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Paul B. Paolucci
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Illustrations

Figures

  1. 1.1Comparisons within and between objects and categories. Source: Created by Author 14
  2. 1.2Separating out a new category because of core differences. Source: Created by Author 15
  3. 1.3Splitting a category or set of objects into new subcategories. Source: Created by Author 16
  4. 1.4Controlled comparison. Source: Created by Author 18
  5. 1.5Abstracting the specific abstract out of the general abstract. Source: Created by Author 23
  6. 1.6Identifying general concrete conditions that correspond with specific abstract categories. Source: Created by Author 23
  7. 1.7aIdentifying specific concrete examples within the general concrete (I). Source: Created by Author 24
  8. 1.7bIdentifying specific concrete examples within the general concrete (II). Source: Created by Author 25
  9. 1.8The act of re-abstracting. Source: Created by Author 26
  10. 1.9The push and pull of categories in the act of re-abstracting. Source: Created by Author 28
  11. 1.10Splitting and re-abstracting the specific concrete into general concrete categories. Source: Created by Author 29
  12. 1.11Re-abstracting the general concrete into the specific abstract and then into the general abstract. Source: Created by Author 30
  13. 1.12aRe-abstracting the general concrete into the general abstract with the specific concrete shifting to the specific abstract in an internal model set. Source: Created by Author 31
  14. 1.12bRe-abstracting the general concrete into the general abstract with the specific concrete shifting to separate specific abstract categories in an external model set. Source: Created by Author 32
  15. 1.13A model of Marx’s successive abstractions along multiple pathways. Source: Created by Author 34
  16. 1.14Points of comparison within a model set. Source: Created by Author 36
  17. 1.15Distinguishing the mode of production from the process of circulation. Source: Created by Author 38
  18. 1.16Splitting the mode of production into subcategories. Source: Created by Author 38
  19. 1.17External comparisons between different model sets. Source: Created by Author 42
  20. 2.1aModes of production via successive abstractions (I). Source: Created by Author 92
  21. 2.1bModes of production via successive abstractions (II). Source: Created by Author 93
  22. 5.1Levels of abstraction for a study of religion from broad to narrow. Source: Created by Author 206

List

  1. 3.1Proposed research schedule for the relation between slavery and violence. Source: Created by Author 119

Tables

  1. 1.1Conceptual doublets in Marx’s method of successive abstractions. Source: Created by Author 20
  2. 2.1From society in general to modes of production. Source: Created by Author 52
  3. 2.2From history to productive relations and economic processes across modes of production. Source: Created by Author 53
  4. 2.3From production in general to specific relations and processes across them. Source: Created by Author 53
  5. 2.4Comparing differences in general constants across historical systems as a method to build models of modes of production. Source: Created by Author 54
  6. 2.5From productive relations and economic processes across historical social systems to specific concrete examples. Source: Created by Author 64
  7. 2.6From modes of production in general to specific productive relations and economic processes. Source: Created by Author 66
  8. 2.7Differentiating non-class and class systems. Source: Created by Author 67
  9. 2.8Constants, variables, and constructing models of modes of production via comparisons. Source: Created by Author 68
  10. 2.9From common productive relations and economic processes to primitive communism. Source: Created by Author 70
  11. 2.10From common productive relations and economic processes to the ancient mode of production. Source: Created by Author 73
  12. 2.11From common productive relations and economic processes to the Asiatic mode of production. Source: Created by Author 75
  13. 2.12From common productive relations and economic processes to the feudal mode of production. Source: Created by Author 78
  14. 2.13From common productive relations and economic processes to the capitalist mode of production. Source: Created by Author 90
  15. 2.14From production in general to modes of production to specific societies. Source: Created by Author 91
  16. 2.15Marx’s taxonomy of modes of production. Source: Created by Author 94
  17. 2.16The causal effects of usury in primitive communism. Source: Created by Author 99
  18. 2.17The causal effects of usury in the ancient mode of production. Source: Created by Author 99
  19. 2.18The causal effects of usury in the Asiatic mode of production. Source: Created by Author 100
  20. 2.19The causal effects of usury in the feudal mode of production. Source: Created by Author 100
  21. 2.20The causal effects of usury in the capitalist mode of production. Source: Created by Author 101
  22. 3.1Labor from production of value in general to labor’s products across modes of production. Source: Created by Author 104
  23. 3.2From the production of surplus-value in general to specific labor relations. Source: Created by Author 105
  24. 3.3From class systems in general to specific histories of class societies. Source: Created by Author 108
  25. 3.4Comparing slavery in Rome and the Americas with each other. Source: Created by Author 122
  26. 3.5From slavery in general to particular laws, practices, times, places, etc. in Rome and in the Americas. Source: Created by Author 123
  27. 3.6British slavery in the Caribbean and North American slavery: similarities. Source: Created by Author 128
  28. 3.7Comparing British slavery in the Caribbean with North American slavery. Source: Created by Author 129
  29. 3.8Comparing capitalist slavery across regions, times, and policy changes. Source: Created by Author 132
  30. 3.9From production in general to specific modes of production. Source: Created by Author 134
  31. 3.10AFrom production in general to similarities among specific class systems. Source: Created by Author 135
  32. 3.10BFrom production in general to differences between specific class systems. Source: Created by Author 136
  33. 3.11From class systems in general to capitalism and its history. Source: Created by Author 137
  34. 3.12From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail. Source: Created by Author 138
  35. 3.13From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: Dutch Colonial Empire. Source: Created by Author 142
  36. 3.14From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: rise of English manufacturing. Source: Created by Author 142
  37. 3.15From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: The Industrial Revolution. Source: Created by Author 143
  38. 3.16From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: monopoly capitalism. Source: Created by Author 144
  39. 3.17From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: transnational capitalism. Source: Created by Author 144
  40. 3.18From the capitalist mode of production to empirical detail: global capitalism. Source: Created by Author 145
  41. 3.19From the capitalist mode of production to its historical stages and specific organizations, periods, and events. Source: Created by Author 146
  42. 3.20From capitalism in general and its historical stages to specific industries. Source: Created by Author 147
  43. 3.21From the transition from industrial capitalism to transnational capitalism and specific industries and corporations. Source: Created by Author 148
  44. 3.22From capitalism in general to a specific banking house across stages of capitalist development. Source: Created by Author 148
  45. 4.1Religion as a specific form of knowledge in general. Source: Created by Author 154
  46. 4.2From religion as a specific form of knowledge in general to religion’s general forms. Source: Created by Author 155
  47. 4.3From religion in general to types of theisms and their representations. Source: Created by Author 156
  48. 4.4From monotheism in general to specific religious studies. Source: Created by Author 157
  49. 4.5From religion in general to specific universalistic theisms. Source: Created by Author 158
  50. 4.6From religion in general to specific universalistic monotheisms. Source: Created by Author 159
  51. 4.7From religion in general to required universalistic monotheisms. Source: Created by Author 160
  52. 4.8From Christianity in general to Roman Catholic institutions and churches. Source: Created by Author 161
  53. 4.9From Christianity in general to similarities within Protestantism. Source: Created by Author 161
  54. 4.10From Christianity in general to differences among Protestantism. Source: Created by Author 162
  55. 4.11Comparing Protestantism with Catholicism. Source: Created by Author 163
  56. 4.12From Christianity in general to comparing Catholicism in general to its historical changes. Source: Created by Author 163
  57. 4.13From Catholicism in general to comparison of its historical periods with each other. Source: Created by Author 164
  58. 4.14From religion in general to comparing Sunni and Shia Islam. Source: Created by Author 165
  59. 4.15From religion in general to a comparison of authority structures across three different religious traditions. Source: Created by Author 166
  60. 5.1From animals in general to human emotions and rules based on group relations. Source: Created by Author 174
  61. 5.2From humans and their need for meaning to forms of knowledge. Source: Created by Author 175
  62. 5.3aFrom humans as social animals to socially requisite rules (I). Source: Created by Author 177
  63. 5.3bFrom humans as social animals to socially requisite rules (II). Source: Created by Author 178
  64. 5.4From humans as thinking social beings to religious beliefs in history. Source: Created by Author 179
  65. 5.5From humans as thinking social beings to material forces that shape religious practices. Source: Created by Author 180
  66. 5.6Broad levels of generality and roots of religious rules and ideas. Source: Created by Author 182
  67. 5.7Identifying similarities and differences in specific religions’ historical forms. Source: Created by Author 187
  68. 5.8Drivers of religious development in society in general. Source: Created by Author 193
  69. 5.9Drivers of religious development in class systems. Source: Created by Author 194
  70. 5.10Religion in society in general and religious development in capitalism. Source: Created by Author 207
  71. 5.11Social forces in class systems and religious development in capitalism. Source: Created by Author 208
  72. 5.12Development of religion in capitalism in general. Source: Created by Author 209
  73. 5.13Development of religion across stages of capitalism. Source: Created by Author 210
  74. 5.14Comparing religion’s variables across historical mode of production. Source: Created by Author 211
  75. 5.15A Marxian religious taxonomy. Source: Created by Author 212
  76. 7.1Socialist and communist societies in Marx’s outlook. Source: Created by Author 267
  77. A.1Terms and topics in American Sociological Review articles, 2009–2018. Source: Created by Author 272
  78. A.2Keywords found in the Preliminary Program for the Southern Sociological Society’s Annual Meeting (April 10–13, 2019, Atlanta, Georgia). Source: Created by Author 279
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