Author:
Hang Zhang
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1.1 The four lexical tones of standard Mandarin Chinese in isolation 4

1.2 The three allophones of T3 10

1.3 Accuracy rate of Mandarin-speaking children (Clumech, 1980) 17

4.1 Potential influence of anticipatory coarticulation on T2 and T4 accuracy rates 48

4.2 Results of a mixed logistic regression for T2 and T4 when all language groups are pooled together 51

4.3 The top three disyllabic response tones for target T2 (LH) at initial positions 56

4.4 Statistical analyses of error type comparisons for T2-T1, T2-T4, T4-T1, and T4-T4 57

5.1 OCP Test 1 results for English speakers 72

5.2 OCP Test 1 results for Japanese speakers 72

5.3 OCP Test 1 results for Korean speakers 73

5.4 Rao-Scott Chi-Square test results for TMS hypothesis 75

6.1 The three allophones of Tone 3 84

6.2 The four Chinese lexical tones 85

6.3 Example trisyllabic phrases used for production task in Experiment 2 91

6.4 Error rates of target Half-T3 at word-initial and word-final positions 96

6.5 Substitute tones for target Half-T3 100

6.6 Detailed substitution patterns for target Half-T3 with positional information 100

7.1 Textbooks and monographs under review 117

7.2 Tone training items listed in textbooks or monographs 123

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