onwards, Japan was actively promoting its timber resources at World Expositions in Vienna, Philadelphia, and Paris. In the latter two venues with another special type of wood collection: sections mounted on the pages of a book, possibly inspired by a concept developed by the German forestry scientist Hermann Nördlinger.
Ya-Tri-Kasornmas and Ya-Tri-Phigut are polyherbal tea that have been listed as essential medicines in the National List of Essential Medicines, Thailand. They are widely consumed among the Thai populace. Thus, aqueous extracts of Ya-Tri-Karsornmas and Ya-Tri-Phigut polyherbal formulations were subjected to screening against oxidative stress promoters such as reactive oxygen species using in vitro antioxidant models. In addition, their capacities to lower lipid peroxidation were measured. Yield of the extract from Ya-Tri-Phigut polyherbal formulation was 7.22% (w/w), while that from Ya-Tri-Kasornmas was 5.50% (w/w) (P < 0.05). The study revealed that the aqueous extract of Ya-Tri-Phigut showed better antioxidant capacities to inhibit reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation activities than Ya-Tri-Karsornmas (P <0 .05). Thus, Ya-Tri-Phigut polyherbal tea may potentially serve as a rich nutraceutical agent to combat oxidative stress and health related diseases.
Human action has led to an increase in aridification, making water a progressively scarcer resource. In angiosperms, different species resolve this challenge in diverse ways, mainly through modifications of the xylem network, which is responsible for water efficiency and safety. Xerophytes generally show similar characteristics, but exceptions are rather frequent. One possible explanation for this lack of similarity among cohabiting species is that trade-offs and/or functional coordination between their organs occur and shape alternative survival strategies. Studying species that inhabit a common area can help to identify key traits that determine those diverse strategies and to predict which species might tolerate further environmental change.
We here examined the morpho-anatomical wood and bark traits of a group of species that live in a seasonally dry environment in Argentina. In a previous study, we described the leaf traits of these species and we thus aim to complement our findings and outline their strategies to manage water deficits. Our results show that there are different degrees of xeromorphism within this group. Clear xeromorphic traits, such as high vessel frequency and small diameter, were found in most species. However, some presented traits that were appropriate for mesic environments. An overview of leaf and wood traits indicates that the absence of a typical xeric characteristic in the wood might be compensated by the presence of a xeric leaf trait, and vice versa. Collectively, these trait combinations allow these species to survive in dry conditions and could influence their tolerance to increasing aridity.
The current study was intended to examine the difference in the phytochemical and antioxidant profile of nine Indigofera species. With this aim, the species were assessed for total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH free radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating activity, phosphomolybdenum reducing power, deoxyribose degradation, β-carotene bleaching, nitric oxide scavenging, and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids ranged from 1.33 to 22.5 mg TAE/g plant material and 0.47 to 5.02 mg QE/g plant material respectively in the various species, while the antioxidant activity as tested with different antioxidant test models varied with the species studied as well as with the solvents used for the extraction. Interestingly, all the tested extracts demonstrated considerable free radical scavenging activity, moreover, I. hirsuta, I. glandulosa, I. linnaei, I. hochstetteri, I. linifolia, and I. trita were found to be the most effective among the species studied. The results indicated the significant differences in phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity among the species. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis exhibited a significant correlation of phenolics and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity.
Cassia auriculata is an Ayurvedic medicinal herb, traditionally indicated for diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Several works have demonstrated its antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity in vivo and in vitro. Nevertheless, only a few works have investigated its phytochemical composition, and specifically, the polyphenolic composition of the various plant parts that are traditionally used. In this work, the polyphenolic composition of C. auriculata leaves, flowers and flower buds were evaluated using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Our results demonstrated the polyphenolic profile of C. auriculata plant parts. A total of five benzoic acids, four hydroxycinnamic acids, three flavonoids and two other phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Our results show that in C. auriculata leaves, flavonoids were most abundant (4204 µg/g DW), while in flowers benzoic acids were the most prominent (3924 µg/g DW). Total benzoic acid contents ranged from 1580 to 3924 µg/g DW in leaf and flower, respectively. Hydroxycinnamic acids ranged from 404 µg/g DW in flower buds to 2623 µg/g DW in leaves. Flavonoids showed the highest contents in leaves, while the lowest levels were observed in flowers (2626 µg/g DW). The meaning of the results is discussed in light of the bioactivities of phenolic compounds, concomitant with C. auriculata reported medicinal bioactivities. To our knowledge, this is the first work to identify and quantify polyphenolic compounds in flower and bud of C. auriculata.
COVID-19 is the current health challenge across the world. It originated in Wuhan, China, and has now spread to more than 180 countries. It is a zoonotic disease which spreads through droplets. The severity of disease is likely to end with the discovery of vaccines only. Researchers are repurposing drugs to fill the gap between COVID-19 and vaccine designing. Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are preferred but they exhibit side effects. We have screened pentagalloylglucose present in Terminalia chebula which can prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell. In this study, we have taken 8 active phytochemicals of Terminalia chebula which include gallic acid, chebulic acid, chebulanin, neochebulinic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and pentagalloyglucose against spike proteins (S1 and S2), Replicase Polyprotein, 3C-like protease (3CL pro), Papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2. HADDOCK online server, Discovery Studio Visualizer and PyRx Vina tools were used to screen the potential component from T. chebula. It was analysed that pentagalloylglucose can be a better phytochemical against spike protein S1 similar to hemagglutinin of influenza virus. This phytochemical can be further used as a drug against SARS-CoV-2.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a serious health concern across the globe. Despite its non-fatal character, it accounts for affecting millions of people across the world and is deemed responsible to affect their quality of life and put a significant economic burden. In the current study, we aimed to assess the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of ellipticine (ETC) against AR using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic rhinitis. The ETC was administered to mice via intra-peritoneal route after suspending in 5% CMC after sensitization by OVA. Results of the study suggested that ETC causes a significant reduction the nose rubs as compared to disease control. A significant reduction in the serum level of histamine, IgG1, TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-2, and IL-6 was found in ETC treated group in a dose-dependent manner as compared to OVA challenged mice. It also reduces eosinophils in BALF of AR mice. In western blot analysis, the expression of aberrantly activated COX-2 and NF-ĸB found significantly reduced in ETC treated group due to inhibition of TLR-4 and caspase-1 as compared to disease-control mice. ETC showed significant interaction with residues of the active site of COX-2 and NF-ĸB. Collectively, our results indicated that ETC can be used to improve present therapeutic strategies against AR.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious inflammatory condition associated with severe itching and persistent eczematous lesion. Therefore, the present study was intended to scrutinize the beneficial effect of Luteolin (LT) on the atopic dermatitis murine model. The effect of LT was investigated on the various parameters, such as oxidative stress and inflammation after induction of AD. The serum level of IgE, and cells of the WBC family (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and total WBC) and histopathological analysis of skin tissue were also examined to confirm the effect of LT. Results of the study suggested that LT significantly inhibited the elevated IgE level together with improvement in injured skin tissue architecture. It also reduces oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, and GSH) and inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A) as evidenced by ELISA analysis. The level of examined WBC family cells was found reduced significantly as compared to the AD model group. In western blot analysis, LT showed significant down-regulation of NF-ĸB and TLR-4. Collectively, our results suggest that LT can effectively reverse the effect of atopic dermatitis via improving immunological response.
Nature has provided man with a bountiful supply of components that have the potential to improve the life of man on earth. Among the foremost widely recognized in this category are medicinal plants. Medicinal plants have been a rich source of therapeutic compounds used in various traditional medicines worldwide for thousands of years, due to the presence of active phytocomponents, which help in preventing various diseases. The betel (Piper betle L.) is that the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which is taken into account a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. Piper betle leaves have a number of bioactivities and are utilized in traditional medicinal systems. Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. Unopened flowering buds are used as a spice in food preparations all over the world. Eugenol is present abundantly in both Piper betle leaves and Syzygium aromaticum flowers. In the splendid of the above, we thought it significant to aggregate the exceptional review of writing on Piper betle, Syzygium aromaticum and their bioactive component eugenol, covering its, chemical constituents, therapeutic role and medicinal uses.
Sapindaceae lianas are remarkable for the diversity of cambial variants found in their stems. One of the family’s exclusive cambial variant is the divided vascular cylinder, which occurs in eight species of the genus Serjania. This cambial variant is marked by 5 peripheral vascular cylinders around a large pith. We performed a comparative developmental analysis, integrating traditional plant anatomy techniques with high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography to investigate the structure and development of the stems of three species with divided vascular cylinder. Our observations showed that the initial stages of stem development were similar to those described in the literature, however, on later developmental stages a central vascular cylinder appears in all species. The ontogeny of these stems are marked by three main processes: (i) dissection of vascular tissue from the peripheral vascular cylinders; (ii) development of new cambial arcs through the redifferentiation of pith cells; and (iii) recruitment of cambial cells from the inner portions of the vascular cambium of the peripheral vascular cylinders, forming a novel central vascular cylinder where the pith was, surrounded by five initial peripheral cylinders. As an ulterior developmental stage, some older stems also develop neoformations and connections between the different vascular cylinders. While our findings support previous descriptions of divided vascular cylinders, this is the first study illustrating the formation of the central vascular cylinder in this cambial variant. Our observations further corroborate that Serjania is the lineage with the highest and some of the most complex forms of cambial variants among all vascular plants.