Korean Nonprofit/Non-Government Sector Research, Sung-Ju Kim and Jin-Kyung Jung review the various aspects of the nonprofit sector in South Korea. The authors discuss the historical progress of the South Korean nonprofit sector; the internal and external environments of the nonprofit sector; its legal aspects and financial resources; collaboration among nonprofit, for-profit, and government agencies; and current challenges for the nonprofit sector in South Korea.
The fifteen studies presented in
Confucian Academies in East Asia offer insight into the history and legacy of these unique institutions of knowledge and education. The contributions analyze origins, spread and development of Confucian academies across China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan from multiple perspectives. This edited volume is one of the first attempts to understand Confucian academies as a complex transnational, intellectual, and cultural phenomena that played an essential role in various areas of East Asian education, philosophy, religious practice, local economy, print industry, and even archery. The broad chronological range of essays allows it to demonstrate the role of Confucian academies as highly adaptable and active agents of cultural and intellectual change since the eighth century until today. An indispensable handbook for studies of Confucian culture and institutions since the eighth century until the present.
Contributors are: Chien Iching, Chung Soon-woo, Deng Hongbo, Martin Gehlmann, Vladimír Glomb, Lan Jun, Lee Byoung-Hoon, Eun-Jeung Lee, Thomas H.C. Lee, Margaret Dorothea Mehl, Steven B. Miles, Hoyt Cleveland Tillman, Nguyễn Tuấn-Cường, Linda Walton and Minamizawa Yoshihiko.
It is almost impossible for even a modern Chinese to imagine that the archery range was an integral part of Chinese academy compounds, and was promoted as a part of its Confucian education. It is true that in Confucius’s classical teaching, archery was a part of the so-called six arts that constituted the education of a gentleman, but it’s becoming a part of government schools’ educational curriculum appeared quite late, only in the Song times. Before that, archery was taught only in military camps, and at most as a part of civil rituals, taking place mainly for ceremonial purposes, such as “Village Libation Ceremonies.” Systematic and wholesale rethinking on the purpose and curriculum of education in the 11th to 13th centuries, during which both government and privately or family organized schools began to appear in large numbers, led to significant consequences. Debates on the relationship of schools and the imperial examination system that was also rising in importance, and the rise and intensified activity of the so-called private academies, resulted in a rethinking on how Confucian ideals could be implemented both within and without the public/government educational sphere, archery becoming part of this rethinking. The re-emergence of Confucian thinking resulted in the idea of “Confucian-military generals,” in that civil officials were expected to involve themselves in military policing and martial activities, and that military officials should receive sufficient Confucian education to enable them to help realize Confucian ideals of a stable and harmonious civil order. Several famous Song thinkers were singled out as quintessential “Confucian generals”—Fan Zhongyan most prominently. It grew into a tradition in that many thinkers in later times were also praised for their military aptitude. Actually, the conception was not new, but it became a widely embraced conception in the Song times, and it was at this time that “archery ranges” (shepu 射圃) first appeared notably in school compounds. The academies also gradually caught up. Although there is no evidence that Song academies already had archery ranges, the practice had definitely begun to appear in various government school compounds or government offices. Obviously, this reflected at least a preliminary or fledgling realization again of archery as education or rite. By the Mongol Yuan times, the building of archery ranges had become widespread, and references to academies with archery ranges began to appear in the early Ming. By the mid-Ming times, the academies were almost uniformly equipped with them. Many influential scholars wrote essays extolling their importance and even expounded on their educational values, advocating their construction. Archery ranges continued to be built in academies, especially after the academies had become largely an integral part of government schools and preparatory institutions of the imperial examinations. The rise of archery ranges in Chinese academy education was not intended to make academies realize the ideal of complete education for the upbringing of a gentleman (junzi 君子)—one who has a balanced life in both mind and body (originally conceived to be similar to an uomo universale)—but rather, was designed to help cement a society of uniformity, managed in an orderly way according to moral ideologies. Indeed, the archery range’s perpetuation depended ironically on its function as a site where members of government schools (of which many academies had evolved into) gathered for ritualistic performances and, perhaps even more often, to listen to imperial decrees and prescripts. The existence and continuation of the ranges thus reflected perfectly the Chinese penchant for “squares”—the peculiar Chinese equivalent of “public spaces.”
Confucian academies in post-liberation North Korea became subject of a complex political and intellectual debate motivated by the needs of the new regime to reevaluate the Korean past according to the ideological framework of Marxism-Leninism. Confucian academies were designated as institutions belonging to the past feudal order and as such their traditional functioning was severed and liquidated. On the other hand they were to a certain degree recognized as cultural relics belonging to the people of the DPRK and North Korean scholars devoted considerable effort to describe the role of Confucian academies within the traditional Korean society. The present study analyzes North Korean discursive strategies concerning Confucian academies during the 1950s and 1960s. It focuses on both popular and academic depictions of these educational, religious, and political institutions, including the most recent developments in the field.
Oksan Academy is one of the oldest Korean Confucian academies. Dedicated to famous scholar Yi Ŏnjŏk, the academy belonged to the upper echelons of Korean academies and during its long existence concentrated significant influence. Thanks to its uninterrupted existence and prestige the academy was able to preserve its book collection and now presents one of the best examples of traditional book culture of Korean Confucian academies. Thanks to the unusual number of documents available in the academy archive we may have a close insight into both the practical operation and the theoretical framework of the academy book collection. The present study focuses on the structure and form of the book collection of Oksan Academy, the nature of the collected publications, the management of the book collection, the print culture of Oksan Academy, the financing of academy printing, and book distribution. Oksan Academy is a prime example of how a Korean academy and its book collection adjusted to the changing environment and new challenges during their long existence.
Previous scholarship has taught us a great deal about the intellectual, institutional, and pedagogical history of Confucian academies in late imperial China. In this chapter, I argue that we can further expand our knowledge of this important institution by situating academies in their local environments. During the Qing era, these environments were most often urban environments. Focusing on Confucian academies in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou (Canton) during the 19th century, this chapter seeks to broaden the range of historical sources that are brought to bear on the study of Confucian academies. By situating the study of Qing-era academies in their urban context, this study shows that academy leadership was closely identified with officialdom and academy activities were an important component of the “examination economy.” As deeply embedded in urban environments as they were, however, Confucian academies competed with a number of other institutions and activities for influence over the urban population.
Since its arrival in China, Buddhism stood in a complex relation of both harmony and struggle with Confucianism. Starting in the Tang and Song dynasties, the concrete manifestations of this relation were often expressed through interactions of the institutions of both teachings—Confucian academies and Buddhist monasteries. During the reign of the Jiajing emperor, the Confucian scholars of Yongkang county in Zhejiang province—with the backing of their families and the local government—demolished the local Buddhist Arhat Hall and built Wufeng Academy in its place. These activities caused tensions with nearby Shoushan Monastery. In 1541, monks and members of the influential Hu family joined together and accused the Confucian scholars of erecting heterodox shrines and advocating false learning. During the following litigation case, leaders of the academy drew support from fellow scholars and influential officials and successfully rallied support for their academy. The academy was preserved and exonerated, and its accusers punished. As the Wufeng Academy lawsuit involved both the court and various regional forces, it displays the ties and interactions between the academy and all levels of local society.
In 717 Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang dynasty changed the name of the Mingtang in the eastern capital, Luoyang, to Qianyuan Hall, designating it as the main chamber of state. At the same time he ordered copies and a revision of the books stored in the Qianyuan Hall. When Xuanzong visited Luoyang again in 722 these books of his private library were transferred from Qianyuan Hall to an institution located outside Mingfu Gate, which was bestowed the name “Lizheng Compilatory Shuyuan.” The main reason for the books being transferred was that Qianyuan Hall was renamed as the Mingtang and designated as main place of state worship. While at this time only the signboards of the Qianyuan Hall were replaced, the library bestowed to it by Xuanzong moved to its new place outside Mingfu Gate, now having plenty of space. The shuyuan in the beginning of the Kaiyuan era, whether in Luoyang or in Chang’an, were initially set up in the most important places (or adjacent to them), but soon relocated outside Mingfu or Guangshun Gate. Both shuyuan had several new features; inside the Chang’an Jixian Shuyuan an observatory was built by the monk Yixing and the Luoyang Jixian Shuyuan had a Buddhist meditation chamber. Yixing was not only a famous monk, but the foremost expert on astronomy and calendar studies. This shows that the shuyuan of this time were no longer just librarians’ institutions, but were incorporating new features such as science, technology, and religion.
A specific characteristic of Confucian academies during the Ming dynasty was their extensive involvement in lecture gatherings and their organization. With the spread of the new teachings by Wang Yangming and Zhan Ruoshui, lecture gatherings became a popular activity among Confucian scholars, which in turn led to the revitalization of many academies. While lecture gatherings could be held everywhere, their organization often relied on a fixed place that would unite local scholars and could provide the necessary space and facilities. Parallel to a decline of the state educational system, academies experienced an unprecedented bloom in the middle and late Ming dynasty. The content and organization of the lectures was not only geared toward scholars, but also a plethora of other gatherings subsumed under the term jianghui existed. Such gatherings could be courses and lessons offered in the academies for students seeking success in the civil service examinations or open lectures by scholars aiming to transform the customs and culture of the common people. Lecture gatherings in this respect reflect the aim of Confucian academies, which was the creation, spread, and popularization of Confucian culture.