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Translated from Michael Borgolte, Weltgeschichte als Stiftungsgeschichte, 2018, © wbg (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), Darmstadt, Germany. All rights reserved.

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program

(FP7/2007–2013) / ERC grant agreement no 287389

Cover illustration: Founder Stefano Porro with church model of his foundation. Wall painting about 1370, Lentate sul Sèveso (Lomberly, Italy) – Akg images.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Borgolte, Michael, author. | Chitwood, Zachary, translator.

Title: World history as the history of foundations, 3000 BCE to 1500 CE / Michael Borgolte ; [translated by Zachary Chitwood].

Description: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2020. | Series: Handbook of Oriental studies. Section 1, the Near and Middle East, 0169-9423 ; vol. 136 | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2019037996 (print) | LCCN 2019037997 (ebook) | ISBN 9789004414488 (hardback) | ISBN 9789004415089 (ebook)

Subjects: LCSH: Endowments—History—To 1500. | Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations—History—To 1500.

Classification: LCC HV16 .B6713 2019 (print) | LCC HV16 (ebook) | DDC 361.7/63209—dc23

LC record available at

LC ebook record available at

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download:

ISSN 0169-9423

ISBN 978-90-04-41448-8 (hardback)

ISBN 978-90-04-41508-9 (e-book)

Copyright 2020 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense, Hotei Publishing, mentis Verlag, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh and Wilhelm Fink Verlag.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

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