Hang Zhang
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1.1 Mean F0 contours of four Mandarin tones produced in isolation 5

2.1 Metrical grid for a bitonal metrical foot with one stressed syllable 28

4.1 Carryover and anticipatory coarticulation effects 45

4.2 Anticipatory effects on T2 and T4 of Mandarin Chinese reported by Xu (1997) 46

4.3 Accuracy rates of word-initial T2 (LH) in L2 disyllabic words 51

4.4 Accuracy rates of word-initial T4 (HL) in L2 disyllabic words 52

4.5 Average F0 (Hz) values of T2 offsets for L2 productions judged to be correct 53

4.6 Average F0 (Hz) values of T4 onsets for L2 productions judged to be correct 54

4.7 F0 values of T2 offsets and T4 onsets in the supplementary experiment 55

5.1 OCP Test 1 72

5.2 The occurrences of tone pairs in L2 production (OCP Test 2) 74

5.3 Error rates of individual tones in the main experiment 74

5.4 Accuracy rates of identical tone sequences 76

5.5 Re-ranking of OCP sub-constraints 79

6.1 Surface forms of T3 in disyllabic words 89

6.2 Error rates of tones in the perception task in Experiment 2 93

6.3 Error types for target Half-T3 (H3) for beginner- and intermediate-level learners in the perception component of Experiment 2 94

6.4 Overall error rates in the Experiment 1 96

6.5 Error rates of L2 tonal productions in Experiment 2 97

6.6 Error rates of Half-T3, Raised-T3, and Full-T3 in Experiment 2 98

6.7 Substitutions within each language group in Experiment 1 99

6.8 Pitch track of two trisyllabic prosodic words with the same T3 morpheme at the beginning: (a) qǐng nǐ kàn and (b) qǐng tā kàn 102

6.9 Sentence-final T3 hǎo uttered by English, Japanese, and Korean speakers 103

6.10 The proportions of Half-T3 (H3) and Full-T3 (F3) at utterance-final positions 104

6.11 Tone sandhi rules based on different theoretical assumptions 109

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