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Index

Abegg-Stiftung Mary Silk 159, 160, 161, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170
Asceticism 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, 33, 44, 62, 65, 66, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 101, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 137, 138, 140, 151, 158, 180, 181, 202, 210, 212, 217, 218, 219
Ascetic sexual denial 2, 51, 73, 76
Acts of Paul and Thecla 73, 78, 224
Agnes 73
Adam 54, 92
Adoration of the Magi 65, 108, 109, 118, 160, 184, 186, 193, 214
Ambrose 11, 12, 69, 73, 83, 133
De institutione virginis 11, 69, 73, 83
Ambrosian rite 201
Ammianus Marcellinus 158
Ampullae 108, 144, 145 (fig. 23)
Amulets 7, 103, 105, 108, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 124
magical properties of 59, 104, 117, 172
Anicia Juliana 134, 137, 138, 215n10
Apocrypha 3, 4, 10, 19, 39, 54, 63, 65, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 120, 166, 187
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles 76, 77
Apotropaic properties 50, 59, 107, 116, 118, 120, 180n123
Atticus of Constantinople 90, 91, 93n107
Augustine 43, 44, 45n74, 61, 79, 80, 87n86, 158
Basil of Caesarea 101
Biblical iconography
Daniel 54, 58n114, 202
Jonah cycle 17, 54, 58n114
raising of Lazarus 17, 202
three Hebrews 185, 186
Bride 47–49, 51, 111n20, 115, 122, 201
Catacombs of Domitilla 184–187
Catacombs of Peter and Marcellinus 186
Catacombs of Priscilla 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 182–184, 187
Greek chapel 18, 183
Celantia 88
Celibacy 7, 12, 66, 79, 84, 85n79, 89, 113, 116, 140
Children 2n3, 24n23, 46, 49, 51, 75, 76, 83, 85, 86, 103, 112, 113, 124, 125, 126, 127, 127n59, 128n64, 136, 140, 141, 147, 154, 206, 207, 218
Christianity
Apollinarians 12
Arian 11, 69
Docetists 12
Donatists 12
Monophysites 12, 66, 149, 151
superstition of 12, 13, 61, 125, 126, 157
Church canons 2n3, 12, 116, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 159, 201
Chastity 1, 21, 44, 46, 46n78, 48, 58, 77, 78, 99, 102, 210
Church of the Annunciation 147
Church of the Nativity 147
Church of the Holy Sepulchre 147
Childbirth (parturition) 29, 33, 40, 51, 104, 105, 122, 124, 125, 126, 147
Cloth production 15, 26, 36, 37, 47, 49, 50, 56, 72, 82, 91, 95
silk production 100, 141, 157, 162, 172
Council of Elvira 116
Council of Ephesus 11, 17n10, 64, 66, 67, 69, 80, 86, 92, 94, 136, 137, 150, 151, 159, 179n120, 201, 210, 213, 214
Council of Laodicea 116, 120, 123n46
Council of Nicaea 10, 11
Council in Trullo 122
Cult of Mary 3–4, 10, 12, 15, 16, 61, 62, 63, 65, 93, 101, 130, 136, 150, 210, 212, 214
Cultural influences
Hellenic 33, 53, 66, 78, 91, 148, 162
Jewish 1, 3, 6, 10, 53, 55, 56, 59, 85, 148, 154, 184
pagan 6, 10, 14, 22, 23, 26, 33, 37, 39, 49n89, 59, 66, 83, 85, 91, 105, 112, 116, 117, 123, 124, 126, 127, 129, 139, 157, 158, 159, 160, 166, 167, 168, 169, 179, 184, 187, 213n5
Syriac 5, 96, 97, 98
Cyril of Alexandria 66
Cyril of Jerusalem 97
Cyril of Skythopolis 75
Decimus Magnus Ausonius 102, 128
Distaff 1, 5, 6, 14, 15, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 31n42, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 67, 69, 70, 72, 89, 93, 95, 96, 101, 102, 105, 107, 112, 115, 128, 130, 145, 146, 149, 163, 170, 171, 176, 178, 180, 182, 183, 184, 187, 195, 204, 205, 206, 207, 210, 217, 219
Divorce 113, 114
Doe 189, 194, 195, 198, 203
Egeria 142
Egypt 5, 7, 14, 25, 26, 27, 40, 65, 66, 67, 72, 75, 76, 101, 114, 117, 119, 143, 146, 148, 156, 157, 159, 160, 162, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 175, 176n115, 178, 201
Elizabeth 63, 69, 82n68, 176, 186, 200
Emperor
Arcadius 136
Augustus 30, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52, 126
Constantine 113n26, 116, 126, 128n64, 133, 134, 136, 142, 147
Constantius II 70
Justinian 85, 100, 113, 126n57, 138
Majorian 84
Theodosius I 133, 135, 136
Theodosius II 90n98, 111n19, 137, 138
Valentinian 135
Valentinian III 135
Empresses
Athenais Eudocia 134, 137
Eudoxia 111n19, 134, 136, 137
Flavia Flacilla 135, 136, 137
Galla Placidia 134, 135
Helena 133, 134, 142, 147
Livia Drusilla 46, 47, 52
Pulcheria 90n98, 91, 93, 93n108, 94, 95, 96, 111n19, 114n31, 134, 136, 137, 138
Ephrem the Syrian 97, 98
Epiphanius of Salamis 69
Epitaphs 22, 52, 63, 109n15, 155, 203, 205, 206, 208, 210
Eve 10, 54, 66, 74, 133
Familial relationships 1, 7, 20, 22, 40, 46, 47, 51, 52, 62, 77, 78, 79, 83, 85, 88, 95, 101, 103, 104, 117, 126, 128, 131, 132, 134, 136, 138, 157, 188, 218
Fates/parcae 7n14, 22, 24 fig. 5, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 43, 82
Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos 22, 28, 30, 32
Femininity, ideal of 11, 21, 46, 52, 133, 157, 188, 199, 201, 218
Fertility 26, 32, 39, 47n83, 48, 50, 58, 59, 64, 91, 103, 104, 105, 107, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 126, 127n59, 128, 129, 131, 135, 147, 148, 149, 158, 154, 157, 166, 167, 179, 200, 212, 218
Flamen Dialis 50
Flamenica Dialis 50
Flax 26, 54, 56, 75, 162, 170, 176n115
Flight into Egypt 65, 122
Funerary Relief of Ulpia Epigone 21, 22, 22n20
Gabriel 3, 19, 62, 63, 67, 71, 72, 97, 98, 99, 106, 107, 109, 110, 120, 145, 146, 151, 154, 165, 171, 176, 187, 195, 196, 197, 200, 204, 210, 215
Gems/glypts 131, 151, 152 fig. 24, 153 fig. 25
Goddesses
Egypt
Isis 27, 66, 157
Tait or Tayet 26, 27, 168, 172
Greek/Roman
Athena/Minerva 24n23, 27, 33, 34, 35, 36, 43
Ananke 28
Aphrodite-Ariadne 32, 33, 164
Mesopotamia
Uttu 26
Asherah 26, 27
Gorgonia 203
Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew 64
Greco-Roman imagery 9, 27–45
Gregory of Nyssa 12, 74, 77, 135
Gregory Nazianzus 12, 74, 83, 203
Gregory the Great 114
Helvidius 87
Hart/stag 194, 195, 198, 203
Holiness 7, 14, 16, 58, 73, 75, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 89, 93, 94, 98, 131, 150n65, 155, 178, 181, 201, 210, 212, 214, 215
Holy Spirit 82, 165
as weaver 92
Homer 28, 39, 40, 43
Arete 24, 39, 43
Helen 24, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 59
Illiad 28, 30, 40
Odyssey 28, 39n59, 40, 43
Penelope 24, 39, 40, 42, 43
Household
economy of 26, 54, 55, 57, 95, 115, 128, 154, 188, 203
housekeeping 48, 98, 99, 130
management of (oikonomia) 5, 6, 7, 13, 26, 35, 36, 39, 46, 49, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 59, 61, 62, 66, 79, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 91, 94, 98, 101, 103, 105n11, 112, 114, 115, 116, 128, 129, 130, 140, 141, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 164, 166, 174, 178, 201, 204, 210, 213n5
Hippolytus of Rome 82, 83
History of the Monks 148
Icons 65, 151, 217, 219
Iconography
apocalyptic 189, 199, 200, 202
Dionysiac 160, 164, 165, 167, 168
Holy Rider 108n14, 117, 141
Imitatio Mariae 6, 7, 61, 62, 90, 94, 96, 131, 199, 204, 210, 212, 214, 218
Incarnation 5, 58, 59, 70, 88, 90, 92, 97, 131, 183, 197, 199, 201, 202, 204, 216, 217, 217n12
Jacob of Serug 98
Jerome 11, 43, 79, 83, 87, 88
Jesus Christ 62, 109, 155, 166, 168, 186, 197, 198, 214
as weaver 92, 95
Jewellery (see also marriage rings) 52, 71, 103n3, 106, 111n19, 114, 118, 119, 120, 122, 218
medallions 50, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124, 200
pendants 7, 21, 103, 118, 119 fig. 19, 120, 121 fig. 20, 122, 128
John Chrysostom 90, 95, 158
Joseph the Carpenter 82, 87, 165, 168n107, 201, 216
Jovinian 79, 87, 88
Julia Dryadia 128, 129
Juvenal 42
Justin Martyr 85
Lamb of God 69, 179, 180
Lay devotion 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 67, 68, 70, 87, 88, 112, 122, 123, 124, 136, 159, 179, 188, 198, 202, 212, 214n6
Liber ad Gregorium in Palatio 79, 88
Legislation
Augustan penalties 113
Corpus Juris Civilis 113
inheritance 77, 79, 104, 113, 114, 127, 139, 154n73
legal rights 112, 114, 126, 127
ius liberorum 126, 129
marriage law 77, 81, 85, 86, 113, 116, 127, 128n64
Theodosian Code 126
Life of Eugenia 73
Linen 4, 6, 27, 28, 54, 57, 58, 69, 125, 131, 138, 156, 157, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 175, 179n120
Liturgy 99, 115
agapai or love feasts 116, 116n35, 123
calendar 112
feasts 69, 88, 92, 95, 116, 123
Mass of the Annunciation 201
Loca sancta images 105
Loom 27, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46n78, 47, 49, 51, 52, 56, 69, 73, 89, 90—93, 95
Lucretia 43, 44, 45, 46
Macrina 76, 77
Marriage 2n3, 7, 11, 15, 26, 42, 44, 47, 48, 50, 52, 59, 64, 66, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 104, 105, 106, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 126, 127, 128, 134, 151, 155, 201, 202, 212, 218
sacrament of 86, 87n86
Marriage rings 9, 103, 104, 105, 105n10, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 118n39, 120, 122, 128, 129, 184, 186, 218
Materfamilias 15, 20, 22, 42, 51, 52, 54, 63, 64, 76, 181
Mary
folk traditions about 3, 63
lay devotion 3–4, 10, 12, 15, 16, 62, 63, 65, 93, 101, 130, 136, 150, 210, 212, 214
maternity of 3, 10, 81, 123, 124
Queen of Heaven 188, 217
Mary Magdalene 189, 197, 198
Mary of Egypt 76
Mariology 63, 81, 91, 95, 214n6, 217
Marriage at Cana 118, 120
Matron 2, 3, 5, 13, 20, 21, 22, 25, 30, 31, 34, 35, 37, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 59, 60, 63, 70, 75, 84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 99, 101, 102, 103, 112, 127, 129, 131, 133, 134, 180, 181, 183, 184, 187n11, 188, 199, 210, 212, 217, 218, 219
Matronage 1, 6, 9, 13, 16, 65, 83, 86, 89, 202
Melania the Younger 76, 77, 137, 148
Melania the Elder 76
Midwives 56, 125
Montanist 205–208
Motherhood 11, 37, 64, 73, 74, 80, 81n64, 82, 87, 103, 120, 127, 134, 149, 151, 155, 179, 200, 214, 219
Mother goddess/Magna Mater 16, 26, 26n27, 66, 69, 187n11, 187, 196, 199
Muse Casket 49, 49n89, 50
Muses 49, 50, 208
Mythology
Achilles 30, 31, 32
Apollo 37, 39, 168
Arachne 35
Artemis 37, 40, 41
Dionysos 157, 164
Hector 30
King Priam 30
Leto of the Golden Spindle 20, 37, 38
Osiris, resurrection of 27, 157
Philoctetes 30
Thetis and Peleus 30, 31, 32
Narrative sequencing 64, 110, 159, 214
Nativity of Jesus 65, 88, 89, 92, 108, 109, 117, 118, 122, 123, 165, 170, 173
Nestorius of Constantinople 17n10, 66, 92, 94, 95, 137
Origen 81, 82, 140, 141, 151
Paideia 13
Palmyrene busts 52, 53
Aqmat 52
Tamma 52, 53
Panopolis 33, 157, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 178
Parenting 81, 85, 127
Patronage 5, 8, 17, 27, 33, 111n20, 131–134, 137–141, 155, 156, 162, 181, 198, 205, 206, 212
guilds 100, 139
imperial women 132–137
Paul 85, 86, 158, 194
Pelagius 79, 88
Perpetua 73
Peter 194
Peter Chrysologus 201, 202
Phrygian tombstones 182, 206, 207, 208, 210
Aurelios Markeinanos 206
Aurelia Appes 207
Aurelia Apphion 207
Christians for a Christian 205–207
Eutyches 206
Markia 207
Tombstone for Ammia, Tatia, and unnamed 206
Tombstone for Aurelia Domna and Onesime 207
Tombstone of Loukios and Tatia 207
Tombstone of Kyrillos, Domna, and Kyriakos 207
Trophimos 207
wreath with cross 205, 206, 206n49, 207, 208
Piety/pietas 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 35, 45, 47, 52, 59, 62, 65n15, 67, 69, 77, 81n64, 83, 87, 89, 94n111, 98, 101, 103, 109n15, 130, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, 180, 182, 188, 196, 203, 204, 214n6
Pignatta Sarcophagus 182, 189–194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206
Pilgrimage 6, 105, 111n19, 117, 137, 141, 142, 146, 147, 148n58, 149, 149n65, 150, 151, 154
eulogia 111n19, 117, 142, 146, 147, 148
miracle working images 149
tokens 9, 115, 131, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 154, 155, 200, 218
Pneuma 29, 30
Pope Leo I 214
Pope Sixtus III 214
Potamius of Lisbon 69, 70
Praxedes and Pudentiana 29
Proclus of Constantinople 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 179
Projecta Casket 50
Protevangelium of James 3, 4, 19, 58, 76
Pseudo-Chrysostom 200
Pyxis/pyxides 71, 72, 73, 218
Quintilian 51
Ravenna 5, 71, 135, 136, 182, 188, 192, 193, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203
Realia 3, 8, 9, 26, 59, 62, 65, 72, 96, 97, 101, 130, 146, 154, 177, 212
Regina, freed woman 20, 23, 25
Resurrection 82, 157, 180, 189, 195, 197, 198, 204
Rituals 3, 31, 47, 48, 49n89, 50, 59, 68, 69, 99, 103, 105n11, 113, 115, 116, 122, 123, 168, 182, 210
Rome
Forum Transitorium 24n23, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37
Visigothic sack of 45
Roman mores 13, 37, 52, 83, 91
Salvific themes 17, 58n114, 82, 109n15, 149, 180, 186, 189, 202, 203
Santa Maria Maggiore 5, 177, 213, 214, 215, 216
mosaic 177, 213–216
Scarlet and purple 3, 4, 5, 39, 57, 58, 64, 67, 154, 166, 176, 216
Sculpture 22, 52, 67
Seneca 48
Shenute the Archimandrite 157, 159
Social status 13, 22, 52, 84, 112–115, 130, 132, 139, 140, 157, 163, 188
freed women 20, 22, 23, 114
noble women 114
slaves 47, 62, 83, 100, 114
Soranus of Ephesus 125
Sozomen 90n98, 94
Spindle 1, 5, 6, 14, 15, 20, 22, 23, 26, 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 67, 69, 70, 72, 89, 93, 95, 96, 101, 102, 105, 107, 112, 115, 128, 130, 145, 146, 149, 163, 170, 171, 176, 178, 180, 182, 183, 184, 187, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 217, 219
Spinning
motifs 2, 5, 9, 37, 44, 45, 51, 64, 67, 102, 103, 112, 115, 157, 163, 179, 206, 207, 208, 210
Spinning implements 14, 21, 47, 52, 59, 72, 90, 99, 101, 162, 163, 165, 187, 205
spinning bowl 72
whorl 28, 31n42, 72, 171
Symeon Stylites 147, 148
Syncretism 159, 162, 167, 179
Synod of Milan 87
Tabernacle 57, 58
Tertullian 44, 81, 83, 87, 125
Textiles
Coptic 7, 156n78, 160, 162, 163, 166, 174, 178, 179
embroidery 7, 30n41, 94, 160, 163, 170, 173, 175, 176
resist-dyed linen 170, 171
roundels 173, 174, 175, 176, 177
tapestry bands 163, 173, 175
workshops 49, 163, 177
Tombstone of Philista 208, 209 fig. 46
Tombstone of Menophila 208, 209
Trees 49, 66n17, 92, 176
cypress 198
date palm 192, 194, 198
Theotokos 2, 10, 12, 17n10, 26, 64, 65, 66, 67, 90, 91, 93n108, 101, 137, 151, 159, 173, 201, 212, 213, 214, 215, 217
Ulpian 114
Veil of the temple 4, 5, 54, 64, 166, 169, 216, 217n12, 218
Viewer response 14, 20, 61, 64, 100, 128, 131, 133, 149, 152n71, 153, 154, 183, 184, 188, 212, 215
Virtue 1, 6, 13, 14, 15, 17n10, 20, 21–23, 27, 28, 37, 41, 47, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 102, 103, 105, 112, 128, 135, 171, 188, 199, 202, 206, 208, 210, 212, 215, 218
Virtues
castitas (chastity) 21, 45n74, 52
concordia 22, 47, 111n19
fidelity 21, 41, 44, 54, 59, 86, 115, 127
industry 1, 6, 21, 23, 26, 34, 35, 42, 47, 49, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 99, 101, 107, 131, 171, 178, 203, 212, 218
pietas 47, 203
pudicitia 17n10, 20, 45, 46, 51, 52, 58, 131, 196, 218
uenustas (charm) 21
Visitation 65, 69, 109, 113, 122, 173, 174 fig. 32, 175, 176, 186, 202, 204
Woman Wisdom 26, 95
Women at sepulchre 105, 108, 117
Weaving 5, 23, 25, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 69, 82, 90, 94, 96, 158, 162, 172, 173
Wisdom 27, 28, 35, 43, 57, 58, 92, 94, 95, 148, 203, 213n5
Womb 62, 90, 92, 93n107, 95, 96, 117n36, 118, 125, 201
Wool 6, 22, 26, 29, 30, 31n42, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 102, 105, 112, 115, 118, 125, 131, 138, 151, 162, 163, 173, 180, 187, 215
fillets 49, 125
roves 19, 20, 47, 49, 52, 108, 109, 145, 146, 149, 154, 195, 217
Wool basket 5, 20, 21, 30, 41, 50, 52, 67, 105, 106, 109, 115, 118, 120, 146, 149, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 172, 176, 177, 203, 206, 207, 208, 217
Wool-working 4, 33, 35, 37, 48, 69, 70, 77, 89, 92, 100, 106, 122, 127, 128, 140, 141, 160, 205
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