Author:
Federica Cittadino
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Abstract:

In Incorporating Indigenous Rights in the International Regime on Biodiversity Protection Federica Cittadino convincingly interprets the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its related instruments in light of indigenous rights and the principle of self-determination. Cittadino’s harmonisation of these formally separated regimes serves at least two main purposes. First, it ensures respect for the human rights framework that protects indigenous rights whilst implementing the biodiversity regime. Second, harmonisation allows for the full operationalisation of the indigenous related provisions of the CBD framework that concern traditional knowledge, genetic resources, and protected areas. Federica Cittadino successfully demonstrates that the CBD may allow for the protection of indigenous rights in ways that are more advanced than under current human rights law.

Index

Aahrus Convention, 54
abs. See access and benefit-sharing
access and benefit-sharing
access to genetic resources owned by indigenous peoples, 207217
benefit-sharing, 217240
and indigenous rights, 174179
international regime on
access to traditional knowledge, 180189
Article 8(j) cbd and abs, 189192
consent, approval and involvement, 192200
notion of traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, 200204
utilisation of traditional knowledge, 204206
unveiling relevance of indigenous rights and principle of self-determination, 260263
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 3841 , 87 , 111 , 137 , 142 , 306
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 9 , 16 , 3843 , 52 , 74 , 84 , 85 , 89 , 100 , 110 , 111 , 119 , 132 , 137 , 170 , 306
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 38 , 39 , 42 , 77 , 100 , 137
African human rights mechanisms, 3842
Aichi Biodiversity Targets, 260 , 271n30 , 298
Akwé:Kon guidelines, 186n40 , 195 , 196 , 286 , 291295 , 317 , 321 , 322 , 342
American Convention on Human Rights, 31 , 33 , 35 , 87 , 119 , 141 , 142 , 161
approval and involvement, 13 , 58 , 192200 , 212 , 259
of indigenous and local communities, 60 , 62 , 188 , 192 , 207
of indigenous peoples, 178 , 216 , 290 , 333 , 337 , 338 , 348
precondition for access, 206
autonomy, 71 , 120125 , 135 , 139 , 154 , 231 , 261 , 320 , 333 , 336
benefit-sharing, 4 , 13 , 37 , 40 , 60 , 62 , 64 , 66 , 89 , 117120 , 164 , 174 , 176179 , 188191 , 197 , 203 , 204 , 206 , 212 , 217232 , 241 , 243248 , 251 , 252 , 257260 , 265 , 285 , 286 , 289 , 298 , 307 , 333 , 338 , 339 , 342 , 345
intra-State, 58 , 59 , 61 , 175 , 262 , 338
multilateral, 232240 , 339
biodiversity
adaptive management of, 195
conservation (of), 12 , 3 , 5 , 12 , 15 , 55 , 60 , 62 , 64 , 66 , 171 , 176 , 178 , 203 , 239 , 243 , 244 , 267 , 278 , 283 , 290 , 299 , 301 , 302 , 311 , 323
law, 12 , 15 , 117 , 296
protection (of), 2 , 12 , 15 , 67 , 155 , 184 , 274 , 319
sustainable use of, 1 , 218 , 285
bioprospecting, 1 , 175 , 176 , 211 , 337
Bonn guidelines, 194n64 , 196 , 229 , 230 , 242
buffer zones, 317 , 318
capacity-building, 230 , 245247 , 294
cbd. See Convention on Biological Diversity
cerd. See Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
cescr. See Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Chepkitale game park, 265
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 2326 , 68 , 87 , 107 , 111 , 138 , 158 , 183
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 2123 , 68 , 80 , 85 , 158 , 327
community protocols, 199 , 200 , 205 , 238 , 241 , 247250 , 261 , 343
conservation. See biodiversity conservation
consultation. See participatory rights and free, prior and informed consent
Convention on Biological Diversity, 1 , 5666 , 163 , 167 , 174176 , 184 , 185 , 187191 , 194 , 196 , 206 , 212 , 218 , 240 , 257 , 271 , 273 , 284 , 321 , 337 , 341
Conference of the Parties, 6
decision adopting the Powpa, 63 , 286
decisions, 13 , 57 , 58 , 153 , 167 , 185 , 189 , 194196 , 202 , 215 , 218 , 283287 , 290 , 297 , 299 , 341 , 342 , 344
decisions on iccas, 296299
mandate of, 5658
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol, 202
cop. See Conference of the Parties
cross-fertilisation, 51
cultural heritage, 98 , 101n141 , 210 , 300n147 , 311313
cultural rights, 12 , 1719 , 20 , 23 , 24 , 37 , 40 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 60 , 71 , 75 , 82 , 89 , 93 , 97102 , 106 , 107 , 113 , 117 , 118 , 122 , 130 , 139 , 143 , 161 , 183 , 184 , 215 , 235 , 280 , 341
customary use of resources, 187 , 270 , 273
denial test, 18 , 25 , 35 , 50 , 74 , 88 , 89 , 96 , 100 , 102 , 105 , 106 , 143 , 160 , 336
dispossession, 20 , 39 , 42 , 75 , 76 , 79 , 80 , 84 , 86 , 87 , 100 , 265 , 266 , 327 , 333
ecosystem approach, 268n21 , 273 , 284286 , 288 , 297 , 307 , 308 , 318 , 320
environmental impact assessment. See impact assessment
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (echr), 43n131
European Court of Human Rights, 16 , 4347 , 51 , 106 , 143 , 336
Everglade National Park, 308
eviction. See dispossession
ex-situ conservation, 56 , 267
fao. See Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization, 178 , 179 , 236240
fragmentation
of cbd, 340
of international law, 3n10 , 163 , 169 , 170
free, prior and informed consent, 20 , 23 , 25 , 26 , 40 , 62 , 69 , 80 , 86 , 96 , 104 , 107110 , 112 , 115 , 116 , 138 , 139 , 183 , 193 , 196 , 198 , 211 , 225 , 229 , 237 , 244 , 258 , 281 , 288 , 290 , 291 , 294 , 298 , 306 , 307 , 309 , 322 , 323 , 325 , 328 , 330 , 332 , 338 , 339 , 342
game reserve(s). See protected area(s)
genetic resources, 175 , 176
access to, 3 , 13 , 56 , 61 , 62 , 174 , 175 , 177 , 188 , 190 , 191 , 201 , 206 , 207 , 209 , 211 , 212 , 216 , 241 , 242 , 249 , 251253 , 257 , 260 , 338 , 339 , 342 , 348
for food and agriculture, 178 , 236
misappropriation of, 178 , 202
ownership of, 176 , 188 , 189 , 207215 , 221 , 222 , 224 , 225 , 232 , 237 , 249 , 252 , 261 , 263 , 337
utilisation of, 55 , 120 , 174 , 176 , 189192 , 205 , 212 , 219 , 220 , 222 , 226 , 227 , 231 , 233 , 239 , 242244 , 250 , 251 , 256 , 260 , 262 , 339 , 343 , 348
general principle(s) of international law, 3 , 13 , 37 , 107 , 152 , 155 , 157159 , 162 , 171 , 242 , 326 , 336
harmonisation, 3 , 13 , 67 , 163 , 164 , 166 , 170 , 171 , 174179 , 264273 , 290 , 332 , 335341 , 346
human rights approach,
to conservation, 273
to environmental protection, 15 , 16 , 43 , 5254 , 64 , 65 , 67
Human Rights Committee, 1621 , 25 , 5052 , 68 , 74 , 85 , 100 , 113 , 114 , 118 , 129 , 138 , 143 , 170 , 255
human rights law, 3 , 1316 , 53 , 54 , 59 , 67 , 68 , 70 , 97 , 117 , 120 , 128 , 135 , 139 , 144 , 145 , 160 , 171 , 172 , 177 , 183187 , 193 , 195 , 208 , 211 , 212 , 220 , 222 , 224 , 238 , 242 , 243 , 260 , 263 , 282 , 286 , 288291 , 295 , 296 , 298 , 309 , 321 , 323 , 326 , 327 , 333 , 335 , 340343 , 346
human rights treaty bodies, 1113 , 15 , 16 , 53 , 6467 , 69 , 81 , 84 , 91 , 98 , 101 , 102 , 104 , 110 , 112 , 115 , 117 , 128 , 138140 , 142 , 143 , 152 , 158161 , 167 , 210 , 215 , 286 , 289 , 290 , 292 , 314 , 327 , 328 , 335337 , 344347
iccas. See Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas
iccpr. See International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
icerd. See International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
icescr. See International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
ilc. See International Law Commission
ilo. See International Labour Organisation
impact assessment, 20 , 21 , 23 , 30 , 89 , 105 , 195 , 212 , 286 , 287 , 291295 , 316 , 317 , 319 , 312 , 324 , 342 , 343
Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas, 270 , 275 , 281283 , 296299 , 320 , 321 , 323 , 326 , 329 , 333 , 340 , 343
indigenous customary law, 75n28 , 8082 , 86 , 87 , 91 , 99 , 104 , 111 , 112 , 121 , 122 , 199 , 200 , 209 , 211 , 223 , 241 , 249 , 250 , 261 , 291 , 305 , 343
indigenous participatory rights. See participatory rights and free, prior and informed consent
indigenous peoples
definition of, 712
indigenous traditional knowledge. See traditional knowledge
in-situ conservation, 3 , 66 , 184 , 189 , 264 , 270 , 284
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 31 , 34 , 162 , 299
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 31 , 111 , 266 , 328 , 344
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 16 , 141
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 11 , 16 , 20 , 21 , 49 , 75 , 87 , 98 , 130 , 136 , 141143 , 161 , 170
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 23 , 98 , 136 , 141 , 142 , 170 , 183
international custom, 103 , 133 , 141 , 142n307 , 144155 , 157 , 158 , 162 , 171 , 210
International Labour Organisation
Convention 169 , 8 , 16 , 2628 , 30 , 37 , 68 , 75 , 7779 , 83 , 86 , 93 , 94 , 99 , 103106 , 109 , 118 , 122 , 123 , 142 , 143 , 327 , 336
Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Populations (1957), 8
monitoring system, 2630
International Law Commission, 163 , 169
intellectual property rights, 4 , 182
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, 178
multilateral benefit-sharing, comparison with, 232240
International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 269 , 270 , 274277 , 279282 , 298 , 305 , 310 , 312 , 318 , 321 , 329
interpretation
contextual, 31 , 93 , 165 , 167 , 168 , 172 , 189 , 193 , 199 , 201 , 205 , 270 , 271 , 290 , 335
evolutionary, 169 , 196
expansive, 11 , 67 , 70 , 98
extensive, 50 , 68 , 98 , 100 , 143 , 155 , 158 , 161 , 336 , 347
flexible, 67
literal, 135 , 165 , 270
restrictive, 94 , 126 , 143 , 205 , 211 , 212 , 222 , 243 , 337 , 346
systemic, 3 , 12 , 13 , 31 , 66 , 67 , 141 , 164171 , 173 , 184 , 185 , 187 , 196 , 202 , 225 , 242 , 243 , 260 , 290 , 333335
teleological, 13 , 88 , 89 , 113 , 139 , 140 , 160 , 165 , 167 , 172 , 184 , 223 , 337
traditional, 137
interpretative approach, 12 , 67 , 174 , 260263 , 264 , 325334 , 335 , 337 , 341 , 346 , 347
iprs. See intellectual property rights
itpgrfa. See International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
iucn. See International Union for the Conservation of Nature
Kakadu National Park, 308 , 312 , 314
land rights, 13 , 22 , 31 , 3335 , 37 , 40 , 45 , 46 , 48 , 49 , 51 , 70 , 71 , 74 , 7296 , 97 , 100102 , 106 , 110 , 118 , 119 , 124 , 125 , 138140 , 153 , 160 , 161 , 177 , 184 , 207 , 209 , 220 , 262 , 280 , 286 , 291 , 292 , 299 , 319 , 333 , 337 , 338 , 340
legal pluralism, 250 , 343
legal status of indigenous peoples’ rights
customary law, 144155
treaty rights, 141144
mats. See mutually agreed terms
Mau forest, 39 , 42
mets. See multilateral environmental treaties
mining, 22 , 25 , 35 , 36 , 304 , 312 , 324 , 340
in World Heritage sites, 314318
Mount Elgon national park, 265
multilateral environmental treaties, 54 , 344 , 346
mutually agreed terms, 62 , 120 , 174 , 177 , 191 , 192 , 199 , 200 , 217 , 221 , 226231 , 244 , 246248 , 250 , 251 , 253 , 256 , 261 , 338 , 342 , 345
Nagoya Protocol, 13 , 57 , 6163 , 66 , 120 , 148 , 153 , 164 , 167 , 170176 , 178180 , 189191 , 199208 210 , 211 , 213220 , 224227 , 232 , 234245 , 247 , 250 , 252 , 253 , 257 , 259263 , 283 , 332 , 337340 , 342347
nature reserve(s). See protected area(s)
opinio juris, 107 , 144158
participation. See participatory rights, and free, prior and informed consent
participatory rights, 6 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 1820 , 22 , 23 , 2530 , 3437 , 40 , 42 , 47 , 50 , 52 , 54 , 64 , 67 , 71 , 85 , 86 , 89 , 94 , 96 , 102108 , 110 , 111 , 113118 , 138 , 139 , 141 , 149 , 154 , 184 , 193 , 194 , 196199 , 208 , 212 , 222 , 223 , 225 , 228 , 229 , 237 , 238 , 241 , 246 , 255 , 266 , 267 , 273 , 275 , 278 , 282290 , 292 , 294299 , 302 , 304310 , 313315 , 317323 , 326 , 328334 , 336 , 338 , 340343 , 345
and ecosystem approach, 284286
and iccas, 296299
and protected areas, 286296
possession, 72 , 73 , 7578 , 80 , 83 , 84 , 209 , 292 , 327
Powpa. See Programme of Work on Protected Areas (Powpa)
practice
cbd, 60 , 61 , 63 , 64 , 176 , 194 , 196 , 203 , 218 , 228 , 270 , 273 , 283 , 304 , 319 , 325 , 333 , 335 , 340 , 347
human rights, 13 , 104 , 105 , 126128 , 138 , 143 , 146 , 248 , 336 , 347
State(s’), 57 , 71 , 81 , 95 , 107 , 143149 , 151155 , 157 , 158 , 195 , 202 , 321 , 342 , 347
Programme of Work on Protected Areas (Powpa), 63 , 114 , 267 , 285291 , 293297 , 299 , 320322 , 323 , 325 , 327
property rights. See land rights
protected area(s), 2 , 13 , 20 , 26 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 42 , 50 , 63 , 66 , 67 , 89 , 91 , 114116 , 163 , 170 , 219 , 244 , 264271 , 273 , 274 , 276 , 277290 , 294 , 296301 , 308 , 317320 , 323331 , 333 , 337 , 340342
right
to autonomy ( See autonomy)
to culture ( See cultural rights)
to land ( See land rights)
to natural resources, 23 , 35 , 71 , 9397 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 137 , 139 , 140 , 188 , 209 , 210 , 212 , 216 , 224 , 237 , 243 , 249 , 261 , 263 , 266 , 283 , 309 , 338 , 339 , 346
to participation ( See participatory rights, or free, prior and informed consent)
to self-determination ( See self-determination)
self-determination
economic, 92 , 136138 , 221 , 338
external, 125 , 133 , 134 , 138
internal, 125 , 127 , 135 , 136 , 333
principle of, 2 , 13 , 67 , 155162 , 171173 , 184 , 187 , 212 , 231 , 235 , 260262 , 266 , 306 , 325 , 326 , 328 , 333339 , 341 , 346
right to, 13 , 20 , 24 , 69 , 71 , 88 , 92 , 109 , 121 , 125139 , 154 , 162 , 275 , 320 , 336
Special Rapporteur, 7 , 71n13
on business and human rights, 113
on human rights and the environment, 168
on the rights of indigenous peoples, 71 , 103 , 111 , 116 , 131 , 168 , 210 , 265 , 302 , 309
Tongariro National Park, 312
traditional knowledge
access to, 13 , 62 , 175 , 176 , 179 , 192 , 196 , 198200 , 206 , 227 , 231 , 241 , 242 , 248 , 249 , 253 , 257 , 260 , 319 , 332 , 342
associated with genetic resources, 3 , 120 , 191 , 192 , 195 , 199204 , 225 , 234 , 242 , 248 , 250 , 253 , 260 , 262 , 337 , 342344
definition of, 180187 , 204 , 262 , 338
indigenous, 1 , 24 , 60 , 64 , 98 , 120 , 163 , 183 , 184 , 213 , 225 , 238 , 252 , 259 , 262 , 283 , 342
misappropriation of, 1 , 181 , 202
ownership of, 176 , 195 , 198 , 200 , 224 , 225 , 240 , 252 , 258
utilisation of, 2 , 3 , 5862 , 117 , 163 , 174 , 175 , 178 , 188 , 190193 , 195197 , 203206 , 217220 , 224 , 226228 , 230 , 231 , 233 , 237 , 243245 , 250 , 251 , 260 , 262 , 263 , 283 , 307 , 339 , 343
traditional practices, 1 , 19 , 22 , 30 , 5860 , 93 , 99 , 101 , 102 , 120 , 122 , 160 , 175 , 177 , 181 , 184187 , 191 , 197 , 199 , 204 , 205 , 219 , 238 , 248 , 259 , 270 , 283 , 307 , 343
treaty rights, 291
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (undrip), 6 , 911 , 13 , 61 , 68 , 70 , 72 , 75 , 77 , 8086 , 95 , 100 , 101 , 103105 , 107111 , 115 , 121 , 123 , 125 , 130132 , 135 , 137 , 138 , 140 , 144152 , 154156 , 162 , 172 , 183 , 198 , 210 , 240 , 288 , 292 , 327 , 336 , 337 , 344 , 345
usus. See practice, State(s’)
Wane Creek reserves, 2
World Heritage Convention, 13 , 14 , 264 , 273 , 276 , 299325 , 327 , 333 , 340 , 341 , 347
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