Farid Ahmadov
Search for other papers by Farid Ahmadov in
Current site
Google Scholar
Free access


Acknowledgments VII
Table of Cases VIII
List of Abbreviations XII
Introduction 1
1 Identifying the Elements and Operational Framework of actio popularis 13
1 Elements of actio popularis in Roman Law and Municipal Legal Systems 13
2 Defining the Operational Context for actio popularis in International Law 18
3 Actio popularis as a Judicial Concept: Proliferation of International Courts and Tribunals – a Bar to a Unified Conception of actio popularis in International Law 20
2 Understanding the Elements of actio popularis 27
1 Classification of Obligations in International Law: Bilateralist vs Multilateralist Conceptions of International Norms 36
2 Towards Identification of Collective Interests 40
3 Absolute Obligations: Nature of Human Rights Obligations 50
3 Enforcing Community Obligations 57
1 Responsibility for Violation of Collective Obligations: Debates within the International Law Commission 57
2 Invoking Responsibility to Protect Collective Interest: Distinguishing between Injured and Non-injured States 61
3 Injury and Damage as a Precondition to Invoke Responsibility: a Bar to Invoke Responsibility to Protect Collective Interests (a Bar to actio popularis) 65
4 Judicial Enforcement of Community Obligations 71
1 Ineffectiveness of “Bipolar” Litigation in Protection of Collective Interests 71
2 Injury/Damage (Legal Interest/Interest) as a Condition to Bring a Claim before International Courts and Tribunals 73
5 Actio popularis before the ICJ 76
1 Deconstructing a “Legal Dispute” 76
2 Actio popularis: Can ICJ Decide for other International Courts and Tribunals? 96
3 Sources of actio popularis: Express and Inferred Right to actio popularis 100
3.1 Actio popularis by Inference under International Treaty Instruments: Establishing a Link between Interpretation of Jurisdictional Clauses and Substantive Norms in Applications Brought before the ICJ 102
3.2 ICJ: the Right of actio popularis by Virtue of Express Treaty Provisions 125
3.3 The Right of actio popularis under Optional Clause Declarations: Adjusting Procedural Law to Substantive Obligations  129
3.4 Procedural Bar to Judicial Enforcement of Collective Obligations before International Court of Justice: actio popularis and Indispensable Third-Party Rule: Insignificance of Erga Omnes (Collective) Nature of Obligations 138
6 Actio popularis : Other International Courts and Tribunals 144
1 ITLOS 144
1.1 Actio popularis in Cases of Protection of the Area 144
2 CJEU 156
2.1 Conception of Causes of Action: Cautious Approach to Relaxing the Direct and Individual Interest Test 156
3 ECtHR 161
4 WTODSB 173
4.1 Determining the Nature of WTO Obligations and Their Legal Consequences: the Problem of a Legal Interest 173
7 Actio popularis as a Question of Judicial Policy 183
1 Actio popularis as a Result of Judicial Law Making 184
2 The Problem of Non-Liquet and Limits of Judicial Law Making 186
3 Actio popularis and Judicial Policy Concerns 191
Conclusion 199
Bibliography 205
Index 225
  • Collapse
  • Expand