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This book explores how narratives are deeply embodied, engaging heart, soul, as well as mind, through varying adult learner perspectives. Biographical research is not an isolated, individual, solipsistic endeavor but shaped by larger ecological interactions – in families, schools, universities, communities, societies, and networks – that can create or destroy hope.

Telling or listening to life stories celebrates complexity, messiness, and the rich potential of learning lives. The narratives in this book highlight the rapid disruption of sustainable ecologies, not only ‘natural’, physical, and biological, but also psychological, economic, relational, political, educational, cultural, and ethical. Yet, despite living in a precarious, and often frightening, liquid world, biographical research can both chronicle and illuminate how resources of hope are created in deeper, aesthetically satisfying ways. Biographical research offers insights, and even signposts, to understand and transcend the darker side of the human condition, alongside its inspirations.

Discourses, Dialogue and Diversity in Biographical Research aims to generate insight into people’s fears and anxieties but also their capacity to 'keep on keeping on' and to challenge forces that would diminish their and all our humanity. It provides a sustainable approach to creating sufficient hope in individuals and communities by showing how building meaningful dialogue, grounded in social justice, can create good enough experiences of togetherness across difference. The book illuminates what amounts to an ecology of life, learning and human flourishing in a sometimes tortured, fractious, fragmented, and fragile world, yet one still offering rich resources of hope.
This book addresses the conceptualization and practice of Indigenous research methodologies especially in Sámi and North European academic contexts. It examines the meaning of Sámi research and research methodologies, practical levels of doing Indigenous research today in different contexts, as well as global debates in Indigenous research. The contributors present place-specific and relational Sámi research approaches as well as reciprocal methodological choices in Indigenous research in North-South relationships. This edited volume is a result of a research collaboration in four countries where Sámi people live. By taking the readers to diverse local discussions, the collection emphasizes communal responsibility and care as a key in doing Indigenous research.

Contributors are: Rauni Äärelä-Vihriälä, Hanna Guttorm, Lea Kantonen, Pigga Keskitalo, Ilona Kivinen, Britt Kramvig, Petter Morottaja, Eljas Niskanen, Torjer Olsen, Marja-Liisa Olthuis, Hanna Outakoski, Attila Paksi, Jelena Porsanger, Aili Pyhälä, Rauna Rahko-Ravantti, Torkel Rasmussen, Erika Katjaana Sarivaara, Irja Seurujärvi-Kari, Trond Trosterud and Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen.
This volume addresses a gap in previous research and explores Nordic textbooks chronologically and empirically from the Protestant Reformation to our present time. The chapters are written by scholars from universities in Finland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, countries that distinguish themselves with a rich tradition of textbook research. The authors represent different academic traditions and use a wide range of scholarly methods and perspectives. The overall objective is to highlight how textbooks reflect national cultural politics and legislation. The various chapters cast light on how textbooks are integrated in national politics and demonstrate how they have contributed to nation-building and to strengthening the nations’ core values and other major political projects.

Contributors are: Karl Christian Alvestad, Norunn Askeland, Kjell Lars Berge, Peter Bernhardsson, Kerstin Bornholdt, Mads B. Claudi, Henrik Edgren, Morten Fink-Jensen, Stig Toke Gissel, Thomas Illum Hansen, Pirjo Hiidenmaa, Marthe Hommerstad, Axel Hörstedt, Kari-Anne Jørgensen-Vittersø, Tujia Laine, Esbjörn Larsson, Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund, Christina Matthiesen, Eva Maagerø, Tuva Skjelbred Nodeland, Kari H. Nordberg, Merethe Roos, Henriette Hogga Siljan, Johan Laurits Tønnesson and Janne Varjo.
Author: Merethe Roos

Abstract

This chapter will shed light upon two catechisms from late 18th century Denmark, written by Balthasar Münter and Johann Andreas Cramer. Münter’s catechism was written under the political reign of Ove Høegh-Guldberg, while Cramer’s work was introduced during Andreas Peter Bernstorff’s government. Høegh-Guldberg and Bernstorff carried out different views on theological matters. The chapter will address how control, representation, and participation are expounded differently in these works, and argue that the differences are related to the political contexts under which the texts were written.

In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020

Abstract

Though a number of Swedish grammar schools had been offering science education during the 18th century, by the early 19th century science was still missing in the official curriculum. Introducing science, primarily botany, as a school subject became a central feature in the debates on the need of modernising public education by a broadened and more differentiated curriculum. The chapter discusses some of the main arguments by proponents of science education, such as its practical usefulness and cultivating effects on pupils, but also the objections raised by more conservative voices. While practical usefulness might have been a sufficient cause for local schools to offer botanic instruction, it was not necessarily enough to persuade the national opinion to amend school ordinances. An interesting observation is how science in the debates was adapted to dominant ideas of grammar schools to justify its place, in a way that modern day sciences does not need.

In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020

Abstract

In both the Nordic countries and Germany, the school subject physical education (PE) was introduced in the middle of the nineteenth century. PE was closely linked to states’ interests in forming future soldiers and obedient citizens (; , pp. 64–69; ; ). For the Nordic countries, Swedish Ling gymnastics became a dominant movement system. Ling gymnastics stressed collective, synchronised movements commanded by a centrally positioned gymnastics instructor. After World War I, both in Germany and the Nordic countries, “reform” pedagogy emerged, a major aim of which was to unfold children’s individual innate potentials. Reform pedagogy was a clear break with military drill and training in schools. In the Interwar Years, new movement systems, such as rhythmic gymnastics and a reformed version of Ling gymnastics, introduced dynamical exercises. Sports entered schools as a grassroots movement leveraged for different political goals: building a nation, a democratic society and a totalitarian state. These new movement forms came with differentiated teachers’ roles – from commanding masses to unfolding individual potentials and enabling cooperative participation.

In my chapter, I will depict the changes of the PE curriculum in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Germany in the Interwar Years. I added Germany to the list of Nordic countries because of both its closeness and difference: Educators in the Nordic countries were well-informed about reform pedagogical ideas and reform schools in Germany and adapted many of their ideas to the Nordic context. The movement traditions were distinctively different, however.

Here, I will focus on the following questions:

  1. Who is “in charge of” and controls bodily movements: the trainer or gymnastics instructor or the community of performers?
  2. What were the major goals of state-authorised PE curricula: to form diligent community members, foster active citizenship, or develop independent individuals?
In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020
Author: Mads B. Claudi

Abstract

The chapter probes into the relationship between politics and pedagogics, asking how Norwegian literary history textbooks reflect shifting political and ideological currents through the 20th century. Analysing how the roles, functions and images of the author change throughout the century, the chapter explores how the emergence of Norwegian social democracy impacts on a pedagogic genre highly associated with the establishing and maintaining of a national identity. In short, the prevailing role of the author changes from being a privileged leader for the people to being its proxy. Correspondingly, there is a shift in the legitimisation of the study of literature: whereas the earlier literary histories ideologically and rhetorically are based on an aristocratic notion of educational admiration, the rhetoric of the later accounts centres around a social democratic idea of popular representation. Both shifts largely coincides with the massive restructuring and unification of the Norwegian school system in the 1970s.

In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020
In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020
In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020
In: Exploring Textbooks and Cultural Change in Nordic Education 1536–2020