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Volume Editor: Jayaluxmi Naidoo
Within the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, we are living in a technologically advanced society, and students and teacher educators need to be adequately prepared to succeed within this progressive society. Teaching and Learning for the 21st Century: Embracing the Fourth Industrial Revolution is an edited volume that situates teaching and learning for the 21st century within diverse contexts globally so that teacher educators could make sense of their professional knowledge, curriculum, classroom contexts and diverse students.

This book intends to frame and explore the different responsive and innovative pedagogies that are used for embracing the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Additionally, it aims to clarify some key concepts (for example blended learning, coding, digital, E-Learning, Internet, M-Learning, simulation and tools) in addition to other issues that surround teaching and learning for the 21st century. The book also exemplifies authentic case studies located within global contexts focusing on: the 21st-century curriculum, the 21st-century classroom environment, teachers in the 21st century and students in the 21st century.

Contributors from around the world (Australia, Indonesia, Mauritius, South Africa, Tanzania and the United States of America) share their innovations in education by interrogating research experiences and examples of good practice.

From March 2020 in Australia, the covid-19 pandemic resulted in regulations for social distancing, which meant that students were homeschooled. Social distancing exponentially increased the exposure of most young children to digital technology such as touchscreens (iPads) and digital flip cameras. This study focuses on two seven-year-old children who maintain their friendship during covid-19 by imaginary performances and playing virtual games. A cultural–historical approach is used in the study to analyze the children’s experience as they connect through virtual worlds and build imaginary spaces, contributing to sustaining their relationship during challenging times. Findings indicate that the children built a collective social situation of development integrating sophisticated imaginary, real and virtual worlds. The children’s perspective – their motive orientations and intentions towards a new social situation provided new opportunities for learning in a virtual imaginary world. The combination of a real, an imaginary and a virtual world supported the children to experience a range of emotions including joyous moments, empathy and attunement as they encouraged each other to participate.

In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
Author: Diana Amundsen


This article explores whether digital communication technologies have applicability in reducing social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Issues of social isolation and loneliness among older adults are important as they are identified risk factors for mortality, disability, cognitive ability, depression and poor wellbeing. This problem is more urgent due to the Covid-19 pandemic which has required older adults to physically and socially distance from family, friends, neighbours, communities and health services. In the context of the present Covid-19 pandemic, this article is of interest to educators, social workers, community service providers, health service practitioners, gerontological scholars involved in preparing older adult communities for present and future traumatic events resulting in socially isolating experiences. The literature identified that use of technology to promote social connection and enhance wellbeing for older adults can be an effective intervention, but more information is needed as to what aspects of such interventions make them effective. This research advocates for improvement in wellbeing and social connectedness of older adults through consideration of interventions through a model for flourishing and wellbeing. The research contributes to our growing understanding of how to change the way we think, feel and act towards older adults, ageing and flourishing.

In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy


covid-19 has changed the way we sing in choirs and has seen the extraordinary uptake of Zoom as a video chat platform across society. This is a reflective tale of four choirs members and their insights into how they improvised with traditional choir singing in a Zoom space. It consideres how zoom pedagogies allowed them to bridge social isolation during the pandemic. It includes the voices of the conductor; music teacher/technician; the voice of a media savvy artist choir member and finally the voice of a singing visual educator. The article embeds Deleuzoguattarian thinking. It draws on the concepts of the machinic assemblage and becoming as choir participants who embraced Zoom to facilitate song. Singing in a zoom virtual choir brings forth a burgeoning new relational way of being. To find ways to sing and imagine life and self without physical, temporal and spatial borders.

In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy


covid-19 is an omnipresent feature of 2020, both globally and within Australia. For university students, a consequence of this has been the shift from on-campus to online delivery. Exploring these visual realities for lecturers and students, this article engages in Bakhtinian dialogism; a dialogic interaction that is born between peoples searching for meaning (). To do so, the authors engaged with and responded to students’ survey data whom they lecture and coordinate. Although the survey had limited responses, it enabled the authors to dialogue about received knowledge (istina) from students and contemplate this in relation to the authors’ own perspectives and experiences (pravda). Through this engagement, they suggest the importance of visually imbued emotive connectivity and dialogic relational care within web-conferencing, as well as didactic lecturing as valid forms of visual engagement.

In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
This diverse and global collection of scholars, educators, and activists presents a panorama of perspectives on media education and democracy in a digital age. Drawing upon projects in both the formal and non-formal education spheres, the authors contribute towards conceptualizing, developing, cultivating, building and elaborating a more respectful, robust and critically-engaged democracy. Given the challenges our world faces, it may seem that small projects, programs and initiatives offer just a salve to broader social and political dynamics but these are the types of contestatory spaces, openings and initiatives that enable participatory democracy. This book provides a space for experimentation and dialogue, and a platform for projects and initiatives that challenge or supplement the learning offered by traditional forms of education. The Foreword is written by Divina Frau-Meigs (Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris) and the Postscript by Roberto Apirici and David García Marín (UNED, Madrid).

Contributors are: Roberto Aparici, Adelina Calvo Salvador, Paul R. Carr, Colin Chasi, Sandra L. Cuervo Sanchez, Laura D’Olimpio, Milena Droumeva, Elia Fernández-Diaz, Ellen Field, Michael Forsman, Divina Frau-Meigs, Aquilina Fueyo Gutiérrez, David García-Marín, Tania Goitandia Moore, José Gutiérrez-Pérez, Ignacio Haya Salmón, Bruno Salvador Hernández Levi, Michael Hoechsmann, Jennifer Jenson, Maria Korpijaakko, Sirkku Kotilainen, Emil Marmol, María Dolores Olvera-Lobo, Tania Ouariachi, Mari Pienimäki, Anna Renfors, Ylva Rodney-Gumede, Carlos Rodríguez-Hoyos, Mar Rodríguez-Romero, Tafadzwa Rugoho, Juha Suoranta, Gina Thésée, Robyn M. Tierney, Robert C. Williams and María Luisa Zorrilla Abascal.
In: Education for Democracy 2.0


The blog is dead?! Long live the blog!

Much digital ink has been spilled lamenting the demise of the web log in favor of more visible social media platforms like Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram. In this chapter, I argue that in a 21st century information-rich media environment, blogs as classroom tools are more useful than ever before. I have been using blogs in my media and communications classrooms since they rose to prominence at the turn of the millennium. While I have since incorporated social media platforms, even teaching courses on social media theory and practice, I find myself returning to blogs as a “hub” of teaching and learning with students. Why? I hope to explore the answer to that question in this chapter. In the spirit of Buzzfeed-esque TOP 10 clickbait, here are eleven reasons why blogging matters more than ever for 21st century teaching and learning:

1. blogs are FREE and accessible

2. blogs are easy to create

3. blogs are easy to edit and update

4. blogs are information-rich multimedia learning platforms

5. blogs are easily networked

6. blogs help organize teams

7. blogs have (near) universal accessibility

8. blogs allow student authorship

9. blogs are useful reflective tools

10. blogs offer participatory conversational platforms

11. blogs create public and visible accountability for both students and teachers

I unpack this “top 11” list, exploring elements of blogging while tying the list to larger themes in the book. Blogging offers a wide array of pedagogical opportunities for teachers and students alike. This chapter explores the ways in which blogging can support innovative learning approaches, which include: flipped classrooms, multimedia production, team project research and design, and reflective practice.

In: Education for Democracy 2.0


While a central focus of media literacy 1.0 was teaching and learning about the impact of marketing on children and youth, the new literacies of Web 2.0 have distracted us from this central purpose in favour of focusing on social media in general, and specific social media platforms in particular. We contend that utilitarian and production-oriented exigencies of media literacy 2.0 have displaced core analytical assumptions of media literacy 1.0 and this chapter is an attempt to resolve this divide. To facilitate a critical media literacy approach to social media, we propose a framework that facilitates an analysis of the content of social media in order to unravel the marketing models employed. Despite common perspectives that celebrate the ease of media production and participation in social networks, a feature that reflects their democratic and open nature, we believe that critical media literacy continues to require the capacity to identify and analyze one of its less readily apparent dimensions: its commercial orientation. We propose an open framework, adapted to each teaching and learning context involving social media and social networks, focusing on four main dimensions: a formal analysis of the social network structure and its privacy policy; an evaluation of the main models of audience segmentation used by each network; a critical review of specific media content; and an analysis of strategies used to promote personalization and audience immersion in the new marketing models. In short, we believe that a critical media literacy for social media and social networks requires more than an instrumental view of functionalities and affordances, but should involve the development of more complex analyses of the commercial implications of social media and the management of user generated data.

In: Education for Democracy 2.0
Author: Michael Forsman


Since the National Agency for Education added “Digital competence” as a keyword and directive to the Swedish K12 Curricula (lgr11) in 2016, it has been the word on the lips of those involved in the business of educating children as a future workforce, and as both citizens and human beings (cf. Biesta). My approach to is less optimistic. Instead, it is more in line with Selwyn and Facer’s (2013, p. 6) notion of “critical studies of educational technology,” where the goal is to “open the black box of technology” (p. 10), to expose underlying political and economic logics and dominating narratives where digital technology is used as a “proxy signifier” for “the future” (p. 11). I carry out a conceptual analysis of digital competence along with its ideological and temporal inclinations. This analysis is influenced by a foucauldian discussion of governance as well as the German historian Reinhart Koselleck’s notion of “conceptual hermeneutics” and temporal phenomenology, the aim being to decode how the agency of teachers is constructed through a policy-driven and individualistic futurology, based on the neoliberal assumption that educational technology is the solution to current problems in schools ().

In: Education for Democracy 2.0