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This book argues that, notwithstanding problems encountered on the ground in some situations, African governments, peoples, and institutions have firmly endorsed the universality of human rights as defined in international human rights law. It explores the endorsement of the values of human dignity, equality, respect, and democratic governance reflected by their participation in the United Nations, the African Union, and in sub-regional organizations, as well as their adoption of stunning Democracy Charters. The African Commission and Court of Human Rights have repeatedly affirmed the universality of human rights, as have spearhead institutions such as the Constitutional Court of South Africa. The volume concludes that the fifty-four African States in the United Nations stand proudly in support of universal human rights as defined in international and African human rights law.
The 14th thematic volume of International Development Policy provides perspectives through case studies from the global Souths focusing on the challenges and opportunities of governing migration on the subnational, national, regional and international levels. Bringing together some thirty authors from Africa, Latin America and Asia, the book explores existing and new policies and frameworks in terms of their successes and best practices, and looks at them through the lens of additional challenges, such as those brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the rise of nationalisms and an increase in xenophobia. The chapters also take the ‘5 Ps’ approach to sustainable development (people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships) and assess how migration policies serve sustainable development in a rapidly evolving context.
Author: Niovi Vavoula
In this book, Niovi Vavoula examines the privacy challenges raised by the establishment, operation and reconfiguration of EU-wide information systems that store personal data, including biometrics, of different categories of third-country nationals that may be used for various immigration related and law enforcement purposes. The monograph analyses both the currently operational databases – Schengen Information System (SIS), Visa Information System (VIS) and Eurodac – and forthcoming systems – Entry/Exit System (EES), European Travel Information and Authorisation Systems (ETIAS) and European Criminal Record Information System for Third-Country Nationals (ECRIS-TCN) – as well as their future interoperability. To assess the compatibility of legal instruments governing information systems and their interoperability with the right to respect for private life, the author calls for the centrality of privacy as the appropriate lens through which instruments involving the processing of personal data should be viewed and offers a typology of privacy standards based on relevant case law by the Strasbourg and Luxemburg Courts.
"This is a ground-breaking book, the first comprehensive analysis of the growing interrelationship between immigration law and privacy law. The book is essential reading for academics, policy makers and legal practitioners working in these fields, and will lead in informing the debate on the relationship between security and human rights in Europe. Rigorous and ambitious, the book will become a reference point in the field."
Professor Valsamis Mitsilegas, Professor of Criminal Law and Global Security, Queen Mary and Westfield School of Law, London.
An Ethnomethodological Investigation into the Production and Assessment of Legal Targeting
The book provides an empirical account of the laws that regulate today’s scenes of armed conflict by looking into the details of one particular military incident and its ex-post legal accounting. Empirically, the book focuses on a highly controversial airstrike in Afghanistan (2009), in which large numbers of civilians were identified as combatants and killed as such. The incident lends itself to reflect upon the relation between the violation of procedural rules and the violation of the international laws of armed conflict. The ethnomethodological Law-in-Action research investigates the practical details of legal accountability and explores how the event shaped and specified the legally required protection of civilians in armed conflict. Exploring the collaborative and systematic work that goes into the ‘application of law’ at the military and the judiciary site, the study develops an empirical respecification of the concept of ‘juridification of warfare’.
Volume Editors: Jan Jakob Bornheim and Christian Riffel
The New Zealand Yearbook of International Law is an annual, internationally refereed publication intended to stand as a reference point for legal materials and critical commentary on issues of international law. The Yearbook also serves as a valuable tool in the determination of trends, state practice and policies in the development of international law in New Zealand, the Pacific region, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica and to generate scholarship in those fields. In this regard the Yearbook contains an annual ‘Year-in-Review’ of developments in international law of particular interest to New Zealand as well as a dedicated section on the South Pacific.

This Yearbook covers the period 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019.
The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Second Revised Edition
Author: Lauri Mälksoo
This volume, now in its second and revised edition, deals with the legal status of the three Baltic States - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - as a consequence of the illegality of the Soviet annexation in 1940-1991. It offers a detailed historical overview of the Soviet takeover of the Baltic States in 1939/1940 and analysis of international law as it was in force, also regionally and bilaterally, at the time. It examines the role of the continuity of the diplomatic representations of the Baltic States and other manifestations of the Western non-recognition of the Soviet annexation. Moreover, the book examines the nature of the restoration of the Baltic States in 1991 based on their State continuity claim. It also studies in detail questions such as borders, citizenship and reparation claims, and asks to what extent State continuity could or could not be restored in practice. Compared to the first edition, the text has been updated (for example, on developments regarding border treaties) but also more background references have been added on the history of the Baltic States, Soviet and post-Soviet Russian responses to the continuity claim of the Baltic States, etc. The book interprets the Soviet annexation and Baltic States' continuity case against the wider backdrop of developments in international law in the 20th century and argues that the outcome reflected important normative developments in international law, away from mere effectivity. The case of the Baltic States will be relevant for current and future cases of illegal annexation, following the threat and use of military force prohibited under international law.
Author: Iryna Bogdanova
The Open Access publication of this book has been published with the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Are unilateral economic sanctions legal under public international law? How do they relate to the existing international legal principles and norms? Can unilateral economic sanctions imposed to redress grave human rights violations be subjected to the same legal contestations as other unilateral sanctions? What potential contribution can the recently formulated doctrine of Common Concern of Humankind make by introducing substantive and procedural prerequisites to legitimise unilateral human rights sanctions? Unilateral Sanctions in International Law and the Enforcement of Human Rights by Iryna Bogdanova addresses these complex questions while taking account of the burgeoning state practice of employing unilateral economic sanctions.