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Michael Borgolte
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Zachary Chitwood
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Index

Aachen 385–6, 390, 443–5, 452–3, 463–4, 489
ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān I 270
ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān III 270
ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān ibn ʿAlī ad-Dahwār 570
Ablur 544
Abraham 42–3, 86–7, 213
Achaemenids 30, 35, 146, 150, 152, 156, 172, 176
Adad-nirari III 4, 144
Adalbero C 452
Adalgiso-Grimo 597
Adda 368
Adelchis 411
Adelheid 429–35
Adiabene 82, 624–5
Adolf of Nassau 472–3
ʿAḍud ad-Daula 272–3, 629
Æbbe 365
Aeschylus 552
Æthelberht 358–61
Æthelberht of Sussex 366
Æthelburga 367
Æthelred of Mercia 366
Agilulf 357
Agnes, empress 451
Agnes, queen of Hungary 473, 478
Agrippa 204
Ahmad ibn Tulun 271
Ahura Mazd(h)ā 27–30, 35, 150, 153, 179
Aidan 348–52
Aigiai 159
ʿĀʾiša bint as-Sayfī Barğak b. ʿAllāh al-Aqbuġāwī 571–2
Aistulf 411
Ājīvikas 189
Akkad 139, 144, 146
al-Ašraf Šaʾban 569
al-Atīr 286
Albrecht I 465, 469, 472–8
Albrecht VI 618
Alcuin 379
Alexander the Great 31–2, 145, 151–9, 163, 166, 172–6, 183, 625
Alexandria 155, 166, 216, 219, 289, 386, 587–8
Alexios I Komnenos 220, 237–45, 580–1, 586, 589–90
Alexios III of Trebizond 246
Alexios Stoudites 220
Alfred the Great 613
al-Ḥākim 280–1
Alhfirth of Northumbria 370
ʿAlī b. abī Tālib 261, 274, 279
alimentary institution / a. foundation 205–6, 554–5, 634
al-Manṣūri 570
alms, almsgiving 39, 45–7, 49, 52, 68, 70, 73, 77, 87, 90, 106, 118, 129, 132, 249, 258, 268, 273, 323, 326, 373, 381, 399, 407, 426, 446–8, 484, 500, 502, 512, 517–8, 523, 559, 565, 569, 571, 592, 599
almshouse 59–60, 64, 92, 222, 228, 563, 573, 575, 581, 602, 604–10
al-Muntaṣir 270
al-Muqtadir 270, 569
al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn Ḥasan 299
Altenburg 457–8
al-Walīd I 266
Alypius von Thagaste 226
Amasis 147, 149
Amenophis III 25, 155
Amitābha / Amitāyus / Amituo Fo 112, 118–9
amortization 504, 631
Amun 147, 150, 155
Anadolu Hisarı 306
Anāhitā 150
Anatolia 57–8, 157–8, 173, 237, 282, 291, 293, 305, 307
Andlau 408–10, 414
Andronikos I 245
Andronikos II Palaiologos 591
Angilberga 413–6
Angkor Wat 196
Anglo-Saxon 334, 341, 349–51, 358–72, 375–9
An-hsi 526
Anna, consort of Charles IV 494
Anna, consort of Rudolf of Hapsburg 469–72
Anna Komnene 581–6
Annegray 355
anniversary / anniversary book 49, 56, 60, 86–7, 324, 340, 368, 390, 393–5, 397–8, 407, 417, 428, 436, 440, 445–9, 452–3, 458, 460, 470–1, 476–81, 485–6, 558, 611, 613, 619, 636
Ansa 411
Ansbach 421
Ansebert of Fontenelle 597
Anselperga 411–2
Antigonids 146, 160, 163
Antigonos Gonatas 160, 188
Antioch 213, 223, 228
Antiochos I (Seleucid) 162, 175
Antiochos II Theos 188
Antiochos III the Great 172–4
Antiochos IV Epiphanes 80, 179
Antiochos VIII 174
Antiochos I Theos of Commagene 176–81, 185, 188, 627
Antonides 204, 555
Antónij 249–50
Antoninus Pius 205
Antwerp 503, 506
Apame 162
Apion 574
Apis 155, 168
Apollo 159–61, 164, 179, 545, 553
Aqueducts 204, 269, 274, 306
Arabia 33–4, 65, 268, 282
Aramaeans 33–4, 177, 257
Archelaos 153, 164
Areobindus 224–5
Arezzo 406
Arioald 357, 410
Aristotle 552
Arkakīrti 198
Arkesimas 150
Armenia 35, 172, 176–7, 217, 234, 282, 290, 573–5, 586, 623, 627, 635
Arnulf 399, 401, 405–8, 414
Arsacids 182
Arsameia 177–8, 181
Arsinoe I and II 162, 168, 170
Artaxerxes II 150, 153 (?)
Artaxerxes IV 150
Artemis 15, 153–4, 160, 164, 177
Arthur 613
Asarhaddon 144
Asclepios 553, 592
Ashkenaz 87–8, 94, 561–3
Aśoka 185–90, 528–30, 627
Aṣ-Ṣāliḥ Ayyūb 297
as-Sayfī Asad ad-Dīn Tānībak b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ilyāsī 571–2
Assmann, Jan 7, 19, 21–2, 26, 41
Aššur (god) 4, 6, 139, 142–4
Assurbanipal 140–2
Assyria 4, 6, 139–44, 176, 246
Athanasios 232–6
Athena 150, 152, 156–7
Athens 544–53, 587–8, 634
Athonites 235
Athos 232–8, 246–55, 574, 584, 627
Atina 555
Ātreya 541
Attaleiates, Michael 58–60, 576
Attaleiates, Theodore 60
Attalids 158, 161
Attalos I Soter 161–3
Attalos II Philadelphos 163–4
Attigny 401
Augsburg 452, 459–60, 477, 506, 563
Augustine 44, 46, 49–50, 226, 359–61, 394, 455, 459, 477, 489, 603
Augustine of Canterbury 359–61
Augustus 17, 154, 203–4, 206, 210, 213, 215, 555–8
Aulus Quinctilius Priscus 556
Aurelius of Carthage 226
Autun 417
Avalokiteśvara (Guanshiyin / Guanyin) 112–3, 118
Ave Maria College 615
Avvésvara 541
Ayuwang 115–6
Ayyubids 259, 283–301, 569, 572, 625
Azela 446
Babylon 5–8, 31–4, 81–3, 140–2, 144–146, 150–1, 156, 158, 172–3, 175–6, 182, 630–1
Badr ben Ḥasanūya 273, 275
Baghdad 267, 269, 272–3, 276, 301, 569, 626, 629
Baitokaike 174
Bâlâditya 539
Baldwin of Trier 474–5
Balthild 338–41, 351
Bamberg 443–5, 453, 458–9
Bangor 343, 354
Barābār 189
Barcelona 92–3
Barqūq 302
Barton, Henry 606
Basel 467, 469–77, 611, 614
Basil I 231, 234
Basil II 234, 236–7, 579
Basil of Caesarea 49, 56, 347, 573
bath 57, 86, 158, 182, 214, 269, 284, 288–9, 295, 356, 518, 542, 548, 550–51, 557–8, 561, 566, 569, 582, 634
Bavaria 498
Baybars 297–8, 301–2
Bayezid I 306
Bayezid II 306–7
Bazelon 580
Beatrice, consort of Frederick I 456, 459–60
Beatrice, consort of Louis IV 486
bell 117, 119–20, 488, 518
Belluno 406
benefactor 22, 36, 57, 62, 64, 70, 82, 87–90, 116–7, 162, 164–7, 171, 205, 221, 232, 238, 251–6, 270, 315, 337, 355, 402, 418, 420, 467, 530, 541, 556, 559, 562, 569–70, 592, 604, 609–13, 622, 625, 632
Beornrad 379
Berenike 168–9
Bergamo 406
Bernward (notary) 434
Bertha, empress 446
Berthram of Le Mans 53, 312, 314, 326, 340, 394, 598
Bertrada (the Elder) 381–3
Bertrada (the Younger) 339, 382–3
Besançon 459
Bethlehem 212–3
Bhāyipayyanāyaka 531
Bias 553
Bibi Fāṭima Ḫatūn 566
Bimbisara 183
birthday 174, 181, 393–400, 449, 545–555, 629–30, 636
blind 314, 526
Bobbio 357–8, 410
Bodhisattva 110–5, 134, 511, 518, 539
Bohemia 470, 475, 492
Bokenkamp, Stephen R. 134
Bonifatius 372–5
Bonifatius Amerbach 620–1
Bononia 558
Boris Vasil’evič 151
Bozina 576
Boyce, Mary 27, 29–30, 32–3
boys 48, 195, 205, 303, 421, 499–503, 528, 535–6, 547, 555, 557, 584–6, 591, 615, 620
Brahmadatta 536–7
Brahmanism 96, 101, 104, 109, 535, 543
Brahmins 36, 96–106, 183–203, 528–543, 625, 628, 633
Brandenburg 470
Braunschweig, St. Blasius 454
Breisach 506
Brescia 411–3
bridge / b. endowments 36, 39, 94, 128, 158, 260, 273–4, 290, 306, 458, 517, 519, 566
Brogne 466
brotherhood 28, 299, 439, 459, 463, 502, 553, 568, cf. also: confraternity
Brown, Peter 573
Bruck, Eberhard F. 16, 49
Bruges 611
Bruide mac Máelchon 345
Brun 404
Brutus 613
Buddha (Siddhārtha Gautama) 18, 95–6, 109–16, 118, 184, 515, 518, 534, 537–9
Buddhagupta-râja 539
Buddhism 96, 104–36, 175, 183, 186, 188–99, 292, 317, 509–44, 623–33
Budha Cakrāyudha 542
Bulgaria 61, 239, 246, 248–55, 576, 627
Bulliet, Richard W. 276
Burchard of Strasbourg 455–6
burgher 53, 332, 420, 455, 485, 580, 603–4, 607–10, 613, 636
Bursa 305–6
Burtscheid 453
Buyids 272–274, 279, 282
Byzantium 40, 56–8, 61–3, 67, 72, 212–56, 268–71, 279, 282, 305, 307, 318, 321, 574–92, 600, 608, 611, 618, 625, 627–636
Caelia 555
Caesar, Gaius Iulius 203, 588
Caesarea 49, 573
Caesarius of Arles 597
Cairo 74, 84, 88, 95, 271, 279–86, 290, 297–304, 562–4, 569–72, 629
Calixtus 43, 211
Cālukyas 542
Cambridge 613
Cambyses 32, 35, 145, 147, 149
canal 6, 22, 39, 70–1, 139, 268–9, 272, 274, 288, 295, 297, 566, 626, 632
Candra 193
Candradeva 193
Candragupta II 530
Candragupta Maurya 172, 184
Caṅgadeva 544
canonesses 426
canons / canonici 53, 228–9, 309, 380–1, 384–6, 390, 448–9
Canterbury 54, 359–61, 364, 369
Cappadocia 573, 635
Capua 213
caravanserai 566, 569–70
caritas, charity 22, 38, 47–9, 52, 57, 61, 63–4, 68–9, 83–7, 90–4, 105, 115, 117, 131, 139, 158, 195, 226–9, 232, 258–9, 267, 278, 315, 332, 368, 391, 395, 439, 441, 456, 506, 512, 516, 518–9, 523–4, 539, 553–74, 581–4, 592–600, 604, 621, 632–5
Carloman II 397, 414
Carloman of Bavaria 399, 401, 406, 414
Carolingians 53, 312, 334, 336, 339–41, 370–417, 421, 437, 440, 454, 489, 596–7, 630
cathedral chapter 434, 438–9, 447–55, 458–64, 470–1, 607, 635
Ceadda 350
Çelebi Mehmed 306
cemetery 11, 69, 86, 435, 561, 568
Ceylon 536
Chadolt 398–9
Chalons-sur-Saône 335
Chandoga 194
Chʾang-an 516
Chʾang-lin 526
Charanis, Peter 247
Charibert (Merovingian) 358
Charibert (nobleman) 381
charistikē 235–7
Chariton 255–6
Charlemagne 339–41, 370, 379, 384–92, 410–2, 417, 443–4, 489–90, 505, 597, 599–601, 613, 625, 627
Charles Martell 339, 372–4, 379
Charles the Bald 385, 388–99, 402, 442
Charles III (the Fad) 385, 397–9, 406, 408–9, 416, 421
Charles III (the Simple) 381, 384, 390, 399–401, 409
Charles IV 486–98, 617, 628
Chelles 340–1, 351
Ch’en 524–5
Chiffoleau, Jacques 55
child / children 11, 14, 20, 24, 28, 31, 39, 49–51, 69, 71, 75, 88, 90, 93, 102, 114, 120, 123, 144, 163, 167, 173, 181, 192, 205–6, 241–2, 247, 271, 301, 304, 329, 344, 349, 393, 400, 408, 444, 470, 484, 500, 509, 519, 522–4, 528, 535, 537, 546, 551, 554–6, 562, 574, 583, 585–7, 600, 604, 632
Childebert I 324–7, 395
Childebert II 355–6
China 14–5, 18, 95–6, 111–6, 119–36, 274, 282, 291, 293, 509–28, 530, 535, 537, 539–40, 569, 623–4, 627, 629, 632
Chitwood, Zachary 573
Chlothar I 324–32
Chlothar II 336, 357
Christ Church College 617
Christophoros 575
Chrodechilde 323–4, 340, 359
Church of Holy Apostles 586
Cicero 204, 554
Ciel d’Oro 411
Cimon 553
Clark, Peter 27–30
Clock 292
Clonard 343
Clonfertmulloe 345
Clonmacnois 343
college 142, 209, 212, 218, 274–6, 288–9, 309, 459, 492–3, 504, 533, 539, 542–4, 550, 606, 615–7, 633
collegiate church 323, 380, 388–92, 402, 420, 423, 439, 446–9, 454, 462, 464, 496–501, 600, 604, 606, 614, 635
Collegium Carolinum 492–3, 617
Collegium Sapientiae 617
Cologne 441, 450, 463–6, 563, 600, 613, 616
colonization 514, 632
Columba (Colum Cille) 343, 346–7
Columban (the Younger) 336, 354–8, 370
Commagene 176–182
commemorative meals 394–6, 400, 451
common benefit 39, 72, 173
Compiègne 390, 400–1
Comum 556–7
Conall mac Comgaill 346
confiscation 102, 104, 143, 192, 237–8, 363, 372, 375, 512, 565
confraternity 439–40, 450, 459–62, 480, 502–3
Confucius, Confucianism 18, 96, 119–23, 125, 509–14, 525, 527, 625, 632
congregational mosque 271, 287, cf. also: Friday mosque
Conrad I 421–3, 427
Conrad II 446, 448–50
Conrad III 454, 456
Constance, empress 454, 461
Constance, town 407, 455, 477
Constantina 212
Constantine the Great 40, 52, 210, 212–6, 220, 223, 227–8, 307, 314, 331, 572–5, 593, 628, 635
Constantine V 229
Constantine VII 231, 234
Constantine VIII 234
Constantine IX 589
Constantinople 55, 57–61, 212–3, 215, 218–20, 223–57, 266, 305–7, 321, 329–30, 333, 374, 379, 381, 384–9, 393, 627, 629
Constantius 228
Corbie 341
Cornuta 309–10
couple founders 113–4, 119–20, 160, 162, 168–9, 173, 226–7, 242, 307, 325, 378, 381–2, 404–5, 411, 423, 439, 459, 494, 566, 571, 581, 602, 607
Croatia 628
Croesus 154
Cugnon-sur-Semois 342
Cunincpert 410
Cupra Montana 205
Cyprian of Carthage 48–9, 211
Cyrus I (the Great) 30–33, 35, 40, 145–6, 552
Dagobert I 336–40, 395
Damascus 265–70, 282–98, 304, 568–9, 628
damming of rivers 519, 566, 632, 634
damnatio memoriae  24
Dantivarman I 543
Daoism 96, 119–36, 509, 512, 515, 519, 625, 632
Darius I 33, 145–50, 176
Darius II 150, 171
Darius III 154–6, 171
Daśaratha 190
Daśāvaī Padmaladevī 195
David of Israel 625
David IV the Builder 246
Dečani 254
Deguilhem, Randi 568
Delhi 198
Delos 158–64
Delphi 158, 163, 548
Demetrios II 160
Demosthenes 552–3
Derry 347
Desiderius 441–2
Devapāla 193
Dēvaputra Shāhi Huvishka 529
Dhruvasena I 194, 529
Didyma 161–2
Dionysios 246
diptych 57, 59–61, 222, 241
division of property 392, 396, cf. also: mensa sharing
Djoser , cf. Zoser
doctor (medical d.) 72–3, 220, 243, 267, 272, 277, 279, 282, 289, 301, 520–2, 529–30, 543–4, 553, 562–4, 569–70, 583, 587, 597, 620
dormitories 60, 615–6
Dornik 618
Dortmund 441–4
Droṇasiṃha 102
drought 168, 526, 632
Dryhthelm 46–7
Dunhuang 113, 116
Dunna 366
Durrow 347
Eanatum 6, 143
Eberhard of Bamberg 445
Echternach 375–81
Edfu 171
Egypt 4, 7–10, 13–4, 19–25, 30, 36, 41, 52, 89–90, 138, 145–51, 154–5, 160, 162, 166–71, 183–5, 189, 211, 258–9, 271, 279–81, 284, 289–91, 293, 297–300, 302, 304, 307, 316–7, 386, 451, 508, 548, 568–9, 571, 574, 587–8, 622–6, 631
Eichstätt 421, 475, 619
Elephantine 172
Elias 580
Elizabeth, consort of king Albrecht 473, 478
Elizabeth of Aragón, consort of Frederick “the Fair” 479
Enanatum 6
endowment charters 195, 208, 437, 552
England 563
Enlil 6, 143
Enmetena 6, 143
Ennin 516
Epaminondas 553
Ephebia 547
Ephesus 15, 153–4, 157, 177, 551, 587, 591
ephor(eia) 239–40
Epicurus 546
Epidauros 553
epidōsis 235–6, 240
Erasmus of Rotterdam 620–1
Ermina 377–9
Ermintrude 389, 393–6
Erstein 409, 412
ethics 19–22, 29–30, 36, 39, 47, 97–8, 119–37, 174, 184–5, 189, 263, 507–10, 534–5, 572, 622
Étival 408
Ettal 481–5
Euboea 548
euergēsia / Euergetism 36, 52, 157–176, 205, 550–1, 553, 556, 559, 565, 634
Eumenes II Soter 162–6
eunuchs 115, 144, 302–3, 569, 535, 635
Euphrosynus 551
Eustathios Boïlas 239, 576
Eustatios of Sebaste 573
Eustatios of Thessalonike 587
Evergetis 239–40, 253
Fabiola 593
Fáelán mac Dímma 345
Fa-hsiang 518
Fāṭima b. Muḥammad 568
Fatimids 279–84, 290, 568
Faurndau 403, 407
Faxian 530
Feld, Helmut 78–9, 95
Felix 40, 408
female founders 174, 190, 224–9, 268–70, 278, 307, 351, 411, 413, 548–9, 555, 568–9, 572, 593, 611, 630, cf. also: couple founders
Fideicommissum  17
First Request 498
Flavius Valila 309–10
flood 23, 526, 632
Fontaines 355–6
Ford’s Hospital 605
foreigner 314, 458, 549, 552–3, 564, 635
fortresses 265, 268–9, 286, 301, 305–6, 355, 551, 559, 566, 626
foundation inscription 5–6, 11–25, 32–6, 43, 61, 102–16, 119, 125, 130, 140, 142–7, 154–82, 185–208, 212, 224, 255, 257, 269, 283, 287–8, 300–1, 305, 530–8, 541–4, 547–8, 551, 555–8, 561, 628
foundation organ 30, 32, 51, 144
foundation policy 259, 286, 294, 315, 472–3, 497, 631
founder’s right 221–2, 245
foundling-house 58
fountain 268, 271, 288, 300, 304, 566, 569
Francesco Carbone 595
Frankfurt 402–3, 421, 434
Frederick I 450, 454, 456–62, 626
Frederick II 450, 454, 458, 461, 463
Frederick III 464–5, 471, 486–7, 496–8, 502, 505
Frederick “the Fair” 475–81
Frederun 400–1
freed(wo)men 16–7, 38, 53, 62, 268, 300, 314, 348, 557, 569, 576
Freeren 461
Freiburg 614, 618
Freising 477
Friday mosque 270–1, 277, 280, 287, 299, 306, 571
Fugger, Jacob 607–8
Fulda 398, 404, 421–2, 456
funerary / f. cult / f. endowment 10–7, 22–5, 32–3, 41, 43, 53, 86, 119–22, 138, 142, 147, 149, 155, 213, 280, 319, 327, 334, 349, 387, 394, 396, 408, 474, 507, 546, 550, 567, 574, 618, 622, 634
Fursa 353–4
Fustat (Old Cairo) 88–91, 271, 279, 562–4
Galesion Monastery 591
Galinsky, Judah D. 91, 94
Gaṇapati 543
Gandersheim 404–9, 414, 423
Gautamī Balaśri 190
Gautamīputra Shātakarni 190
Gāzān Hān 71, 292–3, 629
Gebhard, count 402
Gebhard of Strasbourg 455
Geniza 89, 562–3
Georgia 58, 61, 239–46, 257, 561, 576–85
Georgios Goudeles 584
Gerberga 404–5
Germany 617
Gernet, Jacques 519
Ghent 503, 506
Gierke, Otto 371
ğihād 268, 567, 634
girls 48, 93, 174, 198, 205, 415, 535, 541, 553, 555, 557, 584, 606
Gisela (consort of Conrad II) 450
Gisela (daughter of Charlemagne) 341
Gisela (I, daughter of Lothar I) 412
Gisela (II, daughter of Louis II) 412–4
Glykas, Michael 56
Goda 602
Gortyn 553
Goslar 449–50, 459
Gottschalk 452
Govinda III 198
Govinda IV 193, 541, 628
grave / g. monuments 7, 15–6, 31, 42, 44, 66–71, 115, 126, 149, 295, 341, 389, 394, 451, 468, 502, 505, 522, 538, 540, 595, 607, cf. also: tomb, mausoleum
Graz 506
Greece / Greek 15–6, 18, 32–6, 40–2, 49, 53, 55, 61, 79, 95, 98, 145–6, 151–2, 154–60, 162, 164, 166, 169, 172, 174–9, 223, 246–9, 252–4, 318–9, 347, 386, 481, 544–55, 557, 559, 565, 572–96, 627, 634–5
Gregory of Nazianzus 49, 587, 593
Gregory of Nyssa 49
Gregory of Sinai 253
Gregory of Tours 308, 318, 323, 325, 331, 333
Gregory (Georgios) Pakourianos 58, 239–40, 576–9, 585
Gregory the Great 46, 54, 271, 324, 359, 361–2, 596
Gregory III 53
Gregory VII 601
guesthouse 58, 136, 269, 273, 411, 474, 516, 520–22, 551, 569, 571, 574, 580–81, 583, 596–9, 632, 634
guilds 191, 224, 500, 529–30, 587, 605
Gunthram 334–6, 355
Gupta 191, 193, 198, 201, 530, 538
gymnasium 159, 161–3, 173, 544–55, 634
Gytheion 549
Hadrian 548, 550
Hagenau 456–7, 461
Hagia Sophia 218, 220, 228–9, 246, 306, 590
Ḫaizurān 268
Han 121, 124, 509, 512
Han Gaozu 121
Han Wudi 510
Ḥanafi 72, 257, 277, 303, 567
Hapsburg 464–81, 487–8, 492, 496–507
Haribert (of Laon) 382
Hartepool 351
Hārūn ar-Rašīd 72, 267–8, 279, 386, 626
Hathumod 404
Heidelberg 614
Heidemann, Stephan 286
Heiu 351
Helck, Wolfgang 9, 22
Helena 212, 223, 331
Heliopolis 213
Hellenism 16, 77, 122, 138, 146, 151, 157–76, 184, 188–9, 546–50, 625
Hemma 402, 408
Henry I 423, 426–7, 431
Henry II 431, 439–45
Henry III 445–51
Henry IV 447–55
Henry V 447–8, 454–5
Henry VI (Hohenstaufen) 454, 458, 461–3, 605
Henry VI (of England) 606–7
Henry VII 464–5, 473–4
heqdesh 84, 559–64
Hera 553
Herakleios 229
Herāt 293–6
Herford 403
Heribert C 434
Heriston 550
Hermarchos from Mytilene 546
Hermonthis 575
Hesiod 552
Hexham 367–9
Hierapolis 553
Hilandar 253–5
Hildegard 387–8, 403
Hildesheim 440
Hildibald (B, F) 434–7
Hīnayāna 110, 511, 540
Hinduism 95–119, 182–203, 528–43
Hippocrates 553
Hohenstaufens 454–464, 471, 625
Holy Land 212, 254, 387, 497, 564
Homer 18, 552, 591
Honorius I 313, 357
honorary canonry 231
Hopeh 517
Horus 8, 155, 171
Hospice 58, 72, 92, 117, 228, 232, 243, 255, 267, 286, 302, 314, 329, 414–8, 456, 477, 479, 553, 563, 573–4, 582–3, 587, 592–4, 597, 599, 603, 634
Hospital 57–8, 72, 86, 219, 222, 226, 228, 234, 242–4, 260, 267, 271–3, 277, 280, 286–7, 289–90, 292, 301, 306, 454–61, 474–9, 485–7, 493, 503, 506–7, 519–22, 530, 543, 553, 563–4, 569–70, 580–4, 592–611, 614, 619, 626–9, 634–6
Hospitallers 606
Hospital of the Blessed Mary 616
Hospital of the Holy Spirit, Lübeck 608–10
Hostel 72, 132, 229, 232, 289, 304, 306–7, 326, 566, 603, 616–7
Hrothware 366
Hsin-hsing 516
Hsüan-tsung 519
Hua-tu 516
Hungary 494, 582, 628
hungry 20, 49, 456, 517–8, 521, 553
Hunt, Andrew 606
Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana) 307
Huschner, Wolfgang 433
Huviṣka 529
Huy 598
Iasos 173–4
Ibn an-Nafīs 570
Ibrahim ibn Nasr 277
Ikṣvākus 190
Illtud 344
Imām 303, 567, 571
imperial monastery 116, 229–30, 402, 407, 413, 450, 575
India 18, 27, 90, 95–119, 131, 134, 136, 145, 172, 182–203, 258, 264, 274, 293, 496, 509, 511, 528–44, 623, 625–9, 631–3
Ingolstadt 479, 618–20
Inheritance 6, 11, 24, 38, 40, 47, 49–50, 60, 92–3, 101–2, 139, 144, 157, 180, 185, 192, 221, 257, 259, 271, 286, 294, 298, 312, 343–4, 362–5, 370, 377, 379, 382, 388, 400, 473–4, 503, 565, 621
Innsbruck 505–6
Iona 343, 347–51
Iosif Sanin 250–1
Iran 18, 25–39, 65, 145–56, 172, 182, 263, 270–4, 286, 292–3, 301, 570, 573, 622, 635
Irene 229
Irene Doukaina Komnene 239
Irene of Hungary 242
Irish 342–358, 362, 367–70, 379, 410, 627
Irmingard (consort of Lothar I) 409, 412
Irmingard (daughter of Louis II) 413, 415–6
irrigation / i. endowments 22, 25, 39, 70, 138–9, 260, 265, 274, 294–5, 566
Isaac of Meiningen 85–6
Isis 155, 166, 169, 172, 209, 211
Israel 19, 41, 78, 80–1, 625, cf. also Holy Land; Palestine
Istanbul 306–7
Italy 563
I-tsing 540
Ivan Alexander 253
Izjasláv 249–50
Jainism 96, 104–10, 186, 198, 531–4
Jakki Raḍḍi 532
Jaspers, Karl 18–9
Jerome 49–50, 489, 593
Jerusalem 31, 46, 60, 64, 79–80, 82, 90, 212–3, 219, 224, 228, 246, 254, 282–5, 290–2, 298, 303, 306, 386–7, 457, 459, 564, 568, 593, 625, 627
Jesus Christ 41–4, 49, 72, 240–1, 246, 351, 381, 403, 482, 495, 499
Jews, Judaism 31, 33, 40–2, 46, 65, 77–96, 100, 118, 211, 257, 259, 268, 279, 281, 289, 308, 495, 559–68, 584, 591, 593, 623–4, 634–5
Jihad Ṣalāḥ 569
John, apostle 42–4, 429, 452, 496, 610
John Baptist 59, 247, 266, 615
John Chrysostom 49, 57, 594
John Glykys 591
John I of Speyer 447
John I Tzimiskes 217, 233–4
John II Komnenos 58, 242
John III Doukas Vatatzes 590
John VII 53
John III of Lübeck 608
John Italos 589
John Kerer 617
John of Hubant 615–6
John the Lydian 588
John Vladislav 255–6
John Xiphilinos 589
Jones, William R. 64
Joseph I 591
Josse de Londres 616
Judas Maccabeus 46, 82
Judith 334, 393, 396, 412
Juliana Anicia 224–5
Julian the Apostate 587, 593
Juno Lacinia 209
Jupiter 206–8
Justin II 581
Justinian I 58, 216–7, 221–3, 226–8, 237, 307, 319, 325, 546, 572, 580–2, 587–8, 594, 627
judgment, individual 29–30, 33, 41–2, 55, 65, 79, 81–2, 90, 119, 136, cf. also: Last Judgment
Kādambas 195, 629
Kākatīyas 532
Kambha 198
Kanasarukamäna-scion 529
Kanopos 167–9
Kansu 517
Kao-tsu (Wen-ch’eng ti) 515
Karahāṭaka 193
Karaites 91
Karbala / Kerbelāʾ 71, 261
Karīmī 569
Karlstein 491, 494–6
Karunantaḍakkan 543
Kastl 480
Kaufbeuren 485
Kaunios 150
Kecharitōmenē 239
Kent 54, 351, 358–61, 364–5
Kettenbach 402
Khanqāh 71, 74, 268, 278, 285, 290, 301–4, 566, 568
Khazars 625
Khosrow I 26, 588
Khubilai 524
Khvāja ʿAbdullāh Anṣārī 295–6
Khwāja Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī 292
Kiev 61, 248–9
Koblenz 563
Kočo 113–4
Königsfelden 473–6
Kommana Bōyuṃḍu 532
Komnenoi 240–7, 576, 579, 587
Kongs 121
Koutloumousiou 255–6
Kozma, Emese 564
Krakow 494
Kṣatrapas 190
Ktētoria 222
Kuğuğī 74–6
Kukkūṭagrāma 194
Kulke, Hermann 200–2
Kunigunde, consort of Otakar of Steier 458
Kunigunde, empress 439–45, 448
Kuno of Strasbourg 455
Kuṣāṇa 191
Kyzikos 158
Labaḫ 257
L. Aemilius Daphnus 558
Lagids 146, 166, cf. also: Ptolemies
Laibach 499–500, 506
Langres 15, 17, 397, 399
Laodike 173–4, 630
Laodike (mother of Antiochos I of Commagene) 179
Laotse 18, 96, 122, 128, 130
Last Judgment, Final Judgment 3, 21, 29–30, 42–5, 52, 54–7, 61, 63, 65–7, 70, 76, 81, 244, 335, 622, cf. also: judgment, individual
Lastingham 350
Lateran (Rome) 213
Laum, Bernhard 551
Lautern 457
law of foundation 565
Lekapene 576
Leo IV 628
Leo VI 221, 231, 234
lepers / leprosarium 58, 117, 242–3, 535, 563, 566, 581, 596, 598, 604
Lérins 51, 316
Lev, Yaacov 64, 277
Library 72, 272–3, 277, 279, 281–2, 292, 551, 556–7, 567, 570, 588–9, 606, 629
Licinia Eudoxia 224
Lights 86, 195, 310, 314, 384, 387–91, 400, 441, 447, 486, 506, 516, 518, 542, 564, 635
Lindisfarne 347–52
Linz 506
Lips 583
Liudbrand, king of the Lombards 410, 596
Liudgard 404
Liudolf 404–5
Liudolf I (notary) 434
Liudolfings 404, 414, 423, 439, cf. also: Ottonians
Liudprand 410, 596
Liutbrand (deacon) 403, 407
Lobbes 399, 435–6
Lohse, Tillmann 602
London 605–7
Longuyon 598
Lorsch 421–2
Lothar I 384, 409, 412, 601
Lothar II 389
Lothar III 454
Louis II 389, 397, 412–3
Louis III 397
Louis IV (the Bavarian) 475, 479–81, 485, 495
Louis “the Bearded” 618–9
Louis the German 374, 385, 389, 393–4, 402–4, 407, 414
Louis the Pious 334, 371, 384–93, 403, 412, 597–601
Louis the Rich of Landshut 619
Louis the Stammerer 390, 399
Louis the Younger 402, 404–6
Loukites 591
Lucca 451
Lübeck 420, 485, 608–11
Lüttich 435–6, 461
Lugalurub 143
Lugalzagesi 143
Lusiardi, Ralf 55
Luxembourg 463–6, 473–4, 488–90, 495–6, 628
Luxueil 336, 339, 355–8
Lydians 30, 145, 153–4, 173, 588, 629
Lykon 546
Lyons 319–20, 325–7
Maastricht 598
Maccabees 46, 80, 82, 88
Macedonia 32, 63, 145–58, 166–7, 169, 172, 176, 178, 181, 188, 254, 574
Macuch, Maria 39
Mādhaveśvara 530–1
Madrasa 71–6, 274–92, 299–306, 567–70
Magadha 184
Magdeburg 427–33, 439, 441–5
Magians 31–5, 152
Magnesia 548
Mahāvīra 96, 104, 107, 198
Mahāyāna 110–9, 130, 136, 511–2, 518, 534, 539, 541
Maḥmūd of Ghazna 274
Mahmud Paṣa 306
Maimonides, Moses 81, 84, 90
Mainz 88, 435, 466, 470, 498
Maitraka 104, 194, 200, 540
Maitreya 112–4
Makdisi, Georges 275
Māḷapayyanāyaka 531
Mālikī law / school 257, 267, 276, 288, 567
Mallēśvara of Vijayavāḍa 532
Mamlūk 71, 278, 291–2, 297–304, 307, 565, 568–72, 629
Mani / Manichaeans / Manichaeism 26, 35, 114
Mantinea 551
Manuel I Komnenos 244
Manumission 17, 52–3, 62, 298, 314, 479, 569
Mānyakheṭa 193
Marāgha 292
Marco Polo 524
Marculf 598–9
Marcus Agrippa 558
Mardi 533
Marduk 5–7, 140, 145–6, 156
Margarete, consort of Henry VII 474
Maria 40, 53, 57, 59, 239, 249, 254, 334, 341, 367, 396, 407, 444, 447, 453, 463, 482, 488–9, 495, 497, 615
Maria, empress 454
Marinids 291
market 57, 115, 174, 193, 265, 273, 286–7, 306, 367, 531, 559, 584, 602, 607, 610, 629–30
Mar Qardagh 573
Marsilius of Inghen 614
martyrology 85
masğid 275
Masini 414
Masrūr 571
mass / endowments of masses 46–8, 51, 55, 57, 59–64, 71, 211, 238, 240–1, 339, 344, 354, 357, 368, 388, 397–8, 406, 414, 418, 422, 435–6, 439, 441, 446–7, 450–4, 458, 460–1, 471, 477–8, 480–1, 486–8, 493, 495–6, 498, 501–7, 577, 583, 604, 607, 610, 619
maṭha 543–4
Mathilde II 423
Matilda 423–30
matricularii 337, 598
Matthew 43–4
Mattsee 401
Mauerbach 475–9
Maurya 172, 184–5, 187, 189
Mausoleum 71–4, 214, 270, 277, 290, 292, 294, 296, 299, 301, 306, 336, 352, 469, 472–4, 481, 567–8, 575, 583, 629
Maximilian I 486–7, 501–7, 631
Mecca 65, 266–70, 280, 288, 297, 303, 306–7, 626
Medes 30, 32–3
medicine 106, 110, 129, 191, 195, 271, 306, 518, 520–44, 564, 587, 615, 629
Megístis Lávras 235
Mehmed II 305–7
Meißen 450
Melania the Younger 226, 593
Melite 546
Melrose 47, 352
Memleben 431
memorial book 85–8, 564
Memphis 8, 21, 24–5, 149, 155
Menas 547
mensa sharing 392, cf. also: division of property
Menzel, Michael 480
Merchant 89, 91, 272, 304, 307, 528–40, 562, 569, 603, 606–7, 611, 633–4
merit monastery 116
Merovingians 52, 323–41, 354–8, 370, 375, 395, 437, 596, 600
Merseburg 441–3
Mercy 598
Mersmann, Heinrich 610
Mesopotamia 4–18, 33–4, 41, 138–45, 147, 154, 184, 188, 278, 283–4, 291, 573, 624, 630
Meter Aspordene 159
Metrodoros 546
Metten 406
Metz 387–9, 391, 456, 598
Michael Glabas Tarchaneiotes 584
Michael I 230
Michael Maleinos 232
Michael Psellos 587–9
Michelsberg 445
Mihrēn 37–8
Mihrimah Sultan 307
Mihr-Narseh 36
Mileśeva 254
Milet 164–5, 546
mill 220, 272, 286, 288, 295, 304, 451, 455, 474, 516, 566, 634
Minden 438
Ming Taizu 121
minster 358–370, 630
Mithradates I Kallinikos 178–9
Mithras 150, 179, 211
Moldavia 247, 255
Mo Lua moccu Óche 345
Mondsee 503, 506
Mongolian 71–2, 292, 297
monied endowments 530
Monobaz I of Adiabene 82, 624
Monreale 612
Mont Cenis 597
Moses, son of R. Joseph 86
mosque-inn colleges of law 274–5
Münster, Sebastian 620
muezzin 567, 571
Muhammad 64–7, 70–7, 257–68, 279, 288, 291–2, 295, 303, 306, 328, 565, 568
Munich 477, 480–1, 486
Murad I Hüdavendigâr 306
Murgi 558
muses 159, 162, 545
Muslims 64–77, 88, 91, 93–4, 109, 118, 237, 247–8, 257–308, 386, 405, 524, 541, 559–71, 591, 623, 625, 628–9, 634
Mykerinus 10, 12
Myreleion 575
Nabonid 30, 33, 146
Nāgārjuni 190
Nālanda 538–41
Nanda 184
Naples 213, 595
Nārāyaṇa 533, 542
Nasik 190, 628
Nasir Khusraw 280
Nebuchadnezzar II 142, 145
Necrology 85–7, 399, 405, 430, 442, 446, 458–60
Neith 147, 149
Nektanebos II 171
Nemrud Dağı 177–8, 181
Nerses 573
Nerva 204–6, 556–7
Nerval 145
Neuhausen 446
Nicholas Alexander 256
Nicholas Mesarites 586
Nicomedia 213
Niederschönenfeld 480
Nienburg 442–3
Nikephoros Blemmydes 590–1
Nikephoros Chrysoberges 236
Nikephoros I 229–30
Nikephoros II Phokas 231–4, 238
Niphon 584
Nishapur 274–6
Niẓām ad-Dīn Čaqmaq 566
Niẓām al-Mulk 274–6, 278–82
Nothelm of Sussex 364
Numa Pompilius 206–7
nuns 57, 104–10, 130, 135, 191, 197, 240–2, 317, 331–4, 340, 354, 362, 384–7, 402–5, 409–24, 450, 469, 474, 479, 511, 513, 516, 533–4, 582–3, 603, 633
Nūr ad-Dīn Maḥmūd 284, 286, 628
Nuremberg 85–95, 563–4
oblation 48, 140, 412, 448, 458, 600
observatory 72, 130, 292, 629
Ochrid 254
Oda 404
Odo 390, 399, 417
Oethelwald 350
Ötting 401–2
oil foundation 548–9, 564
old-age home 58–9, 229, 232, 523–4, 581
Old Cairo , cf. Fustat
Olles, Volker 115–6, 119, 509
Order of St. George 501–7
Order of St. Lazarus 604
Orhan Gazi 306
Orontides 176
orphan, orphanage 48, 57, 75, 82, 131, 134, 139, 210, 229, 260, 288, 304, 329, 367, 517, 519, 522–3, 528, 539, 552, 566–7, 569, 580–82, 586, 594, 632–3
Oshere of the Hwicce 366
Osiris 147–8
Osnabrück 453
Ostia 205, 213
Oswald of Bernicia 348
Oswiu 348–52
Otakar of Steier 458
Otto I 424–9
Otto II 430–8
Otto III 427, 430–8, 443–5
Otto IV 454
Otto (son of Liudolf of Saxony) 404
Ottomans 68, 247–8, 255, 265, 291, 297, 305–8, 497, 629
Ottonians 383, 404–45
Oxford 613, 617
Paderborn 439, 441
Pahlitzsch, Johannes 64
Pala 193
Palestine 18, 31, 82, 172, 246, 271, 282, 288, 293, 565
Pāṇḍ[u]rājyā 102
Panteleemon Hospital 584
Pantokrator 242–4, 583, 587, 629
Paris 396–7, 417, 492, 613, 615–6
Paroria 253
Pārśvanātha 531
Parthians 35, 176, 182
Pārthivaśekharapuram 543
part (quota) for the soul 49, 61, 227, 485
Pasargadae 31–2
Passau 477, 499, 501
Pāṭaliputra 530
Patronatsrecht 221
Paul 42, 44–5, 53, 213, 314, 361, 471, 474, 581–2, 586, 606
Paulinus of Nola 593–4
Pavia 408, 411
Peasants 229, 231, 236, 271, 512, 571, 577, 580, 611, 614, 628, 633, 636
Peć 254, 494
Peisistratos 552
Pepi I 10, 12
Pepi II 12
Pepin, dux 375
Pepin of Aquitaine 334
Pepin II of Aquitaine 389, 393
Pepin (II) of Herstal 372, 375–6, 378–9, 387
Pepin the Younger (king) 339, 373, 379–82, 626
Perceto 411
Perctarit 410
Pericles 552
Persepolis 35, 156
Persia , cf. Iran
Peter IV of Aragón 93
Petosiris 21
Petra 255
Petritzos-Bačkovo 239, 578
Petrus 376, 409, 416
Phaenia Aromation 548–9
pharmacy 521, 530
Philadelphos I Soter 160
Philae 172
Philanthropy 21, 52, 57–60, 63–4, 72, 76, 88, 92, 158, 167, 223, 229, 231, 258, 260, 271–3, 280, 292–3, 299, 301, 312, 314, 326, 363, 391, 416, 418, 456, 508–616, 631–4
Philetairos of Pergamon 158–61, 626
Philip of Swabia 454, 461, 471
Philipp V (Antigonid) 160
Piacenza 414, 456
piae causae 58, 72, 227, 581, 594
Pickert, Susanne 17, 558
Pilgrims 60, 65, 71, 90, 94, 224, 266–9, 280, 282, 286, 288, 290, 295, 303–4, 306–7, 319–20, 340, 345–6, 353, 356, 377, 411, 487, 489, 497, 516, 530, 537, 539–40, 566–7, 603, 626
Pinianus 226
Pisa 53, 332, 475, 482
Placidia 224
Plato 79, 544–6, 552, 587
Plektrud 378–9, 387
Pliny the Younger 556–7
Plöger, Otto 79
Plutarch 15, 150, 152, 552
Poland 494
Polythrus 546–7
Poor 2, 21, 39, 45, 47–53, 57–9, 61–3, 71–5, 82–3, 86, 89–90, 93–4, 117–8, 131, 147, 173, 204–5, 210, 215, 228, 232, 236, 242, 249, 258, 260, 271, 277, 281, 299, 308–9, 314, 317, 325–6, 329, 335–40, 348, 352, 367, 373–4, 377, 384, 387–8, 391–5, 401, 407, 415, 418, 431, 439, 441, 448, 451, 455–8, 467, 473, 475, 484, 493, 499–500, 506, 517–21, 524, 526–30, 537, 547, 552–4, 561–73, 577–84, 592–4, 596–604, 606–8, 615–20, 626, 632, 634, 636
Poorhouse 58–9, 576, 594, 603–6
Praejectus of Clermont 597
Prague 488–98, 613–4, 628
prebend(ary) 6, 142, 309, 340, 380–1, 390–1, 402, 419–20, 438–9, 448–53, 461–71, 480, 484, 493, 495, 498–9, 600, 613, 615, 618–9, 621, 635
Priene 157
prisoner 48, 521–2, 591
private property 11, 23, 40, 139–40, 175, 199, 286, 294, 298, 351, 380, 573–4
Prizren 254
proprietary church / p. monastery 221–2, 311–4, 343–9, 352, 358–75, 378, 380–3, 402–20, 427, 435, 442, 461, 525, 574, 576, 598–9, 635
Prüfening 459
Prum 375, 381–4
Ptolemies 22, 146, 158, 160–72, 176, 188, 588, 625
Ptolemy I Soter 166, 170
Ptolemy II Philadelphos 160, 162, 167–8, 170, 172
Ptolemy III Euergetes 162, 168–9, 188, 625
Ptolemy V 167
Ptolemy VII 167
Ptolemy X Alexander 171
Ptolemy (Orontid) 176
public welfare 204, 289, 292, 634
Puigcerdá 92
Pulcheria 224–6
Pumbedita 83
purgatory 41, 54–5, 118, 127
qadi 74, 271
Qalāwūn 301
Qānsūh al-Ghūrī 304
Qarāra 568
Qayrawān 279
Quedlinburg 334, 423–30, 441
Qufu 121, 625
quota for Christ , cf.: part of the soul
quota for the poor , cf.: part of the soul
Quran endowment 569
Quran readers 567, 571
Quran school 73, 566–9
Radegunde of Poitiers 327–34, 341, 387, 410
Rājarāja 203
Ramses 21, 24
Ramses II 23
ransom of captives / r. of debtors 237, 348, 563, 567–9, 594
Rašīduddīn 72–4
Rāṣṭrakūta 193, 197–8, 203
Rasulids 568–9
Ratbod of Trier 380
Rāṭṭarāja 541
Re‘ 147
Regensburg 384, 402, 450, 477, 485, 563
Reginar 381
Reichardsroth 458
Reichenau 398, 407
Reinfandt, Lucian 571
Rexroth, Frank 607
Rhaidestos 59–60
Ribaṣ 562
Ribash 562
ribāṭ 268, 301–2, 567–8
Richild 393–6
Rila 252
Ripon 367–70, 375
road / r. endowments / street 36, 39, 128, 204, 265, 269, 289, 456, 485, 519, 530, 551, 626, 634
Robert I 417
Robert of Sorbonne 615
Rodelinda 410
Romanos Diogenes 237
Romanos I Lekapenos 231, 236, 575
Rome 15–6, 40, 53, 122, 176, 182, 204–14, 223, 248–9, 259, 271, 308, 312–3, 319, 340, 342, 359, 361, 367, 369, 375, 389, 404, 409, 411, 422, 463, 489, 495, 498, 544, 554–9, 593, 601, 613, 620, 628, 634
Rudolf I of Westfrancia 417
Rudolf IV “the Founder” 497–8, 625
Rudolf of Hapsburg 461, 467–73, 626
Rüstem Paṣa 307
Rumeli Hisarı 306
Rupert I 614
Rupert II 614
Rupert III 614
Rusʾ, Russia 60–64, 218, 248–53
Sābiq ad-Dīn Miṭqāl al-Anūkī al-Ḥabaš 569
Šābuhr I 25, 35–6
Säckingen 403, 408
Ṣaġab 569
Saint-Denis 337–40, 373–4, 390–400, 417
Saint-Germain d’Auxerre 324, 406
Saint-Germain-des-Prés 395
Saint-Martin of Tours 340, 359, 392, 397, 406
Saint-Maurice d’Agaune 320–9, 340, 387
Saint Medardus 397
Saint-Remi 400–1
Saladin 268, 283–291, 297, 301, 571, 629
Salians 426, 445–55, 464, 471–2, 625
Salotgi 533, 542
Salzburg 477, 499, 501
Śakrâditya 539
Samarkand 277, 293
Šamaš 145
Sampson 228, 582
Samson 344, 355
Sánchez, Ignacio 568
Śāṇḍilyagotra 194
Sañghârâma 539–40
Sanherib 144
Saqqara 10
Sardis 84, 145, 153, 173, 629
Sargon II of Aššur 4
Sargon of Akkad 144
Šarrat-nipḫa 143
Sassanids 25–6, 35, 38–40, 146, 263, 272, 573
Sātavāhanas 190
Satyros 550
Śauddhodani 538
Sava 253–4
Saxony 470
Sázava 489–90
Schmiedchen, Annette 101, 103, 197, 183, 192, 199, 529, 543, 633
scholar 75, 89–90, 94, 121–2, 130, 147, 185, 272, 280–1, 285–6, 288, 299, 303, 320, 371, 493, 504, 525, 562, 566, 569–70, 589–91, 600–2, 611, 614–20, 624–5, 636
Scholasticism 54
School 18, 71–3, 86, 89, 92–3, 99–100, 102, 107, 110, 114, 121, 123, 127–8, 162–3, 191–4, 200, 202, 257–8, 267, 275–6, 278, 281, 285, 288, 299, 301, 303–6, 432–4, 467, 476, 491–2, 499–500, 503, 509–10, 513–4, 524–8, 534–7, 542–7, 557, 562–3, 566–70, 584–91, 600–1, 614, 616–21, 629, 631, 633–5
scriptorium 73
S. Croce in Gerusalemme 213
Seckau 459
ṣedaqah 561
Seleucids 46, 80, 146, 158–60, 172–6, 182, 625, 629
Seleukos I 158, 162, 172, 175, 184
Seleukos III 175
Seljuks 274–5, 278, 281–6, 292, 298, 305, 567
Selz 431, 434
Semmering 456–8
Seneca the Elder 554, 634
Sepharad 562–3
Serbia 61–3, 218, 249, 253–6, 583, 627
Sestos 547
Shāfi 72, 290, 301, 567
Shāhrukh 295
Shams al-Dīn Juvaynī 292
Shang 509
Sharma, Ram Sharan 199
Shedbal 530
Shiit 65, 71, 261, 279, 282–7
Sicca Veneria 555
sick 2, 48, 58, 98, 129, 131, 195, 242, 289, 326, 329, 354, 414, 441, 475, 483–4, 499–500, 511, 518–30, 543, 553–4, 562–6, 578, 582–4, 592–8, 603–4, 609, 632–3
Sigibert I 355
Sigibert III 341–2
Sigibert of Essex 350, 354
Sigismund 319–328, 343, 387
Šihāb ad-Dīn Aḥmad 572
Śilāhāras 197–8, 541
Simon of Durham 602
Sinai 246, 298
Śiva 101, 194, 201, 203, 293, 530–4, 541–4
Slave 8, 11, 17, 29, 39, 52, 118, 131, 144, 163, 161, 181, 188, 232, 273, 278–9, 292, 297–8, 314, 377, 428, 512–5, 549, 568–9, 573, 576, 586, 592, 627
Snofru 9–10, 13
Sobk 170
Socrates 552
Soissons 327, 375, 396
Solomon (III) of Constance 407, 422
Sophia (consort of Justin II) 581
Sopoćani 254
Sorbonne 493, 615
soup kitchen 72, 76, 306, 528–9, 543, 566, 629
Sovarā[ś]i Siddhāntideva 531
Spain 52, 91, 94–5, 264, 266, 270, 276, 279, 288, 315, 386, 462, 479, 555, 563–4, 600
Speyer 446–50, 458–9, 468, 471–3, 477
S. Pietro di Monteverdi 54, 332
Śrīcandra 193
Stablo 342
state economy 22, 631
state building 198–203, 315
state monastery 116
St. Bernhard Pass 461
St. Blasien 471, 474
Stefan Nemanja 253–4
Stefan Uroš I 254
Stefan Uroš II Milutin 254–5, 627
Stein, Burton 200–3
Steindorff, Ludwig 250
Stephan II 596
Stephan of Hungary 628
St. Gall / St. Gallen 52, 406–7, 421–2
St. George of Mangana 589
St. Magnus 407
St. Maximin / Trier 407, 428–9, 432–4
Stoudios 230, 250, 321
St. Paul in Lavanttal 471, 474
St. Paul’s, Rome 213
St. Peter’s, Rome 53, 213, 223, 361, 416, 463, 481, 489
St. Phoibammon 574
Stralsund 55, 610
Stranger 2, 18, 48, 60, 90, 266–7, 288–90, 326, 339, 401, 414–5, 455–6, 522, 540, 549–553, 573, 579, 582, 586, 592, 594, 597, 599, 603
Strasbourg 407, 455, 477
Stratonike 160
Studenica 253–4
Students 73, 75, 90, 93, 198, 266–7, 273, 275, 277, 289, 299, 301–3, 437, 467, 488, 493–4, 516, 525–48, 562, 567, 570, 585–621, 629, 633, 635
St. Veit 506
Sufi 71–2, 76, 88, 276, 278, 285–6, 290–306, 568, 629
Sui 514
Sulaimān the Magnificent 307
Šullat 145
Sulṭān-Ḥusain 293–7
Sumer 4, 6, 139–40, 143, 146, 631
sun god 101, 145, 194–5, 529
Sunni 65–6, 70, 262–3, 274, 278–9, 282, 287–91, 295, 301, 567, 569
Sun Shih 525
supplementary endowment 318, 381, 401, 403, 420, 430, 442, 449–50, 455, 461, 527, 560, 580, 602, 611
Sūre Bōyuṃḍu 532
Susa 30, 145, 147, 150–1, 156
Swæfheard of Kent 365
Symeon 251
Syria 31, 33–4, 65, 67, 168, 172, 174, 211, 261, 269, 271, 278, 282, 284–6, 297, 300, 304, 386, 573, 580, 623, 627
Szechwan 517
S²hr Ġyl 257
Tabriz 71, 74, 269, 292, 626, 629
Tagino 441–3
T’ai-tsung 121
Talbot, Cynthia 532
Tamar of Georgia 245–6
Tang 129, 514, 519, 524
T’an-hsien 518
Tanjore 203
Tantrism 540
T’an-yao 515
Tarquin the Elder 207
Tarquin the Proud 207
Ta-scheng tz’u ssu 518
T. Aviasius Servandus Senior 558
Tatberht 368–9
Tathâgata-râja 539
Tax 5, 8, 13, 23, 35, 87, 116, 121, 128, 139–40, 168–73, 184–5, 190, 195–247, 257, 263, 267–78, 287–98, 308, 374, 463, 489, 492, 513, 525, 527, 531–2, 540–51, 559, 578, 594, 607, 631, 637
Taxila 536
Taymaʾ 33–4, 257
Tenos 550–1
Teos 174, 546
Terracina 555
Tertullian 3, 43, 48
Teutonic Order 458, 604
Thanet 364–5
Thanjavur 543
Thebes 24, 155, 553
T. Helvius Bassila 555
Theodardus 378
Theodora (consort of Justinian I) 227–8, 580, 627
Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina 583
Theodore Balsamon 245
Theodore Hyrtakenos 591
Theodore Metochites 591
Theodore Studites 230
Theodore II Laskaris 590
Theodosius I 225, 307
Theodosius II 57, 228, 588, 613
Theodulf of Orléans 597
Theophanu 434–7
Theophrastos of Eresos 546
Theopompos 548
Theotharius 378
thermae 557–9
Theuderic II 356
Thespiai 159, 162
Thessaloniki 254, 575, 587
Tholey 598
Thrace 158, 172, 626
Thucydides 18, 552
Thuringia 480
Thutmosis (III) 24, 155
Tian Kuokuo 524
Tibet 541
Tigranes the Great 176–7
Tīrthaṇkara Pārśvanātha 198
Tirumūkkūḍal 543
Tomb 2, 8–8, 11–2, 16–7, 20–1, 25, 31–3, 53, 71–3, 126, 149, 177–8, 181–2, 219, 228, 238, 242–3, 246, 255, 258, 288, 294–5, 300–1, 304, 306, 311–2, 314, 336–7, 373–4, 384, 385–7, 390, 409, 425, 427–30, 443, 447, 452, 470–2, 486, 494, 497, 500–1, 503, 505–6, 549, 566–7, 598, 619, 629, 636, cf. also: grave
Tours 329, 598, cf. also: Saint-Martin of Tours
Trajan 205–6, 556–7
Traveler 71, 73, 266–7, 277, 280, 287, 292, 307, 320, 330, 456–8, 529–30, 558, 603
Treasury 32, 84, 115, 151, 158, 164, 184, 207, 212, 234, 237, 244, 247, 259, 265–6, 280–1, 286, 292, 297, 310, 318, 325, 327, 329, 350, 362, 372, 376, 390, 422, 438, 450, 461, 495, 516–7, 553, 555, 579, 625–6
tree (planting of trees) 32, 67, 70, 187, 190, 294, 519, 528, 580
Trento 440, 442
Treviso 476, 613
Trier 380, 407, 438, 432–3, 470, 474–5, 598
Trostberg 485
Troy 150
Tukluti-Ninurta I 143
Tulln 467–72
typikon 58–60, 233, 239–45, 253, 481, 576–7, 583, 585, 587, 592, 608, 635–6
Tz‘u-pei 518
Udjahorresnet 147–9
Uhlhorn, Gerhard 49
Ulrich I of Constance 454
Ultrogotho 324–7
ʿUmar ibn al-Ḫaṭṭāb 259, 287
United States of America 632
University 137, 275, 467, 476, 488, 491–4, 504, 510, 527, 536, 538, 540, 542, 584, 587–8, 611–20, 632–5
university colleges 275, 615
Uṣavadāta 190
Usufruct 38, 62, 93, 191, 238, 403, 410, 412–3, 467, 462, 474, 565, 570, 599, 634
Utrecht 376–9, 441, 450, 462–4
Vallerano 463
Vājikaṇva 194
Vajra 539
Valabhī 104, 194, 540–1
Valenciennes 474
Van Ess, Hans 122
Vedic school 102, 191–2
Venerable Bede 46–7, 346–54, 359, 361, 367, 376
Veṅkaṭeś Perumāl 543
Venus 33–4
Verdun 597–8
Verina 225
Vienna 469, 472, 476–9, 492–4, 504, 506, 613–4, 619, 625
Vihekarātamiśra 193
Vijayāditya 198
Vikramaśilā 541
Vīra-Baṇañjas 530–1
Visigoths 52, 315, 324–5, 329
visitations for anointing of the sick 499–500
Viṣṇu 101, 192, 194–6, 203, 543
Viśveśvara 543
Vlad IV Kalogeros 256–7
Volokolamsk 62–3, 250–2
Wahrām 35–6
Walfred (from Pisa) 53–4, 332
Walkelin 602
Wallachia 247, 255–6, 627
Wang-Anshi 525
water-carriers 270
Weber, Max 2, 96, 98, 101, 107, 137, 273
Wei 116, 515
Weilburg on the Lahn 421, 437
Wei shu 515
wells 187, 269, 273, 528, 551, 606, 626
Wenceslas II 491
Whittington, Alice 607
Whittington, Richard 606–7
widow 7, 46, 48, 50, 58–9, 92, 139, 210, 302, 334, 340, 352, 362, 401, 405, 409, 414, 416, 423, 425, 430, 454, 473–4, 483, 566, 568–9, 572, 580, 583, 609, 630, 632–3
Wilfrid of York 367–70, 375, 379
Wilgis 379
William II of Sicily 612
William of Holland 462, 464
Willamowitz-Moellendorf, Ulrich von 544
Willibrord 371, 375–80
Wittelsbach 466, 475–6, 480, 495, 498, 618–9
Wood, Susan 364
Worchester 366
Worms 437–8, 446–9
Württemberg 481, 498, 620
Würzburg 563
Wu, empress 519
Wu Tse-t’ein 518
xenodochion, xenodochium 58, 314, 325–7, 410, 415, 573–4, 580–81, 592–9
Xenophon 15, 552
Xerxes I 145, 150–2
Yādava 544
Yang 518
Yang-chou 518
Yaʿqūb ben Killis 279–80
Yaroslav 249
Yemen 65, 257, 268, 300, 568–9
Yen-chou 525
Ying-kan 518
Yuan 524
Zabid 568
Zarathustra , cf. Zoroaster
Zāwiya 288, 302
Zengi / Zengids 259, 284–6, 569, 625
Zeno 226
Zeus 15, 153, 155, 173–4, 177, 179, 547
Zhishman, Joseph von 221–2, 245
Zhou 14, 18, 120, 123, 125–6, 135
Zhuang Zhou 18, 123–4
Zoroaster 18, 25–30, 39, 622
Zoroastrianism / Zoroastrism 25–40, 95–6, 635
Zoser (Djoser) 9–10, 172
Zubaida 268–70, 272, 626
Zurich 402–3, 408
Zurzach 408
Zwentibold 380–1
Zwettl 499
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