Author:
Niovi Vavoula
Search for other papers by Niovi Vavoula in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Free access

Index

Abolition of internal border controls 1, 115, 117118, 119, 133, 309, 310, 442, 446
Advanced Passenger Information (api) 456, 474, 513, 670, 672
ai Act 191, 531532, 693
Algorithms 5, 106107, 190191, 192, 255257, 487489, 491493, 506
Amman v Switzerland 51, 55, 59, 110, 111, 171, 269, 577
Amsterdam Treaty 1, 118, 122, 211, 318
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (afsj) 2, 12, 15, 173, 604, 651, 672, 692
Article 16 of the tfeu 30, 35, 36, 102
Automated processing
Automated analysis 97, 9899, 106107, 110, 113, 269, 508, 521
Automated comparison 157, 160, 245, 249, 252257, 258, 259, 269, 270, 278, 289, 304, 354, 429, 469, 484494, 506, 508, 520533, 535, 538, 562, 570, 573574, 574577, 595, 596597, 606, 613, 630, 631, 635, 636637, 640641, 643, 645, 668, 678, 682, 686
Automated decision-making 31, 531, 532533
Autonomy
and privacy 22, 26, 42, 46, 4849, 89, 108
of EU law 96
Banopticon (see also Panopticon) 1011
Beneficiaries of humanitarian admission and resettlement 342343, 383384
Biometric passport 7780
Black list (visas) 211212, 213, 266, 276, 296, 464, 474475, 538, 594
Canada
Opinion 1/15 7475, 96103, 441, 650
and US 399400, 402, 403, 417
eTA 471472
Common European Asylum System (ceas) 309, 311315, 324, 337, 341, 349
Compensatory measures (or flanking measures) 1, 115, 118, 119, 133, 464465, 474475
Control over personal information 2223
Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement (cisa) 1, 2, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 127, 133, 134, 135, 136, 140, 143, 144, 194, 211, 310, 405. 499, 556
Convention 108 (and Convention 108+) 28, 29, 31, 35, 53, 57
covid-19 327, 519
Data minimisation 29, 30
Data privacy (or information privacy) 20, 24
Data Protection Directive 2830, 36, 40, 70, 74, 147, 148, 204, 233, 235
Data quality 39, 51, 142143, 150, 155, 157, 158, 160, 175, 184186, 187, 191192, 200, 230, 249, 250, 272, 279, 281, 283284, 285, 289, 295297, 303, 341, 357, 359, 363, 384, 386, 391, 429, 445, 446, 447, 451, 511, 520, 522, 528, 535, 538, 544, 560, 563, 590, 601, 604, 611, 614, 629631, 635, 640, 643, 665667, 669, 671, 682
Data retention 72, 74, 8390, 9396, 103108
Data security 14, 39, 51, 73, 86, 87, 88, 112, 114, 164, 238, 272, 611, 613
Dataveillance 9
Denmark 2, 117118, 128, 132, 213, 223, 321, 422, 554
Digital borders 6
Digital fortress 5
Digital Rights Ireland 73, 8390, 9394, 96, 102, 104, 107, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 171, 194, 268, 271, 273, 291, 294, 299, 364, 442, 443, 458, 577, 624, 650, 653, 654, 658, 660
Dignity 6, 11, 26, 27, 46, 79, 108, 338, 355, 382, 665
Discreet checks 131, 149, 246, 254, 478, 522, 646
Discrimination 27, 39, 67, 98, 99, 280, 291, 528531, 539, 540, 557, 559, 561, 579, 582, 585588, 653654, 655, 661, 663, 664, 671, 682, 686687
DNA data 54, 5657, 68, 141, 152, 542, 613
Dublin system 218, 224, 233, 309316, 335, 356, 358, 360362, 365, 382, 384385, 389390, 636, 685
DubliNet 326, 344
ecris 258259, 541, 546549
Entry ban (or re-entry ban) 82, 135, 136138, 153, 154155, 157, 166167, 170, 172, 178182, 185, 195196, 201, 203204, 206, 252, 258259, 339340, 386, 453454, 514, 579, 645, 648, 679
Essence of privacy
in the case law of the cjeu 86, 92
and sis 173
and vis 271
and Eurodac 356
and ees 441
and etias 508
and ecris-tcn 580
European Agenda on Migration 243, 335, 603
European Agenda on Security 550, 559, 603
European Arrest Warrant (eaw) 136, 146, 237, 259, 292, 328, 375376, 432, 490, 517518, 589
easo (euaa) 165, 201202, 311312, 339, 351, 389, 603, 632, 663664
eu-lisa 8, 148, 152, 160, 184186, 235, 238, 284, 325, 327, 328, 341, 344, 350, 351, 366, 410, 432, 477, 505, 554, 570, 595, 603, 609, 613, 620, 623, 627, 629630, 666, 690
European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) 32, 149, 152, 164166, 201202, 207, 249, 256257, 259, 260, 269, 335, 339, 351, 405, 445, 469. 476, 477, 493, 504, 505, 512, 538539, 567, 503, 632, 663, 668669, 675, 685, 687
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ecdc) 256, 478, 484
European Community 1, 211, 309310
European Migrant Smuggling Centre (emsc) 162163
European Public Prosecutor’s Office (eppo) 566568
European Search Portal (esp) 8, 245, 468, 487, 573, 610, 612613, 615, 617, 62630, 631, 634, 636637, 644, 664
Eurojust 126128, 201, 566567, 567568, 588, 591592, 688
Europol 12, 32
and sis 125, 127128, 149, 152, 162164, 165, 166, 175, 198201, 207, 209
and vis 220, 226, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 249, 257, 258, 259, 262, 264, 269, 270, 273, 290, 294296, 297, 299, 305
and Eurodac 308, 322, 327, 329, 330, 332333, 335, 344, 353, 368, 370, 371, 373, 374, 377, 378, 393, 394
and ees 413, 416, 422, 433, 434, 436, 441, 452, 455, 458, 459
and etias 468, 469, 487, 490, 491, 493, 495, 496, 498, 500, 501, 504, 505, 512, 523, 524, 525, 526, 528, 536, 537, 539
and ecris-tcn 542, 566, 567, 588, 589
and interoperability 601, 603, 606, 610, 612, 621, 625626, 630, 634, 656, 660, 668, 670, 675, 678, 685, 685
Europol databases 253, 255, 258, 485, 485, 523, 524, 606, 636, 687
Extraterritorial(isation) 3, 208, 210, 221, 270, 304, 469, 476, 533
Facial image 16, 77, 78, 80, 82, 113, 149, 157160, 171172, 175176, 180, 190194, 248, 249, 251, 263, 279, 287288, 335, 337339, 343, 352, 362, 379, 380, 384, 411, 419, 428, 429, 431, 434, 436, 440, 445, 450, 451, 457, 465, 561562, 578, 580, 588590, 620, 675, 678, 681, 682, 683
Facial recognition 160, 176, 190194, 206, 230, 249, 287288, 384, 440, 562, 590, 639, 682, 693
False match 78, 79, 82, 113, 185, 187, 191193, 258, 284285, 287, 296297, 298, 305, 358359, , 378, 389390, 392, 450, 459, 494, 497, 522, 639640, 665667, 682
Flanking measures (see compensatory measures )
Foreign terrorist fighters (or foreign fighters) 131, 148, 291292, 427, 457, 512, 675
Framework Decision 2008/977/jha 29, 328, 333
Free movement
of data 31
of EU workers 83
of persons 115, 118, 124, 138139, 150, 155, 156, 170, 173, 192, 205, 215, 245, 252, 279, 285, 306, 383, 406, 426, 427, 428, 439, 449, 451, 452, 453, 479, 480, 584, 598, 663, 677
Frontex (see European Border and Coast Guard Agency )
Frontex Risk Analysis 286
General Data Protection Regulation 16, 3031, 33, 40, 110
and sis 157, 167, 170, 189, 203204, 233, 234, 235
and vis 255, 265, 286, 302303
and Eurodac 348, 386387
and ees 436, 440, 463
and etias 492, 498, 502, 504, 506, 519, 521, 529, 531
and ectis-tcn 578, 591
and interoperability 638, 640 652, 665, 669
Hague Programme 4, 322, 406, 544, 601
Health data 54, 484, 519520
Hit/No hit 120, 319, 551, 554, 559, 626
Identity fraud 8183, 113, 162, 209, 249, 250, 271, 277, 286, 424, 442, 611, 614615, 618619, 623, 636, 642, 644, 646, 647648, 651, 654, 672, 682
Impact Assessment 673, 680
and sis 134, 186, 190
and vis 219, 244, 277, 286, 290
and Eurodac 369372, 379380, 389, 395
and ees 404, 407, 409, 411, 413, 442, 450, 452, 455, 457
and etias 475, 498, 512515, 532
and ecris-tcn 554, 572574, 583, 595
and interoperability 607, 637, 639, 642, 644, 648, 651, 656657, 658, 663
Information privacy 20
Informational self-determination 27, 40, 42, 4849
Intelligence services 196198, 238, 293, 329, 375
Interlinking of alerts 146147, 150, 175, 198, 203203, 207
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (iccpr) 46
International protection 2, 7, 161, 162, 176, 179, 198, 218, 233, 234, 262, 275, 276, 289, 301, 308, 316, 319, 325, 326, 327, 336, 337, 339, 340, 346, 347, 348, 350, 351, 352, 353, 355, 357, 360, 361, 363, 365, 367, 368, 373, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 383, 384, 385, 387, 388, 390, 392, 394, 397, 454, 496, 610, 612, 641, 645, 665, 679, 686, 689
Interpol 254, 255, 259, 353, 468, 485, 498, 501502, 513, 524525, 529, 606, 610, 612613, 634, 636, 678, 688
(In)security continuum 3, 127, 388
Intimacy (and privacy) 23, 48
Ireland 2, 118, 132, 151, 213, 223, 321, 353, 422, 554
Justice and Home Affairs
Competence 2
Council meeting 217
La Quadrature du Net and Others 74, 104108, 110, 112, 113, 269, 376, 508, 521, 529, 530, 640, 643
Latent fingerprints 142, 159, 187, 263, 329, 334, 378, 434, 459
Law Enforcement Directive 30, 31, 32, 33
and sis 167, 189, 198
and vis 265, 293, 303
and Eurodac 328, 333
and ees 435
and etias 478, 502
and ecris-tcn 591
and interoperability 621, 652, 669
Lex generalis 33, 167, 203, 328
Lex specialis 21, 33, 45, 72, 110, 198, 295, 328
Limited access to the self 23
Lisbon Treaty 2, 30, 7071, 212, 220, 245, 324
Local border traffic (lbt) permit 215, 242, 247, 405, 480
Maastricht Treaty 1, 2, 211
Missing persons 14, 130, 152, 246, 254, 264, 345, 382, 478
Multiple Identity Detector (mid) 8, 610, 614620, 630, 640648, 667
National security 7, 45, 57, 59, 60, 61, 65, 69, 91, 93, 105107, 111, 113, 119, 122, 134, 147, 153, 154, 155, 167, 173174, 178179, 184, 195, 267, 277, 293, 329, 375, 399, 471, 594, 691
New Pact on Migration and Asylum 314315, 349, 576
Non-refoulement 171, 183, 207, 234, 301, 348, 386387, 394, 676, 689
oecd Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data 28
Opacity 4142, 44, 295, 512
Opinion 1/15 34, 7475, 96103, 106, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 171, 203, 268, 269, 271, 291, 292, 441, 459, 508, 515, 521, 529, 577, 580, 624, 640, 643, 650, 664, 692
Palm prints 157159, 169, 172, 190194, 613
Panopticon 649650, 680
Photograph (see also facial image) 52, 54, 5658, 68, 81, 140143, 157159, 171172, 175176, 186189, 193, 216, 228, 229230, 249, 269, 271, 282, 285, 401, 419, 445, 457, 683
Passenger Name Records 7475, 96103, 185, 268, 441, 456, 474, 508, 513, 650, 664, 670, 672
Presumption of innocence 6667, 112, 373
Profiling 5, 31, 255, 279, 291, 293, 296, 439, 469, 484493, 506507, 521, 526533, 539, 588, 653, 663, 671, 687
Prüm Decision 331332, 345346, 372, 433, 626, 659660, 670, 690
Purpose limitation 29, 53, 272, 290, 301, 367, 368, 671
Quality of law 59
Refugee crisis 7, 411, 442, 602
Registered Travellers Programme (rtp) 416421, 461464
Remote policing 3
Retention period 6768, 8183, 685686
and sis 143, 166167, 172, 194196
and vis 231, 288289
and Eurodac 320321, 326, 339340, 343, 364365, 382, 385386, 390
and ees 414, 416, 430431, 452454
and etias 497498, 533534
and ecris-tcn 563, 596597
and interoperability 604, 614, 619620, 621, 647
Return Directive 136138, 145146, 150, 151, 153, 154155, 166167, 168169, 177178, 179, 183, 195196, 206, 236, 336, 349, 386, 679
Right to be let alone 22
Right of information 29
and sis 147148, 167, 203205
and vis 234235, 266267, 302304
and Eurodac 321, 326, 340, 366367, 387
and ees 436438, 454455
and etias 503503, 535
and ecris-tcn 568569, 592
and interoperability 627629, 648
Rights of access, correction (or rectification) and deletion (or erasure) 29, 34, 53, 6970
and sis 147148, 167, 203205
and vis 234235, 302304
and Eurodac 321, 366367
and ees 436438, 454455
and etias 503503, 535
and ecris-tcn 568569, 592
and interoperability 627628, 664665, 667
Right to object 29
Risky (foreigner) 3, 4, 6, 911, 14, 97, 99102, 112, 113, 178, 179, 180, 206, 207, 210, 213, 216, 270, 272, 275, 279, 305, 353, 388, 400, 401, 402, 418, 420, 438, 441, 449, 459, 461, 465, 474, 476, 479481, 483, 505, 506, 507, 512, 514, 515, 641, 664, 678680
Risk assessment 7, 98, 144, 220, 244, 247, 252, 253, 256, 274, 275, 279, 282, 291, 293, 295, 368, 402, 417, 477, 482, 484, 485, 492, 495, 505, 520531, 532533, 538539, 574, 578579, 606
Risk analysis 9, 164, 166, 201202, 285, 452, 461, 475, 477, 669
Risk indicator 255256, 258, 492, 493, 511, 520
Roman Zakharov v Russia 61, 62, 63, 96, 111, 112, 114, 294, 525, 526, 692
Rotaru v Romania 55, 59, 88, 110, 111, 171, 269, 577
S and Marper v UK 49, 5657, 6568, 77, 79, 86, 110, 112, 113, 172, 173, 182, 189, 194, 269, 288, 300, 354, 364, 374, 440, 537, 578, 643
Safe Harbour Agreement 9093
Schengen acquis 2, 118, 121, 122, 151, 173, 174, 211, 213, 214, 223, 225, 243, 422423, 477, 576, 608
Schengen Borders Code 2, 143, 144, 151, 169, 170, 181, 232, 252, 398, 405, 410, 412, 421, 425, 429430, 452453, 476, 478, 496, 513, 630, 632633
Schengen Agreement 1, 116, 117, 229, 245, 261
Schengen Associated States 119, 132
Schwarz(judgment) 72, 7780, 82, 110, 112, 113, 172, 187188, 269, 271, 282, 356, 257258, 362, 440, 442, 449, 464, 639
Schrems 74, 9093, 102, 113, 173, 509
Screening rules 255257, 258, 351, 475, 484, 491493, 498, 506, 508, 509511, 520521, 526533, 539, 668, 678. 686
Screening Regulation 372, 576577, 631634
Search and rescue (sar) operations 351352, 390
Secondary movements 311, 312, 319, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 350, 365, 366, 380, 381, 389
Securitisation 34, 10, 220
Security Union 148149, 559, 600, 602, 604, 670, 675
Serious crime 60, 6768, 88, 9496, 100, 103104, 107108, 113, 114, 178, 237, 262, 265, 292, 300, 328, 345, 346, 368, 371372, 373, 376, 388, 415, 457, 490, 525, 526, 536, 566, 594, 659, 662, 690
Shared Biometric Matching Service (sbms) 8, 610, 613614, 615, 621, 629, 636, 637640, 666, 667
sirene 121, 127, 132, 139, 141, 153, 163, 167, 168, 169, 175, 203, 204, 258, 259, 478, 458, 615, 617, 619, 629, 645646
Smuggling 162, 200201, 202, 300, 345, 347, 456
Stigmatisation 6668, 112, 173, 202, 291, 373, 393394, 579, 681
Supervision 148, 235
Surveillance 5, 8, 9, 1011, 14, 22, 26, 44, 51, 52, 54, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 69, 76, 82, 86, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 113, 165, 188, 193, 194, 206, 207, 208, 219, 256, 260, 270, 273, 274, 278, 279, 291, 304, 306, 379, 380, 382, 384, 401, 409, 417418, 422, 439, 441, 448449, 451, 462, 464, 465, 492, 506, 515, 525526, 538, 577, 548551, 561, 571, 572, 673676
Taxonomy of privacy 24, 26
Tele2 Sverige and Watson 74, 9396, 102, 103, 104, 107, 110, 112, 113, 114, 171, 268, 291, 299, 364, 376, 442, 577, 624, 650, 653, 658, 660
Terrorism (see also foreign terrorist fighters, travel ban and UN terrorist lists) 34, 5, 7, 44, 61, 63, 6465, 69, 89, 97, 99, 100101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 113, 125, 130, 125126, 150, 154, 155156, 159161, 164, 175, 178, 192, 198, 200, 202, 206, 208, 216217, 219, 226227, 235236, 237, 240, 240241, 246, 254255, 262263, 264, 265, 271, 272, 273, 288, 290293, 296, 297298, 322, 327328, 330331, 332, 345, 347, 368, 369, 371372, 375, 388, 399400, 411, 413, 414, 424425, 427, 432435, 442, 455, 458, 471, 474, 479, 483, 490491, 500, 502, 509, 512, 517, 521, 522, 525526, 536, 544, 549550, 558, 560, 571, 575, 594, 595596, 597, 600601, 602, 604, 610611, 623, 631, 656657, 662, 671672, 674, 674675, 690
Trafficking in Human Beings 246, 250251, 264, 286, 298, 300, 347, 415, 537, 597
Transfer of personal data 687689
and Data Protection Directive 29
and Law Enforcement Directive 31
under the ECtHR case law 6263
between the EU and the US 74
and sis 203
and vis 233234, 236, 240241, 261, 264266, 301302
and Eurodac 321, 333, 340, 386387
and ees 434435, 454
and etias 501502, 534535
and ecris-tcn 567568, 591592
and interoperability 624, 629, 669
Transparency 30, 4142, 109, 293, 341, 350, 375, 395, 512, 530, 531, 568, 582, 598
Travel ban 140, 155, 183184, 192
UN terrorist lists 126, 139140, 155, 183184
United Kingdom (UK) 6668, 93, 118, 126, 132, 151, 213, 223, 225227, 318, 321, 356357, 360, 398, 402, 404, 417, 477, 526, 528, 554
United States (US) (see also Safe Harbor Agreement) 3, 20, 77, 9093, 125, 216
US-visit 399404, 447448
US esta 470471
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (udhr) 46
Variable geometry 116, 132, 488, 572
Visa Code 2, 144, 162, 213, 229230, 243, 249, 251, 252, 271, 482, 496
Watchlist 254255, 257258, 490491, 493, 497, 498, 506, 511, 517, 525526, 535, 539
Weber and Saravia v Germania 58, 60, 6263, 110, 111, 112, 114, 171, 269, 367, 505, 635
World Health Organization (who) 256, 478, 484
  • Collapse
  • Expand