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Author: Jan Rüdiger
Polygyny, in Europe? The grand narrative of Western history is the development of monogamous marriage, culminating in the central Middle Ages. Other kinds of relationships have often, perhaps too lightly, been dismissed as ‘just lust’. In this book, Jan Rüdiger investigates the plurality of man-woman relationships in medieval Scandinavia and analyses the social and political ‘uses’ of elite polygyny.
By way of comparison the findings from the North are then applied to England, France, and the Iberian Peninsula, in order to propose a new overall image of elite polygyny, including marriage, in the medieval West.
Author: Bernd Roling
From a modern point of view, the four volumes of the Atlantica of Olaus Rudbeck the elder (1630-1702) seem to be not only the climax of Gothicism, but a key example of an early modern polymath. In Odins Imperium Bernd Roling reconstructs Rudbeck’s immense influence at Scandinavian universities, the debates he provoked, his manifold reception in early modern academic culture and the role Rudbeckianism played as paradigm of science until the Swedish romanticism of the 19th century. Taking into account all branches of science, Bernd Roling illustrates in detail Rudbeck’s majestic impact on antiquarianism, national mythology, and also on religious sciences and linguistics, but also documents the massive criticism the scholar from Uppsala received almost immediately.
Dalir and the Eyjafjörður region c.870-c.1265
Author: Chris Callow
Chris Callow’s Landscape, Tradition and Power critically examines the evidence for socio-political developments in medieval Iceland during the so-called Commonwealth period. The book compares regions in the west and north-east of Iceland because these regions had differing human and physical geographies, and contrasting levels of surviving written evidence. Callow sets out the likely economies and institutional frameworks in which political action took place. He then examines different forms of evidence – the Contemporary sagas, Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements), and Sagas of Icelanders – considering how each describes different periods of the Commonwealth present political power. Among its conclusions the book emphasises stasis over change and the need to appreciate the nuances and purposes of Iceland’s historicising sagas.
Arctic Lessons Learnt for the Regulation and Management of Tourism in the Antarctic
Author: Antje Neumann
Antarctica’s wilderness values, even though specifically recognized by the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty, are rarely considered in practice. This deficiency is especially apparent with regard to a more and more increasing human footprint caused, among others, by a growing number of tourists visiting the region and conducting a broad variety of activities.
On the basis of a detailed study of three Arctic wilderness areas – the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Archipelago of Svalbard (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska, United States) – as well as the relevant policies and legislation in these countries, Antje Neumann identifies numerous ‘lessons learnt’ that can serve as suggestions for improving the protection of wilderness in Antarctica.
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions
Author: Antje Neumann

Abstracts of the Chapters

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this book. It first establishes the main research question, several sub-questions, as well as the objective of this research. It further defines the scope, including definitions of the Antarctic and the Arctic region on which the study is based. In this context, it also points to limitations that had been necessary in order to make the research feasible. The chapter also explains the specific methodology used in this study. In this respect, its central components are the construction of a working approach towards defining the term ‘wilderness’ based on four major qualities, the creation of a working approach towards defining the term ‘tourism’ built on four criteria that can be identified as the most pressing issues in relation to the impact of tourism and non-governmental activities on the wilderness of Antarctica, and the selection of the three case studies from the Arctic region based on comparability and certain quality criteria. The chapter concludes with an outline of the main structure.

Chapter 2 deals in a general way with the wilderness concept. In this respect, it elaborates on central aspects of the concept, how it has evolved and developed over time, its constraints and critical implications. It also points out the relevance of the wilderness concept to the Polar Regions. Specifically, the chapter addresses the evolvement of early wilderness movements and first wilderness designations, both by outlining national as well as international processes and by providing specific examples from the Polar Regions. It also describes the development of wilderness protection law and policy at the national and the international levels. In terms of critical positions towards the wilderness concept, the chapter focuses on the criticism of the “exclusiveness”, mainly in form of the exclusion of indigenous and other local people from the land targeted for area protection and from traditional land use practices.

Chapter 3 elaborates on the protection of wilderness in the Antarctic. It first addresses main features of Antarctica’s wilderness, including related ideas and perceptions. It analyses the wilderness character of Antarctica and presents an overview of the development of tourism in the region. In a main part, the chapter describes how the relevant legal provisions have evolved under the Antarctic Treaty System, draws an outline of the present regulatory system – with a focus on the role of wilderness protection in the objective and general principles as well as in the context of area protection and Environmental Impact Assessment – and looks at the main challenges of wilderness protection in terms of Antarctic tourism. In respect of the latter, a specification is made towards the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide the Arctic case studies for this research, composed of the Hammastunturi Wilderness Reserve (Finland), the Svalbard archipelago (Norway) and the Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Based on a comparable structure, they give an outline of the general characteristics relevant for wilderness, the history of human settlement in the area and the use of its natural resources, and the respective general legal framework. Similar to the Antarctic Chapter, the chapters also address ideas and perceptions of wilderness and analyse the wilderness qualities in relation to each of the area. Following this, the development of tourism is described in respect of each case study area while specific attention is drawn on regional and local particularities. The fourth section of the chapters is divided into two main parts: the first part deals with the protection of wilderness in the case study area under the relevant national and regional policies and the respective individual legal framework, and the second elaborates on the specific regulatory measures towards tourism activities. Here again, a focus is set on the increasing number of tourists, the increasing number of touristic sites and frequency of visitation, the diversification of tourism activities, and the establishment of infrastructure for tourism purposes.

Chapter 7, the final chapter of this book, intends to answer the overall research question “To what extent can the concept of protecting Antarctic wilderness constitute a basis for regulating tourism and other non-governmental activities in Antarctica, taking particular notice of experiences and ‘lessons learnt’ in other wilderness areas in the Arctic?”. It also provides a specific answer to question “What could the atcm learn from Arctic experiences?”. In doing so, it presents, among others, a catalogue of general and specific measures, gained from the Artic case study areas, that could be discussed in relation to Antarctica in order to further regulate tourism and other non-governmental activities. Moreover, it stresses the prerequisite most important for Antarctic decision-making towards explicit wilderness protection, namely the achievement of a commonly agreed approach towards the characteristics or qualities of wilderness. The chapter concludes with a set of questions and issues that require further research or that could be addressed in future.

In: Wilderness Protection in Polar Regions